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though without any superiority of rank or title, and his 
conduct being marked by urbanity and generosity to all 
ranks, he acquired numerous and zealous partizans. Such 
was tbe influence of his family, that while the citizens of 
Florence fancied they lived under a pure republic, the Me- 
dici generally assumed to themselves the first offices of the 
state, or nominated such persons as they esteemed fit for 
those employments. Cosmo exerted this influence with 
great prudence and moderation ; yet, owing to the discon- 
tent of the Florentines, with the bad success of the war 
against Lucca, a party arose, led on by Rinaldo de' Albizi, 
which, in 1433, after filling the magistracies with their 
own adherents, seized the person of Cosmo, and committed 
him to prison, and he was afterwards banished to Padua 
for ten years, and several other members and friends pf 
the Medici family underwent a similar punishment. He 
was received with marked respect by the Venetian govern- 
ment, and topk up his abode in the city of Venice. Witbin 
a year of his retreat, Rinaldo was himself obliged to quit 
Florence; and Cosmo being recalled, he returned amidst 
the acclamations of his fellow-subjects. Some victims 
were offered to his future security, and the gonfalooiere 
who had pronounced his sentence, with a few others of 
that party, were put to death. Measures were now taken 
to restrict the choice of magistrates to the partizans of tbe 
Medici, and alliances were formed with the neighbouring 
powers for the avowed purpose of supporting and perpetu- 
ating the system by which Florence was from that time to 
be governed. The manner in which Cosmo employed his 
authority, has conferred upon his memory the greatest 
honour. From this time his life was an almost uninter- 
rupted series of prosperity. The tranquillity enjoyed bv 
the republic, and the satisfaction and peace of mind wbicp 
he experienced in the esteem and confidence of his fel- 
low-citizens, enabled him to indulge his natural propensity 
to tbe promotion of science, and the patronage and en- 
couragement of learned men. The richest private citizen 
in Europe, he surpassed almost all sovereign princes in the 
munificence with which he patronized literature and th$ 
fine arts. 4fe assembled around him some of the niost 
learned men of the age, who had begun to cultivate the 
Grecian language and philosophy. He established, at 
Florence, an academy expressly for the elucidation of the 
Platonic philosophy, at the head of which he placed the 


celebrated Marsilius Ficinus. He collected from all p&rts 
by means of foreign correspondences, manuscripts of the 
Greek, Latin, and Oriental languages, which formed the 
foundation of the Lauren tian library ; nor was be less libe- 
ral in the encouragement of the fine arts. During the re- 
tirement of his latter days, his happiest hours were de- 
voted to Hie study of letters and philosophy, and the con- 
versation of learned men. He also endowed numerous 
religions houses, and built an hospital at Jerusalem for the 
relief *f distressed pilgrims. While the spirit of his go- 
vernment was moderate, he avoided every appearance of 
state which might excite the jealousy or discontent of the 
Florentines \ and therefore, by way of increasing his in- 
terest among them, restricted the marriages of his children 
to Florentine families. By such wise measures, and the 
general urbanity of his behaviour to all orders of men, hfe 
Attained the title of " Father of his country," which was 
inscribed on bis tomb. He died Aug. I, 1464> aged seventy- 
five years, deeply lamented by the citizens of Florence, 1 

MEDICI (Lorenzo* or Lawrence db), grandson of 
the preceding, was born Jan. 1, 1448. From his earliest 
years he gave proofs of a vigorous mind, which was car6* 
fully cultivated, and exhibited many traits of that princely 
and liberal spirit which afterwards procured him the title of 
" Magnificent." In polite literature he cultivated poetry* 
and gave some proofs of his talents in various eomposi* 
tions. At the death of Cosmo, on account of the infirinU 
ties of his father Peter de Medici^ he was immediately 
initiated into political life, although then only in bis six- 
teenth year. He vtas accordingly sent to visit the pririci* 
pal courts in Italy, and acquire a personal knowledge of 
their politics and their rulers* In 1 469 his father di6d* 
leaving his two sons Lorenzo and Julian heirs of his pottet 
and property ; but it was Lorenzo who succeeded him fcs* 
head of the republic. Upon the accession of Sistu* IV. to 
the papal throne, he went, with some other citizens, lo 
congratulate the new pope, and was invested with the df-» 
% fice of treasurer of the holy see, and while at Rome took 
every opportunity to add to the remains of ancient art 
which his family had collected. One of the first public 
Occurrences after he conducted the helm of government, 
Iras * revolt of the inhabitants of Volterra, on account of 

. 1 c RoKoe , ilifeof Lorcnz0.~»Recs'f Crclop»duu 

•B 2 


a dispute with the Florentine republic ; by the recommen- 
dation of Lorenzo, means of force were adopted, which 
ended in the sack of the unfortunate city, an event that 
gave him much concern. In 1472, he re-established the 
academy of Pisa, to which he removed in order to com- 
plete the work, everted himself in selecting the most emi- 
nent professors, and contributed to it a large sum from his 
private fortune, in addition to that granted by the state of 
Florence, Zealously attached to the Platonic philosophy, 
be took an active part in the establishment of an .academy 
for its promotion, and instituted an annual festival in ho- 
nour of the memory of Plato, which was conducted with 
singular literary splendour. While he was thus advancing 
in a career of prosperity and reputation, a tragical inci- 
dent was very near depriving his country of his future ser- 
vices. This was the conspiracy of the Pazzi, a numerous 
and distinguished family in Florence, of which the object 
was the assassination of Lorenzo and bis brother. In the 
latter they were successful ; but Lorenzo was saved, and 
the people attached to the Medici collecting in crowds, 
put to death or apprehended the assassins, whose de- 
signs were thus entirely frustrated, and summary justice 
was inflicted on the criminals. Satviati, archbishop of 
Pisa, was hanged out of the palace window in his sacer- 
dotal robes ; and Jacob de Pazzi, with one of his ne- 
phews, shared the same fate. The name and arms of the 
Pazzi family were suppressed, its members were banished, 
and Lorenzo rose still higher in the esteem and affection of 
his fellow- citizens. The pope, Sixtus IV. who was deep 
in this foul conspiracy, inflamed almost to madness by the 
defeat of his, schemes, excommunicated Lorenzo and the 
magistrates of Florence, laid an interdict upon the whole . 
territory, and, forming a league with the king of Naples, 
prepared to invade the Florentine dominions. Lorenzo 
appealed to all the surrounding potentates for the justice 
of his cause; and he was affectionately supported by his* 
fellow-citizens. Hostilities began, and were carried on with 
various success through two campaigns. At the close of 
1479, Lorenzo took the bold resolution of paying a visit 
to the king of Naples, and, without any previous security, 
trusted his liberty and his life to the mercy of a declared 
enemy. The monarch. was struck with this heroic act of 
confidence, and a treaty of mutual defence and friendship 
was agreed upon between them, and Sixtus afterwards 


consented to a peace. At length the death of Sixtus IV. 
freed him from an adversary who never ceased to bear him 
ill-will ; and he was able to secure himself a friend in his 
successor Innocent VIII. He conducted the republic of 
Florence to a degree of tranquillity and prosperity which 
it had scarcely ever known before ; and by procuring the 
institution of a deliberative body, of the nature of a 
senate, he corrected the democratical part of his con- 

Lorenzo distinguished himself beyond any of his pre- 
decessors in the encouragement of literature and the arts : 
and his own productions are distinguished by a vigour of 
imagination, an accuracy of judgment, and an elegance of 
style, which afforded the first great example of improve* 
ment, and entitle him, almost exclusively, to the honour- 
able appellation of the " restorer of Italian literature." 
His compositions are sonnets, canzoni, and other lyric 
pieces, some longer works in stanzas, some comic satires, 
and jocose carnival songs,' and various sacred poems, the 
latter as serious as many of the former are licentious: 
Some of these pieces, especially those of the lighter kind, 
in which he imitated the rustic dialect, became extremely 
popular. His regard to literature, in general, was testi- 
fied by the extraordinary attention which he paid to the 
augmentation of the Laurentian library. Although the an- 
cestors of Lorenzo laid the foundation of the immense col- 
lection of MSS. contained in this library, he may claim 
the honour of having raised the superstructure. If there 
was any pursuit in which he engaged more ardently and 
persevered in more diligently than the rest, it was that of • 

enlarging his collection of books and antiquities : for this 
purpose he employed the services of learned men, in dif- 
ferent parts of Italy, and especially of his intimate friend * 
and companion Politian, who took several journey sin order 
to discover and purchase the valuable, remains of antiquity. 
" I wi&h," said Lorenzo to him as he was proceeding on 
one of these expeditions, " that the diligence of Picus 
and yourself would afford me such opportunities of pur- 
chasing books that I should be obliged even to pledge 
my furniture to possess them" Two journeys, undertaken 
at. the instance of Lorenzo, into the east, by John Lascar, 
produced a great number of rare and valuable works. On 
his return from his second expedition, he brought with 
bim two hundred copies, many of which he had procured 

6 M E P J C I. 

from a B>ona$tery afr mount, Atbos ; but this. treasure did not 
agrrive till after the death of Lorenzo, who, in bis last mo- 
ments, expressed to Politian and Picus his. regret that he 
could, not live to complete tiue collectioa which, he was* 
fouling for theij; accommodation. On the discovery of the 
invaluable art of printing, Lorenzo was solicitous, to avail 
himself of ifp advantages ii)i procuring editions, of the best 
works of antiquity corrected by tbie ablest scholars, whose 
labours were rewarded by his munificence. When, the 
capture of Constantinople by the Turks caused the dis- 
persion of many learned Q reeks,, be took advantage of 
the circumstance, to promote the study of jhe Greek lan«% 
guage in Italy. It was 'now at Florence that this tongue 
was inculcated under the sanction of a public institution*, 
either by native Greeks,, or learned Italians, who were their 
powerful competitors, whose services were procured by the 
diligence of Lorenzo de Medici, and repaid by bis bounty., 
" Hence," says Mr. Roscoe,. " succeeding: scholars have: 
been profuse of their acknowledgments to their great pa- 
tron,, who. first formed that establish meat, from which* 
to use their own classical figure,, as from the Trojan 
horse, so many illustrious champions have sprung,^ 
and by means of which the knowledge of the Greek, 
tpngue was extended, not only through all Italy, but 
through France, Spain, Germany, and England ; from all, 
which countries numerous pupils, attended at Florence* who> 
diffused the learning they had there acquired; throughout, 
the rest of Europe." 

The services of Lorenzo to the fine arts were not less con* 
spicuous than those whichhe rendered to letters, by, augment- 
ing his father's collection of the remains of antient taste and 
skill. It is not, however, on this account, only that he is~< 
, entitled to the esteem of the professors and admirers. of the: 
arts. He determined to excite, amon& his countrymen-, 
a gpod taste,, and,, by proposing to their imitation the rer 
mains of the ancient masters, to elevate their, views beyond 
the forms of common life, to the contemplation of that- 
ideal beauty which alone distinguishes works, of art from 
mere mechanical productions. With this vi^w he appro* 
priated his. gardens in Florence to the establishment of an* 
academy for the study of the antique, which he furnished: 
with a profusion of statues, busts, and oth^r relics of art, 
the most perfect in their kind that he. could, procure, Th& 


attention of the higher Tank of bis- feHow-citrzetrtf wtf* 
incited to these pursuits by the Example of Lorenzo-'; thai 
of the lower class by bis- liberality. To the latter k&ftotf 
only allowed competent stipends*, while th*e*y attended to 
their studies, but appointed considerable premiums as re- 
wards of their proficiency. To this institution, more thaW 
any other circumstance, Mr. Roscoe ascribes* the sudden* 
and astonishing proficiency which, towards the close of the 
1 5th century, was evidently made in the arts, and which, 
commencing at Florence, extended itself to the rest of Eu- 
rope. In 1488, his domestic comfort was much impaired by 
the loss of his wife ; and after that his constitution appears* 
to have given way, and in April 1492, he* sunk under the 
debilitating power of a slow fever, and expired in the forty- 
fourth year of his age. For his general character,' as well* 
as< the history of his age, we must refer to the very inte&* 
resting work from which this brief account has beetl- 
takeh. ' 

MEDINA (Sir John), a portrait-painter, waar the son 
of Afedina de l'Asturias, a Spanish captain, who had settled 1 
at Brussels, where this son was born in 1659, and was in- 
structed in painting by Du Chatel. He married youngs 
and cattle into England in 1686, where be drew portraits' 
for several years. The earl of Leven encouraged hint t& 
go to Scotland, and procured him a* subscription of five* 
Hundred pounds worth of business. He accepted the otfer, 
and, acoordiug to Waipole, carried with hurra large num- 
ber of bodies and postures, to which he painted heads; 
He returned to England for a- short time, but went again' 
to Scotland, where be died in 1711, aged fifty- two, and' 
was buried in the Grey Friars church-yard. He was* 
knighted by the duke of Queensbury, lord- high commis- 
sioner, being' the last instance of that honour conferred itr 
Scotland while a separate kingdom. He painted most of 
the Scotch nobility; but was .not rich, having twenty 
children* The portraits of the professors ia the 5 Surgeons' - 
ball at Edinburgh were painted by him. Waipole notices* 
other portraits by him in England, and; adds, that he was* 
capable both of history and landscape. The duke of Gor- 
don presented his portrait to the grand duke of Tuscany,' 
who pJ-aced it in the gallery at Florence, among the series' 
of-emttieot artists painted by themselves; The prints in' 

1 Rot<pe's Life of Loreoao, abridged in Rets'* CyctopHdia. 


*n octavo edition of Milton were designed by him, but 
Mr. Walpole does not tell us of what date. Sir John's 
gxapdson, John Medina; the last of the family, died at 
Edinburgh in 1796. He practised painting in some mea- 
sure, although all we have heard specified is the repair he 
gave to the series of Scottish kings in Holyrood-house, 
which are well known to be imaginary portraits. 1 

MEERMAN (Gerard), a very learned lawyer and pen- 
sionary of Rotterdam wa* born at Leyden in 1722 ; of his 
early history, pursuits, &c. our authorities give no ac- 
count, nor have the bibliographers of this country, to whom* 
he is so well known, supplied this deficiency. All we know 
is, that he died December 15, 1771, in the forty-ninth year 
of his age, after a life spent in learned research and la- 
bom-, which produced the following works : 1. " De rebus- 
mancipi et nee mancipi." Leyden, 1741, 4to. 2. " Spe- 
cimen calculi fluxionalis," ibid. 1742, 4to. 3. "Speci- 
men animadversionum in Cazi institutiones," Mantuae Car- 
petunorum (i. e. Madrid), reprinted with additions by the 
author, at Paris, 1747, 8vo. 4. " Conspectus novi the- 
sauri juris civilis et canonici," Hague, 1751, 8vo. This 
conspectus was immediately followed by the work itself. 
5. "Novus Thesaurus juris civilis," &c. ,1751^-1753, 7 
vols, folio ; a book of high reputation, to which his son 
John added an eighth volume, in 1780. 6. " Conspectus 
OrigiuumTypographicarum proxime in lucem edehdarum," 
1761, 8vo. This prospectus is very scarce, as the author 
printed but a very few copies : it is however in demand 
with collectors, as containing some things which he did not 
insert in the work itself. The abb£ Gouget published a 
French translation, with some additions, in 1762. The 
entire work appeared in 1765, under the title of, 7. il Ori- 
gines Typographies," Hague, 2 vols. 4to. An analysis of 
tbis valuable work was drawn up by Mr. Bowyer, and printed 
in " The Origin . of Printing, in two Essays, 1. The sub- 
stance of Dr. Middleton's Dissertation on the origin of 
printing in England. 2. Mr. Meerman's account of the 
first invention of the art," 1774, 8vo. This volume was 
the joint composition of Messrs. Bowyer and Nichols. 
Meerman's partiality to Haerlem, as the origin of print- 
ing, was attacked with much severity by Heinecken, who 
being a German, betrayed as much partiality to Mental 

1 Walpolc'f Anecdotes.— Edwards's Continuation. 


^nd Strasburgh. ' It . seems, however, now to be agreed 
among typographical antiquaries, that Heineckep paid too 
little attention to the claims of Haerlem, and Meerman in- 
finitely too much. The, dissertation of the latter, however, 
has very recently been reprinted in France, by Mons. 
Jansen, with useful notei, and a catalogue of all tbe 
v books published in the Low Countries«diiring the fifteenth 

i MEHEGAN (William Alexander), a French bisto* 
nan, of Irish extraction, as his name sufficiently de- 
notes, was born in 1721 at Salle in the C£vennes. He 
addicted himself very early to letters, and the history 
of his life is only the history of his. publications. He 
produced in 1752, 1. ?' The origin of the Guebres, or 
natural religion put into action." This book has too much 
of the cast of modern philosophy to deserve recommenda- 
tion, and has now become very scarce. \ 2. In 1755 he 
published " Considerations on the Revolutions of Arts," a 
work more easily to t>e found; and, 3. A small volume of 
" Fugitive Pieces' 9 in verse, far inferior to his prose. In 
the ensuing year appeared, 4. His " Memoirs of the Mar- 
chioness de Terville, with the Letters of Aspasia," 12 mo. 
The style of tjhese memoirs is considered as affected, which, 
indeed, is the general faujt prevalent in bis works. In his 
person also be. is said to have been affected and finical ; 
with very ready elocution, but a mode of choosing both 
his thoughts and expressions that was rather brilliant, than 
natural. His style, however, improved as he advanced' m 
life. In 1759 he gave the world a treatise on, 5. " The 
origin, progress, and decline of Idolatry," 12mo; a pro- 
duction in. which this improvement in his mode of writing 
is very .evident. It is still more so in his, 6. " Picture of 
modern History," "Tableau de l'Histoire moderne," which 
was published in 1766, in 3 vols. 1 2 mo. His chief faults 
are those of ill- regulated genius, which is very strongly 
apparent in this work; it is eloquent, full of those graces 
of elocution, and richness of imagination, which are said 
to have made his conversation so peculiar : but it becomes 
fatiguing from an excessive ambition to paint every thing 
in brilliant colours. •' He speaks of every thing in the pre- 
sent tense, and he embellishes every subject with images 

i Diet. Hist.— Bowycr and Nichols's " Origin of Printing."-— Dibdin's Biblio- 
nania and Typographical Antiquities.— Saaii Onomast. 



10 M E H E G A N. 

and allusions. He died Jaw. 23, 1766, before* this nrfost 
considerable of his works was quite ready for publication. 
Be was* married, and bis wife is said US have been a woman 
who in all respects did honour to the elegance of his taste?. 
AH his writings are in French. l 

MEIBOMIUS, is the name of several learned 1 men, wfror 
weve Germans. John- Henry Meibomiue was a professor* 
of physic at Helmstadt, where he was born in 1590, ancf# 
was. arfterwaixfe first pbyaiciaw at Lubeck, where he died in 
1655. He was the author of several Itemed works on me- 
dical subjects, such as '* Jusjurandum Hippoeratis," Gr. 
& Lafc, 1643, 4*o; " t)e usu flagrorum in re medica," 
Leyden*. 1639, &c. &c. He is known in the literary world 7 
by a work published at Leyden in 1653, 4to, and entitled,. 
" Maacenas,. sive dte C. Cilnii Matcenatis vita, moribus, & 
rebus gestis," in which he seems to have quoted' every 
passage from antiquity, where any thing is said of Maece- 
nas ;. but having employed 1 neither criticism nor method,* 
he cannot claim any higher* merit than that of a mere col- , 
lector. 9 

MtEIBOMIUS (Hbnry), son of the former, was born atf 
Lubeck in 1638; and after toying a proper foundation in' 
literature at home, went in 1655 to the university of 
Helmstadt, where he applied himself to philosophy and 4 
medicine. Afterwards he went to study under the pro- 
feseors* at Groningen, Franeker, and Leyden ; and upon 
his return to Germany, projected a larger tour through' 
Italy, France, and England, which he executed ; he con- 
tracted an acquaintance with the learned wherever he 
went;, and took a> doctor of physic's degree in 1*>63>, as 
he passed through Angers in France. He was offered a' 
professorship of physio at Helmstadt in 1661 : but his tra^ 
veiling scheme did not- permit him to take possession of if 
till 1664. This, and the professorships of history and' 
poetry, joined to it in 1678, he held to the time of bis- 
death, which happened in: March, 17O0. Besides a great 
number of' works relating to his own* profession, he pub* 
lished, in 3 vols, folio, in 1688, " Scriptores rerom- Ger- 
mantcarum," a very useful collection, which had been* 
begun, but not finished, by his father. 8 

1 Necrologie pour 1767. — Diet. Hist 

* Moreri.— Ek>y, Diet. Hist de Medicine. — Savii Onomattieon. 

* Moreru— Eloy.«— Mceron, toJ. XVHI.— -Saxii OnomatticoB* 

M e r B O M I u s. n 

. MEIBOMLUS (Marcus), a. very learned man, of the 
flame feuaaily as the preceding, was* born in 16 ill. He de- 
voted himself to literature and criticieoiy but particularly 
ta the learning ef the ancients ; as their music,, the struc- 
ture of their galleys, &c. In 1652 he published a collec- 
tion' of seven Greek authors, who had written upon ancient 
l music, to which, he added a Latin version by himself, it 
+wa& entided " Antique Musics auctores septenx Greece et 
Latine, Marcos Mieibomit* restituit ac Notis explicavit."' 
Aaaat. The first volume contains : I. Ariatoxetil Harmo- 
nicoruro Elementorura^ libri \iu IL Euclidis Introductio- 
Harmonica.. III. Nichomachi Geraseni, Pythagorici, Har- 
mon^ Man u ale. IV. Alypu Introductio Musica* V. Gau- 
dentii Philosophi Introductio Harmonica. VI. Bacchii 
Seuioris Introductio Artia Musiosa. The second; volume : 
Ari&tidis QuintiHaoi de Musica*. libri iii. Martiani Capelles 
de Musicay liber ix. This, says Dc Burpey, is the most 
solid aud celebrated of his critical works, in which all sub- 
sequent writers on. the subject of ancient music place im- 
plicit faith* It is from these commentaries oni the Greek 
writers in music, particularly Alypius, that we are able t(h 
fancy we can decipher the musical characters used by the 
ancient Greeks, in their notation ; which, before his time, 
had been so altered, corrupted, disfigured, and confounded, 
by the ignorance or negligence of the transcribers of 
ancient MS&, that they were rendered wholly uninteU 

Meibomius, after this learned and elegant publication, 
was invited to the court of the queen of Sweden, to whom 1 
he had dedicated it; hut this visit was not followed by the 
most pleasing consequences* Having by his enthusiastic 
account of the music of. the ancients, impressed this* prin- 
cess with similar ideas, the younger Bourdelot, \ physi- 
cian, and his rival, (as a classical scholar)' in the* queen's* 
favour, instigated her majesty to desire' bior to sing an' 
ancient Grecian air,, while Naudet, 'an old Frenchman, . 
danced d la Grec to the sound of his voice. But the per- 
formance, instead of exciting admiration* produced loud- 
bursts of laughter from all present ; which so enraged Mei- 
bomius, that seeing the buffoon Bourdelot in the gallery 
among the scoffers, and having no doubt but that it was he 
who, with a malicious design, had persuaded her majesty 
to desire this performance, immediately flew thither, and 
exercised the pugilist's art on his face so violently, without 

12 M E I B O M I U S. 

being restrained by the presence of the queen, that he? 
thought it necessary to quit the Swedish dominions before 
he could be called to an account for his rashness ; and im- 
mediately went to Copenhagen, where being well received, 
he fixed his residence there, and became a professor at 
Sora, a Danish college for the instruction of the young 
nobility. Here too he was honoured with the title of 
aulic counsellor, and soon after was called to Elsineur, 
and advanced to the dignity of Architesori6, or presi- 
dent of the board of maritime taxes or customs ; but, 
neglecting the duty of his office, he was dismissed, and 
upon that disgrace quitted Denmark. Soon after, he 
settled at Amsterdam, and became professor of history 
in the college of that city; but refusing to give instruc- 
tions to the son of a burgomaster, alleging that he was 
not accustomed to instruct boys in the elements of know- 
ledge, but to finish students arrived at maturity in their 
studies, he was dismissed from that station. After quitting 
Amsterdam, he visited France and England ; then re- 
turning to Holland, he' led a studious and private life at 
Amsterdam till 1710 or 1711, when he died at near 100 
years of age. 

Meibomius pretended that the Hebrew copy of the 
Bible was full of errors, and undertook to correct them by 
means of a metre, which he fancied he had discovered in 
those ancient writings ; but this drew upon him no small 
raillery from the learned. Nevertheless, besides the work 
above mentioned, he produced several others, which shewed 
him to be a good scholar; particularly his " Diogenes 
Laerti'us," Amst. 1692, 2 vols. 4to, by far the most critical 
and perfect edition of that writer ; his " Liber de Fabrica 
Triremium," 1671, in which he thinks he discovered the 
method in which the ancients disposed their bancs of oars ; 
bis edition of the ancient Greek Mycologists ; and his 
dialogues on Proportions, a curious work, in which the 
interlocutors, or persons represented as speaking, are 
Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius, Pappus, Eutocius, Theo, 
and Hermotimus. This last work was opposed by Lan- 
gius, and by Dr. Wall is in a considerable tract, printed 
in the first volume of bis works. ' 

l Moreri.— Burney'g Hist, of Music, and in the Cyclopedia. — Htttton's Diet. 
— Smxii Onomasticon. 

MEIEH. 13 

MEIER (George Frederic), a German writer on phi- 
losophical subjects, was born in 1718, at Ammendorff, 
near Halle in Saxony. He appeared first as an author m 
1745, when he published, in German, 1. His " Represen- 
tation of a Critic," being his delineation of the character 
of a perfect critic. In the same year he produced, 2. " In- 
structions how any one may become a Modern Philoso- 
pher," 8vo. We have a translation in this country, called 
" The Merry Philosopher, or Thoughts on Jesting," pub- 
lished in 1764, from the German of Meier, but whether 
a translation of the last-mentioned work, we know not. It 
is a very dull performance. Whatever merit might belong 
to his works on philosophical and critical subjects, they 
were peculiarly his own, for he was not master of the 
learned languages. Yet his work on the elements of all 
the polite arts, was received by his countrymen with no 
inconsiderable approbation. It is entitled, 3. " Introduc- 
tioo to the elegant arts and sciences ;" and was printed at 
Halle, in Svo, 1743 — 1750; and republished, in three 
parts, in 1754 — 1759. J. Matthew Gesner, however, in 
his " Isagoge," is frequently severe against this author, 
and particularly derides his form of Esthetics, which had 
been much applauded. Meier died in 1777. * , - 


MELA (Pomponius), an ancient Latin writer, was born 
in the province of Bsetica in Spain, and flourished in the 
first century, in the reign of the emperor Claudius. His 
three books of " Cosmography, or De situ Orbis," are 
written in a concise, perspicuous, and elegant manner; 
and have been thought worthy of the attention and labours 
of the ablest critics. Isaac Vossius gave an edition of 
them in 1658, 4to, with very large and copious notes, in 
which he takes frequent occasion to criticize " Salthasius's 
Commentaries upon Soiinus." James Gronovius published 
"Mela," in 1658, 12mo, with shorter notes; in which, 
however, as if he resented Vossius's treatment of Salmasius, 
he censures his animadversions with some degree of se- 
verity. To this edition of Mela, is added, " Jnlii Honorii 
oratoris excerptum cosmographise," first published from 
the manuscript ; and " JEthici Cosmographia:" Vossius 
answered the castigations of Gronovius, in an " Appendix 
to his Annotations," 1686, 4to; but, dying the same year, 

1 Diet. Hist—Saxii Onomasticeo. 

14 MELA. 

Jeft his manes to be insulted by Grooovius, in another 
edition <of Mela immediately published, with illustrations by 
.medals. In this last edition by Grouovins, are added five 
books*, " De geotgraphia," written by some later author; 
by Jornandes, as Fabrkias conjectures. Perhaps one of 
the best editions of Pomponius Mela, is that by Reynolds, 
printed at Exeter in 1711* 4to, illustrated with 27 maps, 
and which was reprinted at London, 1719 and 1739,, and 
at Eton, 1761 and 1775, 4to. The last edition, collated 
with many MSS. is that by C. H. Tzscbuckius, printed at 
Leipsic, 1807, 7 vols. Svo. 1 

MELANCTHON (Philip), whom the common consent 
of all ecclesiastical historians has placed among the most 
eminent of the reformers, was born at Bietten, in the 
Palatinate upon the Rhine, Feb. 16, 1497. His family 
name, Scbwartserd, in German, means literally black earthy 
which, according to the custom of the times {as in tbe^case 
of Oecolampadtus, Erasmus, C by tree us, Reuchlio, &c), 
was exchanged for Mdauctbon, a compound Greek word 
of the same signification. His education was at first 
chiefly under the care of his maternal grandfather Renter, 
as his father's time was much engrossed by the affairs of 
the elector Palatine, whom he served as engineer, or com* 
missary of artillery. He first studied at a school in Bret- 
ten, and partly under a private tutor, and gave very early 
proofs of capacity. He was afterwards sent to Pfortsheim, 
a city in the marquisate of Baden, where was a flourishing 
college, and here he became known to the celebrated 
Reuchlin, to whom it would appear he was distantly re* 
lated, and who assisted him in learning the Greek Ian* 
guage. Probably by his advice, Melancthon went to the 
university of Heidelberg, where he was matriculated on 
Oct. 13, 1509. Such was his improvement here that his 
biographers inform us he was admitted to his bachelor'* 
degree, although under fourteen years of age, and that he 
was intrusted to teach the sons of count Leon stein. Yet, 
notwithstanding his extraordinary proficiency, he was re- 
fused his degree of master on account of his youth ; and, 
either disappointed in this, or because the air of Heidel* 
berg did not agree with his constitution, be left that uni- 
versity in 1512, and went to Tubingen, where he resided 
six years. 

1 Vossitis de Hist. Lat.— Fabric Bibl, JL*t.— -Saxii Onomastiooo* 


Bgil^et has with much propriety classed Meknctbon 
among the enfans celebres, or list of youths who became 
celebrated Apr early genius and knowledge. It is said that 
while at Heidelberg he was employed in composing the 
greatest part of the academical speeches, and Bail let adds, 
than at thirteen he wrote a comedy, and dedicated it to 
Reijcblii*. With such capacity and application he could 
nqt fail tp distinguish himself during his residence at Tu- 
bingen, where he studied divinity, law, and mathematics, 
and gape public lectures on the Latin classics, and oo the 
pcieoces. About this time Reucblin had made him a pre*- 
seat of a small edition of the Bible, printed by Frobenius, 
in reading which* we are tpld, he took much delight In 
1513 he was created doctor in philosophy, or master of 
arts, and had attracted the notice of Erasmus, who con* 
ceived the highest hopes of .bim — " What hopes, indeed," 
he said about 1315, " may we not entertain of Philip Me* 
lafycthon, who though as yet very young, and almost a 
boy, is equally to be admired for his knowledge in both 
languages ? Wba& quickness of invention ! what purity t>f 
diptipq j! what powers of memory ! what variety of reading 1 
what qaodesty and gracefulness of behaviour !" • 

Iq 1 £ I H $ Frederic elector of Saxony, on the recommeiv* 
Ration <pf Reuchlin, presented bim to the Greek professor- 
ship in the university of Wittemberg; and his learned and 
elegant inauguration speech wa6 highly applauded, and re- 
moved every prejudice which might be entertained against 
hisyontb* Here he read lectures upon Homer and part 
of the Greek Testament to a crowded audience, and here 
also J)$ fiwt formed that acquaintance with Luther, then 
divinity professor at Wittemberg, which was of so much 
ijppofl#ne# i? his future life. He became also known to 
Carolosi^dt, one of Luther's most zealous adherents in 
opposing tk$ corruptions Of popery, and who was at this 
time archdeacon of Wittemberg. Finding that some of the 
sciences had been taught here in a very confused and im- 
perfect manner for want of correct manuals, or text-books, 
he published in 1519 hi? " Rhetoric," which was followed 
by .siipiLar works on " Logic" and " Grammar." In the 
abave-qaentioned year (1519) be accompanied Luther to 
Leip&ic, to witness that conference which Luther had with 
Eckiiift (see Li/trek, vol XXL p. 507), and joined so much 
io the debate as to give Eckius a very unpleasant specimen 
of his talents in controversy. From this time Melaucthon 



became an avowed supporter of the doctrines of the refor- 

In 1520, Melancthon read leetures on St. Paul's epistle 
to the Romans, which were so much approved by Luther, 
that he caused them to be printed for the good of the 
churchy and introduced them by a preface. In the follow- 
ing year, hearing that the divines of Paris had condemned 
the works and doctrine of Luther by a formal . decree, 
Melancthon opposed them with great zeal and force of 
•argument, and affirmed Luther's doctrine to be sound and 
orthodox. In 1527 he was appointed by the elector of 
Saxony, to visit all the churches within his dominions. He 
was next engaged to draw up, conjointly with Luther, a 
system of laws relating to church government, public wor- 
ship, the ranks, offices, and revenues of the priesthood,* 
and other matters of a similar nature, which the elector 
promulgated in his dominions, and which was adopted by 
the other princes of the empire, who had renounced the 
papal- supremacy and jurisdiction. In 1529 he accom- 
panied the elector to the diet at Spire, in which the princes 
and members of the reformed communion acquired the 
denomination of Protestants, in consequence of their pro-* 
testing against a decree, which declared unlawful every 
change that should be introduced into the established reli- 
gion, before the determination of a general council was 
known. He was next employed by the protestant princes 
assembled at Cobourg and Augsburgh to draw up the cele- 
brated confession of faith, which did such honour to his 
acute judgment and eloquent pen, and is known by the 
name of the Confession of Augsburgh, because presented to 
the emperor and German princes at the diet held in that 
city in June 1530. The princes heard it with the deepest 
attention : it confirmed some in the principles they had 
embraced, and conciliated those who from prejudice or mis- 
representation, had conceived more harshly of Luther's 
sentiments than* they deserved. The style of this confes- 
sion is plain, elegant, grave, and perspicuous^ sueh as 
becomes the nature of the subject, and such as might be 
expected from Melaijcthon's pen. The matter was un- 
doubtedly supplied by Luther, who, during the diet, re- 
sided at Cobourg ; and even the form it received from the 
eloquent pen of his colleague, was authorized by his ap- 
probation and advice. This confession contains twenty*' 
eight chapters, of which twenty-one are employed in 



Representing the religious opinions of the protes tan ts, and 
the other seven in pointing out the corruptions of the 
church of Rome. To the adherents of that church it could 
not therefore bq acceptable, and John Faber, afterwards 
bishop of Vienne in Dauphin6, with Eckius and Cochlseus, 
were selected to draw up a refutation, to which Melanc- 
thon replied. In the following year he enlarged his reply, 
and published it with the other pieces that related to the 
doctrine and discipline of the Lutheran church, under the 
title of " A Defence of the Confession of Augsburgh." 

Melancthon made a very distinguished figure in the 
many conferences which followed this diet. It was in these 
that the spirit and character of Melancthon appeared in 
their true colours; and it was here that the votaries of 
Rome exhausted their efforts to gain over to their party 
this pillar of the reformation, whose abilities and virtues 
added a lustre to the cause - in which be had embarked. 
His gentle spirit was apt to sink into a kind of yielding 
softness, under the influence of mild and generous treat- 
ment Accordingly, while his adversaries soothed him 
with fair words and flattering promises, he seemed ready 
to comply with their wishes ; but, when they so far forgot 
themselves as. to make use of threats, Melancthon appear- 
ed in a very different point of light, and showed a spirit of 
intrepidity, ardour, and independence. It was generally 
thought that he was not so averse to an accommodation 
with the church of Rome as Luther, which is grounded 
upon his saying that they " ought not to contend scrupu- 
lously about things indifferent, provided those rites and 
ceremonies had nothing of idolatry in them ; and even to 
hear some hardships, if it could be done without impiety." 
But there is no reason to think that there was any import- 
ant difference between him and Luther, but what arose 
from the different tempers of the two men, which con- 
sisted in a greater degree of mildness on the part of Me- 
lancthon. It was, therefore, x this moderation and pacific 
disposition which made him thought a proper person to 
settle the disputes about religion, which were then very 
violent in France ; and for that purpose be was invited 
thither by Francis I. Francis had assisted at a famous 
procession, in Jan. 1535, and had caused some heretics to 
be burnt. Melancthon was exhorted to attempt a mitiga- 
tion of the king's anger ; he wrote a letter therefore to 
John Sturmius, who was then in France, and another to 

Vox. XXII. C 


Du Bellai, bishop of Paris. A gentleman, whom Francis 
bad sent into Germany, spoke to Melancthon of the jour- 
ney to France ; and assured him, that the king would write 
to him about it himself, and would furnish him with all the 
means of conducting him necessary, for his safety. TothU 
Melancthon consented, and the gentleman upon bis re- 
turn was immediately dispatched to him with a letter. It 
is dated from Guise, June 28, 1535, and declares the plea- 
sure the king bad, when he understood that Melancthon 
was disposed to come into France, to put an end to their 
controversies. Melancthon wrote to the king, Sept. 28, 
aud assured him of his good intentions ; but was sorry, be 
could not as yet surmount the obstacles to his journey. 
The truth was, the duke, of Saxony had reasons of state 
for not suffering this journey to the court of Francis I. and 
Melancthon could never obtain leave of him to.go, although 
Luther had earnestly exhorted that elector to consent to 
it, by representing to him, that the hopes of seeing Me- 
lancthon had put a stop to the persecution of the protestants 
in France ; and that there was reason to fear, they would 
renew the same cruelty, when they should know that he 
would not come. Henry VIII. king of England, had also 
a desire to see Melancthon, but neither he nor Francis I. 
ever saw him. 

His time was now chiefly employed in conferences and 
disputes about religion. In 1539, there was an assembly 
of the protestant princes at Francfort, concerning a refor- 
mation ; and another. in 1541, at Worms, where there 
happened a warm dispute between Melancthon and. Eckius 
respecting original sin. But, by the command of the em- 
peror, it was immediately dissolved, and both of them 
appointed to meet at Reinspurg ; where Eckius proposing 
a sophism somewhat puzzling, Melancthon paused a tittle, 
and said, " that be would give an answer to it the nexfr 
day." Upon which Eckius represented to him the disgrace 
of requiring so long a time ; but Melancthon replied, that 
he sought not bis own glory, but that of truth. In 1 549 
he went to the archbishop of Cologne, to assist him in in- 
troducing a reformation into bis diocese; but without 
effect. He attended at seven conferences in 1548; and 
was one of the deputies whom Maurice, elector of Saxony, 
was to send to the council of Trent, in 1552. His last 
conference with the doctors of the Romish communion' 
was at Worms, in 1557. He died at WitVemberg, April 

1?, 1560, in bis sixty •third year; and was buried neat' 
Luther, in the church of the castle, two days after. Some 
days before he died, he wrote upon a piece of paper the 
seasons which made him look upon death as 'a happiness ; 
and the chief of them was, that it "delivered him from 
theological persecutions." Nature bad given him a peace* 
able temper, which was but ill-suited for the tim6 in 
which he lived. iHis moderation greatly augmented his' 
uneasiness. He was like a lamb in the midst of wolves. 
Nobody liked his mildness ; it looked as if .he was luke- 
warm ; and even Luther himself was sometimes angry at 
it. It was, indeed, considering his situation, very incon- 
venient ; for it not only exposed him to all kinds of slan- 
der, but would hot suffer him to " answer a fool according 
to his folly." The only advantage it procured him, was 
to look upon death without fear, by considering, that it 
would secure him from the " odium theologicum, n the 
hatred of divines, and the discord of false brethren. He 
was never out of danger, but might truly be said, " through 
fear, to be all his life-time subject to bondage." Thus he 
declared, in one of his works, that he " had held his pro- 
fessor's place forty years without ever being sure that he : 
should not be turned out of it before the end of the 
week." ' 

He married a daughter of a burgomaster of Wittemberg 
in 1520, who lived with him till 1557. He had two sons 
and two daughters by her; and his eldest daughter Anne, 
in 1536, became the wife of Geopge Sabinus, one of the 
best poets of his time. His other daughter was' married, 
in 1550, to Qaspar Peucer, who was an able physician, 
and very much persecuted. Melancthon was a very affec- 
tionate father ; and there is an anecdote preserved of him, 
which' perfectly agrees with his character for humility. A 
Frenchman, it is said, found hint one day, holding a book 
in one hand, and rocking a child with the other ; and upon 
his expressing some surprise, Melancthon made such a 
pious discourse to hitti about the duty of a father, and the 
state of grace in which the children are with God, " that 
this stranger went away/* says Bayle, " much more edified 
than he came." Melchior Adam relates a curious dialogue' 
which passed between his son-in-law Sabinus, and cardinal 
Bembos, concerning Melancthon. When Sabinus went to 
see Italy, Melancthon wrote a letter to cardinal Bembus/. 
to recommend him to hisnotice. The cardinal laid a great 

c 2 

26 M E L A N C T H O N. 

stress upon the recommendation ; for be loved Mefancthon 
for his abilities and learning, however be might think him- 
self obliged to speak of his religion. He was very civil 
therefore to Sabinus, invited him to dine with him, and in 
the time of dinner asked him a great many questions* par*- 
ticularly these three-: " What salary Melancthon had ? 
what number of hearers 1 and what he thought concerning 
the resurrection and a future state ?" To the first ques- 
tion Sabinus replied, " that his salary was not above 30O 
ftorins a year." Upon hearing this, the cardinal cried oat* 
" Ungrateful Germany ! to value at so low a price so 
many labours of so great a man.' 9 The answer to the 
second was, "that he had usually 1500 hearers." ** 1 
cannot believe it," says the cardinal : " I do not know, an 
university in Europe, except that of Paris, in which one 
professor has so many scholars." To the third, Sabinus. 
replied, " that Melancthon's works were a full and suffi- 
cient proof of his belief in those two articles." " I should 
think him a wiser man," said the cardinal, " if be did not 
believe any thing about them." 

Melancthon was a man in whom many good as well as 
great qualities were wonderfully united. He had great 
abilities, great learning, great sweetness of temper, mo- 
deration, contentedness, and other qualities, which would 
*~tiave made him very happy in any other times but those 
in which he lived. He never affected dignities,, honours, 
or riches, but was rather negligent of them : too much so, 
in the opinion of some, considering be had a family ; and 
his £on~in-law Sabinus, who was of a more ambitious dis- 
position, was actually at variance with him upon this sub* 
jeot. Learning was infinitely obliged to him on many ac- 
counts ; on none more than this, that be reduced ^almost 
all the sciences, which had been taught before in a vague 
irregular manner, into systems. We have mentioned that 
be compiled compendiums for the use of his scholars ; and 
also a treatise " On the Soul," the design of which was, 
to free the schools from the nugatory subtleties and idle 
labours of the scholastics, and to confine the attention of 
young men to useful studies. He industriously ransacked 
the writings of the ancients, to collect from them, in eyery: 
branch of learning, whatever was most deserving of atten- 
tion. Mathematical studies he held in high estimation, as 
appears from his declamation De Mathematicts Disciphnis* 
" On Mathematical Learning," which- will very well repay 


the trouble of pefusaL In philosophy he followed Aris- 
totle as, in his judgment, the most scientific and methodi- 
cal guide, but always in due subordination to Revelation, 
and only so far as was likely to answer some valuable pur* 
pose. " I would have no one," says he, a trifle in philo- 
sophising, lest he should at length even lose sight of com- 
mon sense ; rather let him be careful both in the study of 
physics and morals, to select the best things from the best 

. If the particular cast of Melancthon's mind be con- 
sidered, it will not be thought surprising, that in philoso- 
phy he preferred a moderate attachment to a particular 
sect, to any bold attempt at perfect innovation. Though 
he possessed a sound understanding and amiable temper, 
he wanted that strength and hardiness of spirit, which 
might have enabled him to have done in philosophy, what 
Lather did in religion. He therefore chose rather to cor- 
rect the established mode of philosophising, than to intro- 
duce a method entirely new. If it be a just occasion of 
regret, that in consequence of the natural gentleness, and 
perhaps timidity, of bis temper, he proceeded no further, 
it ought not to be forgotten, that while religion was iritoch 
indebted to his cool and temperate, but honest exertions, 
philosophy was not without obligation to him, for the 
paind which he took to correct its eccentricities, and adorn, 
it with the graces of eloquence. 

Melancthon made use of the extensive influence, which 
his high reputation, and the favour of the reigning elector 
of Saxony, gave him in the German schools, in which he 
was considered as a kind of common preceptor, to unite 
the study of the Aristotelian philosophy with that of an- 
cient learning in general. And he was much assisted in 
the execution of this design, by the labours of many 
learned protestants of the Germanic schools from Italy and 
Great Britain, who brought with them an attachment to 
the Peripatetic system, and, wherever they were appointed 
public preceptors, made that system the basis of tlpeir 
philosophical instructions. From Wittemberg, Tubingen, 
Leipsic, and other seminaries, conducted after the man- 
ner which was introduced by Melancthon, many learned 
men arose, who, becoming themselves preceptors, adopted 
the same plan of instruction, which from Melancthon was 
called the Philippic method; and thus disseminated the 
Peripatetic doctrine, till at length it yras almost every 

£3 ftf E L A; N C T If Q N. 

where taught 4a the German protectants schools, under the 
sanction, of civil and ecclesiastical authority. Considering 
the distractions of his life, and the infinity of disputes and 
tumults in which he was engaged, it is astonishing, bow be 
could find leisure to write so many books. Th^ir number 
is prodigious, insomuch that it was thought necessary to 
publish a chronological catalogue of them in 1582, They 
are theological, moral, and philosophical; some, however, 
relate to what is usually denominated the belles lettres, 
$nd others are illustrative of various classical authors. 
The most complete edition was published by the author'* 
son-in-law, Jasper Peucer, 1601, in 4 vols. fol. ? 

MELEAGER, a Greek epigrammatic poet, and the first 
collector of the epigrams that form the Greek Anthologia^ 
was the son of Eucrates, and is generally considered as & 
native of Gadara in Syria, where be chiefly lived ; but, 
according to Hades, was born rather at Atthts, an incon- 
siderable placa, in the territory of Gadara. The time in 
which be lived has been a subject of controversy. Vavassor, 
in some degree, with the consent of Fabricius, and Reiske* 
in his Notitia Poetarum Anthologicorum, p. 131, contend, 
that he lived under Seleucus VI. the last king of Syria, 
who began to reign in olym. 170. 3. A. C. 96. This is 
confirmed by an old Greek scholiast, who says, YiHpoureY.bri 
£«*fws tS Icrxom. " He flourished under Seleucus the last." 
Saxius accordingly inserts his name at the year above* 
mentioned. Some would carry him back to the 1 48th 
olympiad, A. C. 186, which, however, is not incompatible 
with the other account; and Schneider would bring him 
down to the age of Augustus, from a supposed imitation of 
an epigram of Strato, who lived then. But, as it may 
equally be supposed that Strato imitated him, this argu- 
ment is of little validity. One of his epigrams in praise of 
Antipater Sidonius, seems to prove that he wa& contetn* 
porary with hiip (Epig. exxiii. ed. Brunck.) and another*, 
in which he speaks of the fall of Corinth as a recent event, 
which happened in olym. 158. 4. may be thought to fix him 
also to that time. As he calls himself xoTvimg, or aged, in 
one of his compositions, there will be no inconsistency be- 
tween these marks, and the account of the scholiast. 
In his youth, Meleager lived chiefly at Gadara, and inri- 

1' Melchior Adam. — Life of Melancthon, by Camerarius.— .Bru'cker. We are 
happy to tied tbat the public may soon expect a very elaborate* life of this great 
reformer, from the rev. Aulay Macaulay, vicar of Rotbley, co. Leicester. 

ti\ L E A G fc R. 


tmted the style and manner of Menippus, who bad lived 
before him in the same city. He afterwards resided at 
Tyre ; bat in his old age, on account of the wars which 
then ravaged Syria, be changed bis abode to the island of 
Cos* where he died. In the Anthologia are extant three 
epitaphs upon this poet, two of which, at least, are sup- 
posed to have befcn written by himself. Of one there can 
be no doubt from internal evidence, " No**; 94a," &c. 

There was a Cynic of Gadara, of the name of Meleager, 
whom some confound with this poet,<and others distinguish ; 
it seems very unlikely that this elegant writer was a Cynic. 
Meleager formed two collections of Greek verses, under 
the name of Anthologia ; one, it is melancholy to say, was 
entirely dedicated to that odious passion of the Greeks, 
which among us it is a shame even to mention. To tt>is 
infamous collection was prefixed a poem, still extant, in 
which the youths whose beauty was celebrated, are de- 
scribed as flowers. A poet named Strato; increased this 
collection, and prefixed to it his own name : but A gat bias 
and Planudes, to their honour, rejected this part altoge- 
ther, and formed their collections from the second Antho- 
logia of Meleager, #hich consisted of compositions entirely 
miscellaneous. On this the present collections of Greek 
epigrams are founded. The poems of Meleager in Brunck*s 
edition, amount to 129; the greater part of which are epi- 
grams. They display great elegance of genius, and do as 
much honour to thfe collection,' as most of those which i( 
contains. Lord Chesterfield's indiscriminate censure of 
the Greek epigrams, must be the result of mere ignorance, 
since many of them are of the highest elegance. He had 
seen, probably, a few of the worst, and, knew nothing of 
tbe rest. Of the epigrams of Meleager, many are truly 
elegant, but those numbered, in Brandt's Analects, 50, 
51, 52, 5S i 57, 58, 61, 63, 109, lll r 112, and several 
others, have beauty enough to rescue the whole collection 
from tbe unjust censure of the witty, but not learned earl. 1 

RiELETlUS, bishop of LycopoKs in Thebais, who is 
known in church history as the chief of the sect of Mele- 
tians, was convicted of sacrificing to idols, during the Dio- 
clesian persecution, and imprisoned and degraded by a 
council held by Peter, bishop of Alexandria. Upon his 

1 Hades in edit. Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. IV. p. 416.— Schneider Peric. Criti- 
cum, p. 65.<— gaxii Odomast. . , ' 

24 MELETltfS. 

release, Meletius caused a schism about the year 301, se- 
parating himself from Peter,. and the other bishops, charg- 
ing them, but particularly Peter, with too much indulgence 
in the reconciliation of apostates. By the council of Nice, 
A. D. 325, he was permitted to remain in his own city, 
Lycopolis, but without the power either of electing, or 
ordaining, or appearing upon that account either in the 
country or city ; so that he retained only the mere title of 
bishop. His followers at this time were united with the 
Arians. Meletius resigned to Alexander, bishop of Alex- 
andria, the churches oyer which he bad usurped supe- 
riority, and died some time after. When he was dying, 
he named one of his disciples his successor. Thus the 
schism began again, and the Meletians subsisted as far as 
the fifth century, but were condemned by the first council 
of Nice. 1 

MELISSUS, a philosopher of Samos, of the Eleattc 
sect, who flourished about the year 444 B. C. was a dis- 
ciple of Par men ides, to whose doctrines he closely adhered. 
He was likewise a man of political wisdom and courage, 
which gave him great influence among his countrymen, 
and inspired them with a high veneration for his talents 
and virtues. Being appointed by them to the command of 
a fleet, he obtained a great naval victory over the Athe- 
nians. As a philosopher, he maintained that the principle 
' of all things is one and immutable, or that whatever exists 
is one being ; that this one being includes all things, and 
Is infinite, without beginning or end ; that there is neither 
vacuum nor motion in the universe, nor any such thing as 
production or decay, that the changes which it seems to 
suffer, are only illusions of our senses, and mere appear- 
ances ; and that we ought not to lay down any thing posi- 
tively concerning the gods, since our knowledge of them 
is so uncertain* Dr. Cudworth, in his " Intellectual Sys- 
tem," has opposed these opinions.' 

MELITO, an ancient Christian father, was bishop of 
Sardis in Asia, and composed several works upon the doc- 
trine and discipline of the church ; of which' we have no- 
thing now remaining but their titles, and some fragments 
preserved by Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical Hist, book IV. 
The most valuable of these is part of an humble petition, 
which be presented to the emperor Marcus Antoninus ; in 

i Cave, vol. I.—Dupin.— Lardnert Works. f Bradcer.— Moreru 


which be beseeches him," to examine the accusations 
which were brought against the Christians, and to stop the 
persecution, by revoking the edict which he had published 
against them." He represents to him, that " the Roman 
empire was so far from being injured or weakened by 
Christianity, that its foundation was more firmly esta- 
blished, and its bounds considerably enlarged, since that 
religion had taken footing in it ;" that " the Christian re- 
ligion had been persecuted by none but the worst empe- 
rors, such as Nero and Domitian ; that Adrian and Anto- 
ninus had granted privileges in its favour ; and that he 
hoped* from his clemency and goodness, that they should 
obtain the same protection of their lives and propertiea 
from him. 19 This petition was presented, according to 
Eusebius, in the year 170; but other authors give it the 
date of 175 or 177, and Dupin 182. Melito died before 
the pontificate of Victor, probably about the year 192, as 
we learn from a letter of Polycrates to that pope, where he 
speaks of Melito as of a man dead, and in the following 
terms : " What shall I say of Melito, whose actions were 
aH guided by the operations of the Holy Spirit ? who was 
interred at Sardis, where he waits the resurrection and the 
judgment' 9 He passed, it seems, for a prophet in hit 
day; that is, for a man inspired by God; according to 
the testimony of Tertullian, as Jerome represents it. The 
same Tertullian observes also, that he was an elegant 
writer and a good orator ; which, however, it would not 
be easy to discover from the fragments that remain of him. 1 
MELLAN (Claude), a French engraver and designer, 
particularly celebrated for a mode of engraving peculiar to 
himself, and of his. own invention, that of forming a whole 
head by one line of the graver, swelling it in various places 
to produce the shades. A head of our Saviour, formed of 
one spiral line, beginning at the tip of the nose, is his 
most famous work in this style. There are also portraits 
by him, of pope Clement VIII. and of the marquis Justi- 
niani, and a set of the Justiniani gallery, all of which are 
highly esteemed. Charles II. was desirous of inviting bias 
to settle in England ; but an attachment to his country, and 
a happy marriage in it, fixed him at home. He was bom 
at Abbeville in 1601, and died at Paris in 1688.* 

1 Dopin.—- Mosheiuu— Lardner'i Works. 
* Strait's Diet.— Moreri.— Diet. Hist 


MELMOTH (William* esq.), a learned fcnd worthy 
bencher of Lincoln's-inn, was born in 1666. In conjonc- 
tion with Mr. Peere Williams, Mr. Melmotb was the pub- 
lisher of " Vernon's Reports," under an order of tbfe court 
vf chancery. He bad once an intention of printing bis own 
" Reports ;" and a short time before his death, advertised 
thenrat the end of those of bis coadjutor Peere Williams, 
as then actually preparing for tbe press. Thcfy have, bow- 
ever, not yet made their appearance. But the perform- 
ance for which he justly deserves to be held in perpetual 
remembrance, is* " The Great Importance of a Religious 
Life." It is a singular circumstance that the real authofr 
of this most admirable treatise should never hate been 
publicly known until mentioned in the Anecdotes of 
Bowyer. It was ascribed by Walpole in his " Royal and 
Noble Authors," to the first earl of Egmont. Of this work 
Mr. Melmoth's son says, in tbe short preface which accom* 
panies it, that " It may add weight, perhaps, to the re- 
flections contained in the following pages, to inform the 
reader, that the author's life was one uniform exemplar of 
those precepts, which, with so generous a zeal, and such 
an elegant and affecting simplicity of style, he endeavours 
to recommend to general practice. He left othets to con- 
tend for modes of faith, and inflame themselves and the 
world with endless controversy ; it was tbe wiser purpose 
of his more ennobled aim, to act up to those clear rules of 
conduct whicb Revelation hath graciously prescribed. He 
possessed by temper every moral virtue ; by religion every 
Christian grace. He had a humanity that melted at every 
distress; a charity which not only thought no evil, but 
suspected none. He exercised his profession with a skill 
and integrity, which nothing could equal, but the disin- 
terested motive that animated his labours, or the amiable 
modesty which accompanied all his virtues. He employed 
bis industry, not to gratify his own desire*; no man in- 
dulged himself less : not to accumulate useless wealth ; no 
man more disdained so tin worthy a pursuit : it was for the 
decent advancement of his family, for the generous assist- 
ance of bis friends, for the ready relief of the indigent:. 
♦How often did he exert his distinguished abilities, yet re- 
fuse the reward of them, in defence of the widow, the fa* 
JJicrlesS) and him that had none to help him ! In a word, few 
have ever passed a rpore useful, not one a more blameless 
life ; and his whole time was employed either in doing 


good, or. in mod ita ting it. He died on the 6th day of 
April, 1743, and lies buried under the cloister of Lincoln's- 
inn chapel." This passage is repeated in a short tract en* 
titled "Memoirs of a late eminent Advocate," published in 
1796, in which the character of his father is rather more 
unfolded. We learn from this tract, that Mr.Melmptk 
** from early youth performed the paipful but indispensable 
duty of communing with his own heart, with the severest 
and most impartial scrutiny." This appears by a copy of 
a letter from some eminent casuit, whom he had. consulted 
respecting certain religious scruples. He was afterwards 
perplexed respecting taking the oaths at the revolution, 
which happened when he had the prospect of being ad- 
mitted to the bar. On this occasion he consulted the cele- 
brated Mr. Norris of Bemerton, and a correspondence took 
place, part of which is published in the " Memoirs." It 
is probable that he was at last convinced of the lawfulness 
of the oaths, as he was called to the bar in 1693. There 
are other letters and circumstances given in these w Me-* 
moirs," which tend to raise the character of Mr. Melmoth 
as a man of sincerity and humility, not, however, perhaps, 
unmixed with what may now be reckoned a degree of su- 
perstitious weakness. 

With respect to his '< Great Importance," it may be 
added, to the credit of the age, that above 100,00,0 copies 
have been sold since the author's death. 1 
' MELMOTH (William), son of the above, by his se- 
cond wife, was born in 1710. Of his early history little is 
known. He probably received a liberal education, although 
we do not find that he studied at either university. He 
was bred to the law, as appears by his being appointed a 
commissioner of bankrupts in 1756, by sir John Eardley 
Wilraot, at that time one of the commissioners of the great 
seal, and an excellent discerner and rewarder of merit. 
The greater part of Mr. Melmoth's life, however, was 
spent in retirement from public business, partly at sh * ews ~ 
bury, and partly at Bath, where he was no less distinguished 
for integrity of conduct, than for polite manners and ele- 
gant taste. He first appeared as a writer about 1742, m 
a volume of " Letters" under the name of Fitzosborne, 
Which have been much admired for the elegance of thetr 

i Nichols's Bowyer.— Memoirs by his son— For «> ""«* <* a SocmA1i - 
edition of the Great Importance, see Gent. Mag. vol. LXXA1H. 


language, and their just and liberal remarks on various to- 
pics, moral and literary. In 1747 he published "A Trans* 
lation of the Letters of Pliny," in 2 vols. 8vo, which was 
regarded as one of the best versions of a Latin author that 
bad appeared in our language. In 1753, he gave a trans- 
kttion of the " Letters of Cicero to several of his Friends, 
with Remarks," in 3 vols. He had previously to this, writ- 
ten an answer to Mr. Bryant's attack, in his Treatise on 
the Truth of the Christian Religion, on bis remarks on 
Trajan's Persecution of the Christians in Bithynia, which 
made a note to his translation of Pliny's Letters. He was 
the translator likewise of Cicero's treatises " De Amicitia" 
*nd "De Senectute," which were published in 1773 and 
1777. These he enriched with remarks, literary and phi- 
losophical, which added much to their value. In the for- 
mer he refuted lord Shaftesbury, who had imputed it as a 
defect to Christianity, that it gave no precepts in favour 
of friendship, and Soame Jenyns, who had represented that 
very omission as a proof of its divine origin. The con-* 
eluding work of Mr. Melmoth was a tribute of filial affec- 
tion, in the Memoirs of his father, which we have already 
noticed. After a long life passed in literary pursuits, and 
the practice of private virtue, Mr. Melmoth died at Bath, 
March 15, 1799, at the age of eighty-nine. He had been 
twice married ; first to the daughter of the celebrated Dr. 
King, principal of St. Mary's- hall, Oxford, and secondly to 
Mrs. Ogle. The author of " The Pursuits of Literature" 
says, " Mr. Melmoth is a happy example of the mild in- 
fluence of learning on a cultivated mind ; I mean that 
learning which is declared to be the aliment of yputh, and 
the delight and Consolation of declining years. Who would 
not envy this fortunate old man, his most finished trans- 
lation and comment on Tully's Cato? Or rather, who would 
not rejoice in the refined and mellowed pleasure of so ac- 
complished a gentleman, and so liberal a scholar ?" Dr. 
Warton, in a note on Pope's works, mentions his translation 
of Pliny as " one of the few that are better than the origi- 
nal. 9 ' Birch, in his Life of Tillotson, had made nearly the 
same remark, which was the more liberal in Birch, as Mel- 
moth had taken great liberties with the style of Tillotson. 
To Mr. Melmoth' s other works we may add a few poetical 
efforts, one in Dodsley's Poems (vol., I. p. 216, edit. 1782), 
entitled " Of active and retired life ;" and three in 
Pearch's poems (vol. II.) " The Transformation of Lycon 

MfcLMOTH. 29 

and Euphormius }" a <* Tale," in p. 149; and u Epistle to 
Sappho.' 7 1 

MELOZZO (Francis, or Francesco), called Melozzo 
of Forli, flourished about 1471, and was probably the scho- 
lar of Ansovino da Forli, a pupil of Squarcione. The me- 
mory of Melozzo is venerated by artists as the inventor of 
perspective representation and true foreshortening on 
arched roofs and ceilings, of what the Italians style " dt 
Sotto in S6 ;" the most difficult and most rigorous branch 
of execution. A tolerable progress had been made in per* 
spective after Paolo Uccello, by means of Piero delia 
Francesca, an eminent geometrician, and some Lombards ; 
but the praise of painting roofs with that charming illusion 
which we witness, belongs to Melozzo. Scannelli and 
Orlandi relate, that, to learn the art, he studied the best 
antiques; and, though born to affluence, let himself as 
servant and colour- grinder to the masters of his time. Some 
make him a scholar of Piero del la Francesco : it is at least 
not improbable that Melozzo knew him and Agostino di 
Bramantino, when they painted in Rome m for Nicolas V. 
towards 1455. Whatever be the fact, Melozzo painted on 
the vault of the largest chapel in SS. Apostoii, an Ascen- 
sion, in which, says Vasari, the figure of Christ is so well 
foreshortened, that it seems to pierce the roof. That pic- 
ture was painted for cardinal Riario, nephew of Sixtus IV. 
about 1472 ; and at the rebuilding of that chapel, was cut 
out and placed in the palace of the Quirinal, 171 1, where 
it is still seen with this epigraphe: " Opus Melotii Foro- 
liviensis, qui summos fornices pingendi artem vel primus 
invenit vel illustravit." Some heads of the apostles were 
likewise sawed out and placed in the Vatican. His taste 
ton the whole resembles that of Mantegna and the Padouan 
schools more than any other. The heads are well formed, 
well coloured, well turned, and almost always foreshor- 
tened ; the lights duly toned and opportunely relieved by 
shadows which give ambience and almost motion to his 
figures on that space; there is grandeur and dignity in the 
principal figure, and the Kgbtsome drapery that surrounds 
him ; with finish of pencil, diligence, and grace in every 
part. It is to be lamented, that so uncommon a genius 
has not met with an exact historian, of whom we might 
have learned his travels and labours previous to this great 

I Nichols's Bowyer. 

59 M E L O 3 Z Q. 

work painted fgr Riarip* At Forti, they shew, as his work, 
the front of an apothecary's shop, painted in arabesque, of 
exquisite style, with a,balf-length figure over the door 
pounding drugs, very well executed. We are informed 
by Vasari, that Francesco di Mirozzo da Forli painted be* 
fore Dossq, in the villa of the dukes of Urbino, called 
L'lmperiale ; — we ought probably to read Melozzo, and to 
correct the word in the text, as one of that writer's usual 
negligences, of which Vasari gives another instance ift 
Marco Palmegiani, of Forli, whom be transforms to Par* 
megiauq ; a good and almost unknown artist, though many 
of his works survive, and be himself seems to have taken 
$very precaution not to be forgotten by posterity, inscribing 
*no$t pf bis altar-pieces and oil-pictures with Marcus pictor 
Joroliviensis, or, Marcus Palmasanus P. Foroliviensis pin* 
^eb^t. Seldom he adds the year, as in two belonging to 
prince Ercplain, 1513 and 1537. In those, and in his 
works at Forli, we recognise two styles. The first differs 
little from the common one of Quattrocentist's, in the ex-* 
trjeme simplicity of attitude, iu the gilding, in minute at* 
tension, and even in anatomy, which extended its re-» 
&Q$r$hes at that time, seldom beyond a S. Sebastian, or a 
S. Jerome. Of bis second style the groups, are more arti-» 
ficial, the outline larger, the proportions grander, but the 
beads perhaps less varied and more mannered. He used 
to admit into his principal subject others that do not belong 
to it: thus in the crucifix at StAgostino, in Forli, he 
placed two or three groups in different spots ; in one of 
which is & Paul visited by S. Anthony ; in another, S. Au-r 
gu$}ine convinced, by an angel, of the absurdity of his at* 
tempt to fathom the mystery of the Trinity ; and in those 
small figures he is finished and graceful beyond belieft 
Nor is bis landscape or his architecture destitute of charms^ 
His works abound in Romsagna, and are met with even in 
Venetian galleries : at Vicenza there is, in the palace Vi* 
centini, a Christ of his between Nicodemus and Joseph ; 
an exquisite performance, in which, to speak with Dante, 
t " ii morto par roorto e vivi i vivi. 1 

MELVIL (Sir James), a statesman and historian, was de* 
scended from an honourable family in Scotland, and born at 
Halhill in Fifeshire, in 1530. At fourteen, he was sent by 
the queen regent of Scotland, to be page to ber daughter 

i By Fuselt in Pilkington. 


Mary, who was then married to the dauphin of France: 
but by her leave be entered into the service of the duke of 
Montmorenci, great constable and chief minister of France, 
who earnestly desired him of her majesty, having a high 
opinion of his promising talents. He was nine years em 1 
ployed by him, and had a pension settled on him by tt)Q 
king- Then, obtaining leave to travel, he went into Ger-? 
ro&ny ; where being detained by the elector palatine, h$ 
resided at his court three years, and was employed by hint 
on several embassies. After this.) prosecuting his intend 
tions to travel, he visited Venice, Rome, and the mosf 
famous cities of Italy, and returned through Switzerland 
to the elector's court; where, finding a summons frpai 
qu^ en Mary, who had taken possession of the crown of 
Scotland, after the death of her husband Francis, If, he sel( 
out to attend her. The queen-mother of France at tbft 
same time offered him a large pension to reside at hec 
court i for she found it her interest, at that juncture, to 
keep up a good understanding with the protestanfc princes 
of Gerptany ; and she knew sir James Melvil to be the 
prop^rest person to negotiate her affairs, being mpst qq^ 
ceptabl? to t hap. all ; hut this he declined. 

Upon his arrival in {Scotland, in 15.6), he was admitted 
a privy- counsellor and gentleman of queen Mary's bed- 
chamber ; and was employed by her majesty in her mo** 
important concerns, till her unhappy confinement at L,o<?h^ 
leyen ; all which be discharged with an exact fidelity ; and 
from his own account there is reason to think that, had she 
takep bis advice, many of her misfortunes might hayq been 
avoided. He maintained a correspondence in England in* 
favour of Mary's succession to the crown of that kingdpm V 
but upon. the discovery of her unhappy partiality for Both*? 
well, after her husband's murder, be ventured upon the. 
strongest remonstrances with her, which she not only dis- 
regarded, but communicated them to Bothwell, in conse- 
quence of which MeiviPs endeavours were fruitless, and 
he was himself, obliged to escape from Both well's fury*. 
He was, however, afterwards regarded by the four succes- 
sive regents in a special manner, and trusted by them with; 
i^gociations of the greatest moment ; though, after the 
qqeep's imprisonment, he . had ever adhered . to her son*. 
When James came to the government, Melvil was espe- 
cially recommended to him by the queen, then a prisoner 
in England, as one most faithful, and capable of doing him 


service : and was made by his majesty a member of bis 
privy council, of his exchequer, and a gentleman of his 
chamber. He always continued in favour and employment? 
and the king would gladly have taken bim into England, at 
the death of Elizabeth, promising him considerable pro- 
motion : but sir James, now advanced in years, and desi- 
rous of retirement from business, begged his majesty to 
excuse him. He thought it right, however, to pay his 
duty to his majesty, and accordingly went to England : and 
then returning to his own house, be died soon after, in 

His " Memoirs" were accidentally found in the castle of 
Edinburgh, in 1660, somewhat imperfect, and injured by 
time and civil confusion. They passed thence into the 
hands of sir James Melvil of Halhill, the author's grandson, 
from whom the editor George Scott received them, and 
published them in 1683, in folio, under this title,. " The 
Memoirs of sir James Melvil, of Halhill, containing an im- 
partial account of most of the remarkable affairs of state, 
during the last age, not mentioned by other historians r 
more particularly relating to the kingdoms of England and 
Scotland, under the reigns of queen Elizabeth, Maryqueetr 
of Scots, and king James : in all which transactions the 
author was personally and publicly concerned. Now pub- 
lished from the original manuscript." There U an epistle 
to the reader, prefixed by the editor, from which we have 
made this extract. It is remarkable, that nobody knew bow 
these memoirs came to be deposited in the castle of Edin- 
burgh, or when they were so : and also, that they were 
preserved almost entire, in a place which cotild not secure 
the public records of the kingdom from the rude incur* 
aions of civil discord. Notwithstanding some mistakes, 
owing to the advanced age of the writer, they are much 
esteemed, and have been reprinted both in French and 
English. 1 

MEMNON, a Greek historian, who is thought to have 
flourished in the time of Augustus, wrote a history of the 
affairs of Heraclea in Pontus, sixteen books of which were 
abridged by Photius. They come down to the death of an 
Horaclean ambassador to Julius Caesar, then emperor. A 
Latin translation of his history was published at Oxford in 

1 Preface and Memoirs.— Robertson's Hist, of Scotland,— Laing's Prelim**; 
nary Dissertation to his History of Scotland. 

M E M N O N. S3 

1597, under the title " Memhonis histortcorum, quae su- 
persunt omnia, eGr. in Lat. traducta per R. Brett/ 9 16 mo. 
Richard Brett was a fellow of Lincoln, of whom we have 
given some account in vol. VI. 1 

MENAGE (Giles, or jEgidius), called, from his great 
learning, the Varro of his times, was born at Angers, Aug. 
15, 1613. He was the son of William Menage, the king's 
advocate at Angers ; and discovered so early an inclinat 
tion to letters, that his father was determined to spare 
no cost or pains in his education. He was accordingly 
taught the belles lettres and philosophy, in which his pro* 
gress fully answered the expectations of his father, who, 
however, thought it necessary to divert him from too se- 
vere application, by giving him instructions in music and 
dancing ; but these were in a great measure thrown away, 
and he had so little genius for music, that he never could 
learn a tune. • He had more success in his first profession, 
which was that of a barrister at law, and pleaded various 
causes, with considerable eclat, both in the country, and 
in the parliament of Paris* His father had always designed 
him for his profession, the law, and now resigned his 
place of king's advocate in his favour, which Menage,' as 
soon as he became tired of the law, returned to him. 
Considering the law as a drudgery, he adopted the vulgar 
opinion that it was incompatible with an attention to polite 
•literature. He now declared his design of entering into 
the church, as the best plan he could pursue for the gra- 
tification of his love of general literature, and of the com- 
pany of literary men ; and soon after he had interest to 
procure sortie benefices, and among the rest the deanery 
of St. Peter at Angers. In the mean time his father, dis« 
pleased at him for deserting his profession, * would not 
supply him with the money which, in addition to what bis 
livings produced, was necessary to support him at Paris. 
This obliged him to look out for some means of subsistence 
there, independent of his family ; and at the recommen- 
dation of Cbapelain, a member of the French academy, he 
. was taken into the family of cardinal de Retz, who was then 
only coadjutor to the archbishop of Paris. In this situation 
he enjoyed the repose necessary to his studies, and had 
every day new opportunities of displaying his abilities and 
learning. He lived several years with the cardinal ; but 

v * fabric, Bibl. Gr*c. 

VobXXlf. D * 

34 M E # A Q & 

having received an affront frdtn some of his dependent?, he 
desired of the cardinal, either that reparation might be 
made him, or that he might be suffered to depajrt. He 
obtained the latter, and then hired an apartment in the 
cloister of Notre Dame, where he held every Wednesday 
an assembly, which he called his " Mercuriale." Here hg 
had the satisfaction of seeing a number of learned men, 
French and foreigners; and upon other days he frequented 
the study of Messieurs du Puy, anid after tb^ir death tbajt 
of Thuanus. By his father's death, which happened Jaf?. 
IS, 1648, he succeeded to an estate, which h£ converted 
into an 'annuity, for the sake qf being entirely at leisure 
to pursue his studies. Soon after, he obtained, by a de- 
cree of the grand council, the priory of Montdidier ; which 
he resigned alsp to the abb£ de la Vieuville, afterward* 
bishop of Rennes, who procured for him, by way of amende 
a pension of 4000 livres upon two abbeys. The king'* 
consent, which was necessary for the creation of this pen- 
sion, was not obtained for Menage, till he had given a**- 
suranpes to cardinal Mazarin, that be had po shaft? in tbe 
libels which had been dispersed against that mister and 
the court, during the troubles at Paris. This considerable 
addition to his circumstances enabled him to prosecute hi* 
studies with more success, and to publish a great many 
works, which, he generally did at his Own expellee* The 
excessive freedom of his conversation, however, and hip" 
total inability to suppress a witty thought, whatever might 
be the consequence of uttering it, Created him many ene- 
mies ; and he had contests with several men of erJdjlnene^ 
who attacked him at differeut times, as the abbe d'Aiibig- 
nac, Boileau, Cotin, Salo, Bohours, and Bail let. But ail 
these were not nearly so formidable to him, as the dagger 
which he incurred in 1660, by a Latin elegy addne?$ed t& 
Mazarin ; in which, among his compliments to bis emi- 
nence, it was pretended, that he had Satirized a deputation 
which the parliament had sent to that minister,' Itwbs 
carried to the grand chamber by the counsellors, who pro- 
posed to debate upon it ; but the first president, Lamoig- 
non, to whom Menage had protested that the piece had 
been written three months before the deputation, and that 
he could not intend the parliament in it, prevented any ill 
consequences from the affair. Besides, the reputation his 
works gained him, they procured him a place in the aca- 
demy della Crusca at Florence ; and be might have been 

MEN J^G E. 35 

a member of the French academy at its first institution, if 
it had not been for his " Requite des dictiqnnaires." When 
the memory of that piece, however, was effaced by time, 
and most of the academicians, who were named in it, were 
<Jead r he was, proposed, in 1684, to fill a vacant place in 
tjiat academy, aud was excluded only by the superior inte- 
rest of his competitor, M, Bergeret ; there not being one 
Jpember, of all those who gave their votes against Menage, 
who did not own that he deserved the place, After this he 
would not suffer his friends to propose him again, nor in- 
deed was he any longer able to attend the academy, if he 
bad been chosep,. on account of a fall, which had put, bis 
thigh out of joint ; after which he scarcely ever went out of 
bis chajnber, but held daily a kind of an academy there. 
In July 1692, be began to be troubled with a rheum, which 
was followed by a defluxipn on the stomach, of which he 
died on the 23d, aged seventy-nine. 

He composed several works,, which had much reputation 
in their day : 1. " Origines de la langue Frangoise," 1650, 
4to ; a very valuable work, reprinted in folio after his death, 
in 1694, enlarged by himself, but this has sunk under the 
much improved edition by Jault, Paris, 1750, 2 vols. fol. 
2, " Miscellanea," 1652, 4tp; a collection of pieces in 
Greek, Latin, and French, prpse as well as verse, com- 
posed by him at different times, and upon different sub* 
jects ; among which is " La requite des dictionnaires," an 
ingenious piece of raillery, in which he makes all the dic- 
tionaries complain that the academy's dictionary will be 
their utter ruin, and join in an humble petition to prevent 
it. It was not written from the least malignity against the 
academy, but merely to divert himself, and that he might 
not lose several bon mots which came into his head upon 
that occasion. He suppressed it for a long time ; but at 
last it was stolen from bim, and published by the abb£ 
Montreuil, without his knowledge, and prevented him, as 
we have observed, from obtaining a place in the academy, 
at its £rst institution ; which made de Monmor say, " that 
he ought to be obliged to be a member, on account of that 
piece, as a ma^i, who has debauched a girl, is obliged to 
marry her." S. " Osservazioni sopra l'Aminta del Tasso," 
1653, 4to. 4. " Diogenes Laertius Qraece et Latine. cuna 
comnaentario," Lend. 1664, in folio. Menage published 
his first edition at Paris, in 8vo, 1662, and sent it to biahop 
Pearson in London, who wrote him a complimentary letter 

D2 ' ' 

S6 M E« AG E. 

6f thanks, which is inserted in the London edition, which 
js now a rare and expensive book. Meibom's edition of 
1692 contains Menage's annotations, &c. 5. " Poemata," 
1656, 12mo. They were often reprinted; and what is 
remarkable, his Italian poetry has been said to be esteemed 
* even in Italy, although Menage could not speak two words 
in Italian. Baretti, however, condemns without mercy 
the Italian verses both of Menage and Keignier. Morhoff 
pretends that he has borrowed greatly from the Latiu 
poems of Vincent Fabricius; and several have accused 
him of plundering the ancients. We ought not, perhaps, 
to omit here> that having, according to the custom of 
poets, chosen mademoiselle de la Vergne, afterwards coun- 
tess de la Fayette, ' for his poetical mistress, he gave her 
in Latin, inadvertently we may suppose, the name of La* 
verna, the goddess of thieves ; aqd this gave occasion to 
the following epigram ; 

" Lesbia nulla tibi est, nulla est tibi dicta Corinna : 
Carmine Iaudatur Cynthia nulla tuo. 
Sed cum doctorum compiles scrinia vatura, „ 
Nil mirum, si sit culta Laverna tibi/' 

6. u Recueil des Eloges faits pour M. Ie cardinal Mazarin,'* 
1666, folio. 7. " Origine delta Lingua Iialiana," 1669, fof. 
He undertook this work only to shew the academy della 
Crusca, that he was not unworthy of the place with which 
.they bad honoured him. Dr. Burney says that in his. 
'• Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Langue Fransoise," 
and in his " Origkie della Lingua Itaiiana," curious in- 
quirers after the musical language of the middle ages will 
find more information than in any other lexicons dr philo- 
sophical works with which we are acquainted, except in, 
the Glossarium of Ducange. 8. " Juris civilis amoenitates," 
Paris, 1677, 8vo, reprinted with a preface by J. G. Hoff- 
mann, Francfort, 1737, 8vo. 9. " Les poesies de Ma4~ 
herbe, avec des notes," 1666," 8vo, reprinted .more thai* 
once. 10. " Observations sur la Langue Francois," 1675, 
and 1676," in 2 vols. 12mo. 11. H istoi re de Sable, con- 
tenant les seigneurs de la ville de Sable, jusqu'a Louis I, 
due d'Anjou et roy ,de Sicile: premiers partie," 1686, 
folio. He was very much prejudiced in favour of this his- 
tory, and was engaged in the second part at his death. In 
the " Menagiana," he is represented as saying, thai it is 
an incomparable book ; that one may find every thing mit; 
and that in every page there are many learned observations; 

HENA'GE. 37 

but the public have not been of this opinion. 12. u His- 
toria mulierum philosopharum," Lugd. 1690, 12mo. This 
is reprinted in Meihom's Diogenes Laertius. 13. " Anti- 
jfeaillet," 1690; a criticism of the " Jugemens des S$a- 
vans" of M. Baillet, who in that work had spoken of Me- 
nage in a manner that displeased him. 14. " Menagiana,*' 
sot published till after his death, and printed at first in one 
volume, afterwards in two. But M. de la Monnoye pub- 
fished an edition with great additions, at Paris, 1715, in 4* 
vols. 12 mo. This is a very amusing collection, but will 
admit of abridgment without any injury to the memory of 

Menage was possessed of a most tenacious memory, 
which he retained, except during a short interval, to a 
great age. Among his *' Poems" is one addressed to the 
goddess of memory, petitioning her to restore to him her 
former favours ; and another, iii which he pours forth his 
gratitude for the welcome return. This uncommon talent 
of memory made Menage a very agreeable companion to 
the ladies,* in whose company he took delight, and for 
fthose amusement he jrepeated, with great readiness and 
humour, all the anecdotes, verses, &c. which he thought 
would entertain the company. * 

MENANDER, one of the most celebrated of the an- 
cient Greek poets, was born at Athens in the year 342 
before the Christian aera. He was educated in the school 
of Theophrastus the peripatetic, Aristotle's successor, and 
Began to write for the stage at the early age of twenty, 
when his passions seem to have been no less forward and 
impetuous than bis genius. His attachment to the fair 
sex, and especially to his mistress Glycera, is upon record, 
and was vehement in the extreme; several, of his epistles 
to that celebrated courtezan, written in a very ardent style, 
were collected and made public after his decease ; his 
genius, howevef, is thought: to have been a greater re- 
commendation to Glycera' s favour, than his personal merit, 
which has not been represented as favourable to his ad- 
dresses, although he is said to have added the recommen- 
dations of luxurious dress and manners. His intrigues, 
however, are of little importance compared to the fanie he 
acquired as one, if not the principal, of the authors of the 
new comedy, which if it possessed less wit and (ire than the 

1 Gen. Diet.— Niceron, vol. I. andX. — Diet. HisU — Mtnagian^. 

it menAnder. 

did, was superior to it in delicacy, regularity, arid deco- 
rum, came nearer to nature, and to what we conceive of 
the legitimate drama. Among his contemporaries, who 
wrote upon this reformed plan, were Philemon, Diphilug, 
Apollodorus, Philippides and Posidippus ; and from many 
fragments which remain, it appears that they were not 
only bold dedaimers against the vice and immorality of 
the age they lived in, but that they ventured upon truths 
and doctrines in religion totally irreconcileable to the po- 
pular superstition and idolatries of the heathen world ; and 
therefore, says Cumberland, or rather Bentley, we cannot 
but admire at the extraordinary toleration of their pagan 

By the lowest account Menander wrote eighty plays ; 
but some authorities more than double them, an impro- 
bable number to have been composed by a jtoet who died* 
at the age of fifty, or very little after ; whatever their 
riumbfer, it has been thought that morality, taste, and li- 
terature, scarcely ever suffered more irreparably than by 
the loss of them. A few fragments only remain, which, 
says Warton, ought " to be as highly prized by the curious, 
as was the Coan Venus, which Apelles left imperfect and 
unfinished." Terence is supposed to have copied all his 
comedies from Menander, except the " Phormio" and 
<c Hecyra ;** and therefore from him we are enabled to 
form some idea of Menander' s manner. His general cha- 
racter we must still take from his contemporaries, or im- 
mediate successors ; for all that we can , deduce from his 
fragments will not raise him to the high rauk to which he 
belongs. Some of these are excellent morals, and some 
of a more elevated cast, but the greater part are of a mo-r 
rose, gloomy, and acrimonious character. 

We have many testimonies to the admiration in which 
he was held during his life- time. Pliny informs us that the 
kings of Egypt and Macedon gave a noble testimony to his 
merit, by sending ambassadors to invite him to their courts, 
and even fleets to convey him ; but that Menander pre- 
ferred the free enjoyment of his studies to the promised 
favours of the great. Yet the envy and corruption of his 
countrymen sometimes denied his merit the justice at home, 
which it found abroad ; for he is said to have won but eight 
prizes, though be wrote at least fourscore, if not, according 
to some accounts, above an hundred plays. Phi lemon,a con- 
temporary and much inferior dramatic poet, by the partiality 



the judges, often disappointed him of the prize; which 
made Meftftttder once say to him, " Tell me fairly, Phile- 
mon, if you do not blush when the victory is decreed to 
you against me ?" The ancient critics have bestowed the 
highest praises on Menander, ai the true pattern of every 
beauty and every grace of public speaking. Quintilian 
declares that a carefal imitation of Menander only will 
enable a writer to comply with all the rules in his Institu- 
tions. It is in Menander, that he would have his oratot 
search for copiousness of invention, an elegance of expres- 
sion, and especially far that universal* genius, which is 
Able to accommodate itself to persons, things, and affec* 
tionrf. Menander's wonderful talent at expressing nature 
in every condition, and under every accident of life, gave 
occasion to that extraordinary question of Aristophanes the 
grammarian : " O Meftander and Nature, which of yod 
Copied your pieces from the other's work V* And Ovid has 
made choice of the same excellency to support the immor* 
tality he has given him : 

" Dam fidlax servus, durus pater, improba laena, 
- Vivet : dxu& meretrix blanda, Menander erit." 

Menander was drowned in the harbour of Piraeus, in the 1 
year 293 B. C. according to some accounts, which make 
Bim only forty-nine years of age, but others, as we have 
noticed, think he was a little above fifty. His tomb, in 
the time of Pausauias, was to be seen at Athens, in the 
way from Piraeus to the city, close by the honorary monu- 
ment of Euripidetf The fragments and sentences of Me- 
nander were first collected by Morel, 1553, Paris, and 
a^ain edited by Henry Stephens, Grotius, &c. but the 
best edition is that by Le Clerc at Amsterdam, in 1 709'. 
To which the " Emendationes" of Phileleutherus Lip- 
siensis/' thatis,Dr.Bentley, the "Infamia emendationum,'* 
Leiden, 1710, by J. Gronovius, and " Philargyrius Can- 
tabrigiensis," by De Pauw, must be considered as indis- 
pensable supplements, although it is spmewhat difficult to 
collect the four. * . 

MEN ANDRINO (MXasiLlo), better known by the name 
of Marsilius of Padua, the place of his birtb, was one of 
the most celebrated philosophers and lawyers of the 14th 

» Vossius de Poet. Or»c Barman's preface to Bentley's Emendationes, &c. 

—See an elegant paper T>y Warton, Wo. 105 of the Adventurer j-and two by 
Cumberland, i. e. Beattey, m the Observer, No. U9, 150.— Maty'i Review, 
▼oU K. p, 299. 

40 ME N A N D R I N O. 

century. He was educated at the university of Orleans ; 
was afterwards made counsellor to the emperor Louis of 
Bavaria ; and wrote an apology entitled " Defensor pacis," 
for that prince, in 1324. In this extraordinary work, for 
such at that time it might well be deemed, he boldly main- 
tained that the pope ought to submit to the emperor, not 
only in temporal affairs, but also in what regards the out- 
ward discipline of the church. He described in strong 
colours, the pride, the luxury, and other irregularities of 
the court of Rome; and shewed at large, that the pope 
could not, by divine right, claim any powers or prero- 
gatives superior to those of other bishops. John XXII. at 
that time filled the papal chair, and was so provoked at this 
doctrine of Marsilius, as well as his manner of propagating 
it, that he issued out a long decree, in which he endea- 
voured to refute it, and by which he excommunicated the 
author, in 1327. Dupin relates, that on this book being 
translated into French without the author's name, pope 
Gregory XL complained of it to the faculty of divinity at 
Paris ; when the faculty declared, by an authentic act, that 
none of their members had any hand in that translation ; 
find that neither Marsilius of Padua, nor John de Jancle, 
who was likewise thought to have been concerned in the 
work, belonged to their body. Besides the " Defensor 
pacis, seu de re imperatoria et pontifica, ad versus usur- 
patam Romani Pontificis jurisdictionem, libri tres," Mar- 
silius wrote a treatise entitled " De traqslatione imperii* ;" 
?nd also another, " De jurisdictione imperial! in causis 
matrimonialibus." He died at Montemalto, in 1328 ; and, 
however his memory may have been honoured elsewhere, 
was ranked at Rome among the heretics of the first class. 1 

MENARD (Claude), a French magistrate and anti- 
quary, was one of several authors of the name of Menard 
who obtained considerable reputation in France. , Claude, 
who was born in 1582, had a situation in the magistracy of 
Angers (lieutenant de la pr6v&t£)', and was distinguished 
for his knowledge and virtue. Having had the misfortune 
to lose his wife towards the latter end of his career, he 

* Tbis work, which we have not ante trecento* prepe amios teripta :" 

been. able to meet with, occurs in Bra- Ex bibliopolio Comefiniano, 1599, 8vo. 

net's "Manuel du Libraire," under But this seems to be the same with the 

the title of •• Defensor pacis, sire Apo- " Defensor pacis," mentioned abore, 

Jogia pro Ludovico IV. imperatore Ba- with the addition of the " apologia pro 

▼aro, tractatus de translaiione imperii, Ludovico,*' 

> Gen. Diet. 


quitted the world, became an ecclesiastic, and led a very 
austere life. He was passionately attached to the study of 
antiquities, and rescued from oblivion several curious 
pieces. He died Jan. 20, 1652, at the age of seventy- 
two. He published, 1. " Joinville's History of St. Louis/' 
1617, 4to, with notes full of erudition and judgment. 2. 
" The two books of St. Austin against Julian," which he 
discovered in the library at Angers. 3. " Researches con- 
cerning the body of St. James the greater," who, as is 
pretended, was buried in the collegiate church of Angers. 
The credulity of this casts some shade upon his other 
works. It is also heavily written. 4." History of Ber- 
trand du Gueschlin," 1618, 4(o. The learning of this 
author was great, but his style was heavy and bad. * 

MENARD (Nicholas Hugues), a writer on the history 
of the saints, was born at Paris in 1587, and became a 
Benedictine of the congregation of St. Maur, among whom 
he was one of the first who applied severely to study. He' 
died Jan. 21, 1644, at the age of fifty-seven. We have 
by him, 1. " Marty rologi urn San m . ordinis S. Benedict!, 99 
1€29. 2. " Concordia Regularum," a comparison of the 
life of St. Benedict, with the rules of his order. 3. " Sa- 
eraraentarium Sancti Gregorii Magni," 1642, 4to. 4. 
" Diatriba deunico Dionysio," 1643, 8vo. All these works 
display a taste for research, and a talent for sound cri- 
ticism. He found the epistle of St. Barnabas, in an an- 
cient manuscript, in the abbey of Corbie. * 

MENARD (Leo), a counsellor in the presidial court at^ 
Nismes, was born at Tarascon, in 1706, and died in 1767. 
He lived chiefly at Paris, and employed himself in the 
study of history and antiquities, and in writing books, 
which, though approved for their learning, did not rescue 
him from the inconveniences of poverty. They are these : 
1. u The civil, ecclesiastical, and literary History of the 
eity of Nismes," 7 vols. 4to, published in 1750,, and the 
following years. This work has no fault but that of pro- 
lixity. 2. " Moeurs et Usages des Grecs," 1743, 12 mo, 
a small and useful compilation. 3. " The Amours of Ca-' 
listbenes and Aristoclea," 1766, 12mo, a novel, in which 
the author has skilfully painted the manners of Greece. 4, 
" A collection of fugitive pieces, illustrative of French his- 
tory," 3vofe*4to, published in 1748. The materials were 

* MorerL— Diet Hi*. * Niceroo, to 1 . XXII.— Moceri.— Diet. Hist, 

4<z MENARD, 

communicated to him by the marquia d'Aubais; Ther* 
was also a chronologer, named Peter Menard, who died 
the first year of the last century ; a Barnes Menard, a law- 
yer of the sixteenth century ; and one or two more of in- 
ferior note. V 

MENASSEH (Ben Israel), a celebrated rabbi, not un- 
known in this country, was born in Portugal about 1604. 
His father, Joseph Ben Israel, a rich merchant, having suf- 
fered greatly both in person and property, by the Portu- 
guese inquisition, made bis escape with his family into 
Holland, where this son was educated, under the rabbi 
Isaac Uriel, and pursued his studies with such diligence 
stnd success, that at the age of eighteen he was appointed 
to succeed his tutor as preacher and expounder of the Tal- 
mud in the synagogue of Amsterdam, a post which be 
occupied with high reputation for many years. He waa 
Dot quite twenty-eight years of age when he published it| 
the Spanish language the first part of his work entitled 
"Conciliador:" of which was published a Latin version, 
in the following year, by Dionysius Vossius, entitled " Con- 
ciliator, sive de Convenientia Locorum S. Scripturae, quae 
pugnare inter se videntur, opus ex vetustis et recen- 
tioribus omnibus Rabbinis magna iridustria ac fide con- 
gestum ;" a work wbich was recommended to the notice of 
biblical scholars by the learned Grotius. The profits of 
his situation as preacher and expounder, being inadequate 
to the expences of a growing family, he engaged with his, 
brother, Who was settled at Basil, in mercantile concerns ; 
and also set up a printing-press in his own house, at which 
he printed three editions of the Hebrew Bible, and a num- 
ber of other books. Under the protectorate of Cromwell 
he came over to England, in order to solicit leave for the 
settlement of the Jews in this country, and actually ob- 
tained, greater privileges for his nation than they had ever 
enjoyed before in this country; and in 1656 published aa 
" Apology for the Jews," in the English language, which 
niay be seen in vol. II. of the " Phoenix," printed from this 
edition of 1656. At the end of it in the Phoenix is a list 
of his works, published, or ready for the press. He like- 
wise informs us that be had at that time printed at his owrr 
press, above sixty other books, amongst which are many 
Bibles in Hebrew and Spanish, &c. He died at Amster* 

i Necrologie des bommet celebret pour annte 1770. 

M E N A S S E H. 43 


9 • * 

dam about 1659. The rabbi was esteemed as well for (its 
riioral virtues as for his great learning, and had been long 
in habits of correspondence and intercourse with some of 
the most learned men of his time, among whom were the 
Vossii, Episcopius, and Grotius. The following are his 
principal works independently of that already noticed : 
I. An edition of the Hebrew Bible, 2 vols. 4to. 2. The 
Talmud corrected, with notes. 3. " De Resurrectionc 
Mortuorum." . 4. u Esperanza de Israel," dedicated to the 
parliament of England in 1 650 : it was originally published 
in Spanish, and afterwards translated into the Hebrew, Ger- 
man, and English, one object of which is to prove that the 
ten tribes are settled in America. Of his opinions in this 
$6me account is given in the last of oqr references. ft 

MENCKE (Otto), in Latin Menckenius, a learned! 
German writer, was born of a good family at Oldenburg, 
in Westphalia, in 1644. He cultivated his first studies in 
his native place ; and at seventeen went to Bremen, where 
he applied himself to philosophy. He stayed there one 
year, and removed to Leipsic, where he was admitted mas- 
ter of arts in 1664 ; and afterwards visited the other univer- 
sities, Jena, Wittemberg, Groningen, Franel*;er, Utrecht^ 
Ley den, and Kiel. Upon his return to Leipsic, he ap- 
plied himself for some time to divinity and civil law. In 
1668 he was chosen professor of morality in that university; 
and, in 1671, took the degree of licentiate in divinity. 
He discharged the duties of his professorship with great 
reputation till his death, which happened in 1 707. He was 
five "times rector of the university of Leipsic, and seven 
times dean of the faculty of philosophy. He published 
several works ; many of his own, and some of other people. 
The edition of sir John Marsham's " Canon Chronicus," 
at, Leipsic, 'in 4to, and a new edition of " Camden's. An- 
nals of queen Elizabeth," were procured by him. But his 
most considerable work, and what alone is sufficient to 
perpetuate his name, is the "Acta eruditorum" of Leipsic, 
of which he was the first author, and in which he was 
engaged till his death. When he had formed that design, 
he began a correspondence with the learned men of all 
nations, in order to inform himself of what passed in the 
republic of letters. For the same purpose he took a jour- 
ney 'to Holland, and thence to England. He afterward* 

\ Mbreri.— Modern Universal Hist. to!. XI. p. 154, ec!it. 1781. 

44 M E N C K E. 

formed a society of several persons of eminent abilities, to 
assist him in the work, and took all proper measures to 
render it lasting. The elector of Saxony contributed, by 
his generosity, to the success of the design. The first 
volume was published at Leipsic, in 1682, in 4to. Our 
author continued to publish, with the assistance of col* 
leagues, every year a volume while he lived, with supple- 
ments from time to time, and an index once in ten years. 
His share ends with the thirtieth volume. ' 

MENCKE (John Burcard), the son of the preceding, 
was born at Leipsic, April 8, 1674, and was admitted mas- 
ter of arts in that university in 1694. He spent some time 
.there in the study of divinity, and then travelled into Hol- 
land and England. The reputation of his father, and his 
own great merit, procured him access to all the men of 
learning in the places through which he passed. He spent 
one year in his travels ; and immediately upon his return 
to Leipsic in 1699, was appointed professor of history. 
His first intention was to have fixed himself to divinity ; 
but he quitted it soon after for the law, in which he suc- 
ceeded so well that he received the degree of doctor in 
that faculty at Halle, in 1701. After this he returned to 
Leipsic, to continue hitf lectures in history, by which he 
gained great reputation as well as by his writings. Fre» 
deric Augustus, king of Poland, and elector of Saxony, 
conceived so high an esteem for him, that 'in 1708 he ap- 
pointed him his historiographer. In 1709 he became coun- 
sellor to that king; and, in 1723, aulic counsellor. His 
health began to decline early in life, and he died April I, 
1732, aged fifty-eight. He had been chosen, in 1700, fel- 
low of the royal society of London, and some time after of 
that of Berlin. 

The books he wrote were very numerous, and very 
learned ; one of which, in particular, bad it been as well 
executed as planned, would have been very curious and 
entertaining. Its title is the following : " De Charlata- 
neria feruditorum declamationes duae ; cum notis variorum. 
Accessit epistola Sebastian i Stadelii ad Janum Philomu- 
sum, de circumforanea (iterator urn vahitate, Leipsic, 171 5," 
8vo. It has been said that there never was a worse book 
with a better title. It has, however, been translated into 
French, and is entitled " De la Charlatanerie des sgavans, 

1 Gen. Die*. — Moreri. 


par M. Mencken : avec des remarques critiques de drffe- 
rens anteurs, Hague/' 1721, in 8vo. Mencke' s design here 
was to expose the artifices used by false scholars to raise 
to themselves a name ; but, as he glanced so evidently at 
certain considerable persons that they could not escape 
being known, some pains were taken to have his book 
seized and suppressed : which, however, as usual, made 
the fame of it spread the faster, and occasioned editions to 
be multiplied. In 1723 he published at Leipsic, " Biblio* 
tbeca Menckeniana," &c. or, " A catalogue of all the 
books and manuscripts in all languages, which bad been 
collected by Otto and John Mencke, father and son." 
Mencke himself drew up this catalogue, which is digested 
in an excellent method, with a design to make bis library, 
which was very magnificent and valuable, public : but in 
1728 he thought proper to expose it to sale ; and for that 
purpose published catalogues, with the price of every book 
marked. Mencke had a considerable share in the " Dic- 
tionary of learned men," printed at Leipsic, in German, 
in 1715, folio, the plan of which he had formed, and fur- 
nished the persons employed in it with the principal ma- 
terials, and wrote the articles of the Italians and English. 
He continued the "Acta eruditorum," as he had promised 
his father upon bis death-bed, for twenty-five years, and 
published 33 volumes, including the supplements and the 
indexes. 1 

MENDELSOHN (Moses), a Jewish philosophical writer, 
was born at Dessau, in Anhalt, in 1729. After being 
educated under his father, who was a schoolmaster, he de- 
voted every hour he could spare to literature, and obtained 
as a scholar a distinguished reputation ; but his father be- 
ing unable to maintain him, he was obliged, in search of 
labour, or bread, to go on foot, at the age of fourteen, to 
Berlin, where he lived for some years in indigence, and 
frequently in want of necessaries. - At length he got em- 
ployment from a rabbi as a transcriber of MSS. who, at the 
same time that he afforded him the means of subsistence, 
liberally initiated him into the mysteries' of the theology, 
the jurisprudence, and scholastic philosophy of the Jews. 
The study of philosophy and general literature became 
from this time his favourite pursuit/ but the fervours of 

* Acta eruditorum far 1732.— Bib 1. Oermaniqae, vo\ X&V. — Niceron, re!» 
XXXt— Gen. Diet. 


application to learning were by degrees alleviated an4 
animated by the consolations of literary friendship. He 
formed a strict intimacy with Israel Moses, a Polish Jew, 
who, without any advantages of education, had become 
an able, though self-taught, mathematician and naturalist. 
He very readily undertook the office of instructor of Men? 
delsohn, in subjects of which he was before ignorant ; and 
taught him the Elements of Euclid from his own Hebrew 
version. The intercourse between these youpg men was 
not of long duration, owing to the calumnies propagated 
against Israel Moses, which, occasioned his expulsion from 
the communion of the orthodox ; in consequence of this 
he became the victim of a gloomy melancholy and de- 
spondence, which terminated i-n a premature death. His 
loss, which was a grievous affliction , to Mendelsohn, was 
in some measure supplied by Dr. Kisch, a Jewish physician, 
by whose assistance he was enabled to attain a competent 
knowledge of the Latin language. In 1748 he became 
acquainted with another literary Jew, viz. Dr. Solomon 
Gumperts, by whose encouragement and assistance he 
attained a general knowledge of the living and modern 
languages, and particularly the English, by which be was 
enabled to read the great work of our immortal Locke in 
his own idiom, which he had before studied through the 
medium of the Latin language. About the same period 
he enrolled the celebrated Lessing among his friends, to 
whom he was likewise indebted for assistance in his literary 
pursuits. The scholar amply repaid the efforts of his ins- 
tructor, and soon became his rival and his associate, and 
after bis death the defender of his reputation against Jar 
cobi, a German writer, who had accused Lessing of atheism. 
Mendelsohn died Jan. 4, 1785, at. the age of fifty-seven, 
highly respected and beloved by a numerous acquaintance, 
and by persons of very different opinions. When his re- 
mains were consigned to the grave, he received those ho- 
nours from his nation which are commpply paid tP their 
chief rabbies. As an author, the first piece was published 
in 1755, entitled "Jerusalem," in which he maintains tha,t 
the Jews have a revealed law, but not a revealed religion* 
but that the religion of the Jewish nation is that of nature* 
His work' entitled " Phsedpiv a dialogue on the Ipnnwr 
tality of the Soul," in the manner of Plato, gained him 
much honour: in this- he presents the reader with till tbp 
arguments of modem philosophy, stated with great foree 


and perspicuity, and recommended bf the charms of ele- 
gant writing. From the reputation which he obtained by 
this masterly performance, be was entitled by various pe* 
riodical waters the " Jewish Socrates." It was translated 
into French in 1773, and into the English, by Charles 
Cullen, esq. in 1789. Amoh£ his other works, which we jutrm^&^L 
all creditable to his talents, he wrote " Philosophical tit j/ttm* &> 
Pieces;' 7 " A Commentary on Part of the Old Testa- Info Cinrnxvn 
ment ;" " Letters on the Sensation of the Beautiful," * 

MENDOZA (Gonzales Peter de), a cardinal, arch- 
bishop of Seville, and afterwards of Toledo, chancellor of 
Castille and Leon, was. born at Guadalajara, in 1428, of 
an ancient and noble family. He made a great progress 
in the languages, in civil and canon law, and in the belles 
lettres. His uncle, Walter Alvarez, archbishop of Toledo, 
gave him an archdeaconry in his church, and sent him to 
the court of John II. king of Castille, where his merit soon 
acquired him the bishopric of Calahorra. Henry IV. who 
succeeded John, trusted him with the most important 
affairs of state ; and, besides the bishopric of Siguencft, 
procured a cardinal's bat for him from Sixtus IV. in 1473; 
When Henry died the year after, be named cardinal Men- 
dofca for his executor, and dignified him at the same time 
with the title of the cardinal of Spain. He did great ser- 
vices afterwards to Ferdinand and Isabella, in the war 
against the king of Portugal, and in the conquest of the 
kingdom of Granada over the Moors. ' He was then made 
archbishop of Seville and Toledo successively ; and after 
governing some years, in his several provinces, with great 
wisdom and moderation, he died Jan. 11, 1495. It is said 
that in his younger days he translated " Sallust," " Ho« 
tnerVIIiad," " Virgil," and some pieces of " Ovid." •• 

MENJ)OZA (John Gonzales), an Augustine friar of 
the province of Castille, was chosen by the king of Spain 
«o be ambassador to the emperor of China, in 1584. He 
was made bishop of Lipari in Italy in 1593, bishop of 
•Chiapi in New Spain in 1607, and bishop of Propajan in 
the West Indies in 1608. He wrote "A History of China," 
in Spanish, which has been translated into several lan- 
guages. • A general idea of it may be taken from the mere 
title Of the French translation, published at Paris, in 1 589, 

1 Rett's Cyclopaedia— Bios. Sketch of the Jewish Socrates.— Gent. Mag. 
1788. « Moreri. 

49 M E N D O Z A. 


which runs thus : u The history of the great kingdom of 
China, in the East Indies, in two parts : the first contain- 
ing the situation, antiquity, fertility, religion, ceremonies, 
sacrifices, kipg4, magistrates, manners, customs, laws, and 
other memorable things of the said kingdom ; the second,; 
three voyages to it iu 1577, 1579, and 1581, with the most 
remarkable rarities either seen or heard of there ; together 
with an itinerary of the new world, and the discovery of 
New Mexico in 1583." l 

MENEDEMUS, a Greek philosopher, was a native of 
Eretria in the island of Eubc&a, who, going to study at 
Athens, became first a hearer of Plato, and then of Xeno- 
crates ; but, not being satisfied with theif doctrines, went 
over to the Cyrenaic philosopher Parebates, and by him 
was lfed to the Megarensian Stilpo. Here, being delighted 
by the free manner of his new master, be learned to despise 
all scholastic 'forms and arts. He had now become so 
famous by his studies, that his countrymen, who at first 
had held him in no estimation, now voluntarily com* 
mitted to him the direction of the state, with a large sti- 
pend ; and he in return was able to render them essential 
services by the credit in which he stood with the kings of 
Macedon. After a time, however, he was exposed to the 
attacks of envy, that usual concomitant of greatness ; and, 
being accused of a design to betray his country, died of 
grief at the imputation. He died in the year 264 B. C. 
in the reign of Alexander the Great ; and the masters 
under whom he studied mark sufficiently the earlier pe- 
riod of his life. < 

Menedemus was of a strong constitution, acute and! pe- 
netrating in understanding ; in dispute he was vehement, 
but in his manners gentle. He was fond of convivial 
meetings; but it was those in which philosophy, not 
luxury, presided. His most intimate friend and fellow- 
student was Asclepiades, whose steadiness of regard was 
highly honourable to both. After the death of Menede- 
mus, his countrymen erected a statue to his memory. 
Some sarcastically called him the Eretrian Bull, from th$- 
gravity of his countenance. Being told one day, that it is 
a great felicity to have whatever we desire, "Yes," said 
he, " but jit is a much greater to desire nothing but what 
we have." * 

4 ' 

' * Qcn. Diet— Diet. Hist 

* Blocker.— Jtofenas Lae>tius.— Stanley** Hut of Philosophy. 


. MENEDEMUS was s Cynic philosopher, father of a 
later period, just before chat sect sunk into disrepute, and 
Chat of the Stoics uader Zeno rose oot of its ruins. It is 
probable that the extravagance of this very man contri- 
buted very materially to bring his sect into disrepute ; for 
he went about, says Diogenes Laertius, dressed like a 
fury, and saying that he was sent by the infernal gods, to 
report to them the transgressions of men. His dress was 
a long black robe, reaching to his feet ; a scarlet girdle ; 
a large Arcadian cap, with the twelve signs of the zodiac 
embroidered ou it; tragic buskins, a vast beard, and a 
strong ashen staff in his hand. Laertius says that he was 
a pupil of Colptes of Lampsacus, of whom, however, he 
gives no particular account Others make him the disciple 
of Ecbecles an Ephesian, another Cynic. Suidas, by mis- 
take, applies to Menippus the extravagant dress here at- 
tributed to Menedemus. Menippus, however, was a dis- 
ciple of Menedemus. * 

MENESTRIER (John Baptist le>, of Dijon, one of 
the most learned and curious antiquaries of his time, was 
horn in 1 564, and died in 1634, .at the age of seventy. His 
principal works are, 1. " Medals, Coins, and ancient Mo- 
numents of the emperors of Rome/* folio. 2. " Illustrious 
Medals of the ancient emperors and empresses of Rome/'' 
4to. They are both written in French, and are not much 
Esteemed, according to the Diet. Hist. ; but Moreri says that 
all modern antiquaries speak of them with the highest 
praise (grands eloges)* 

MENESTRIER (Claude Francis), a Jesuit, was born 
at Lyoos in 1$33. Besides his skill in the ancient lan- 
guages, and acquaintance with the classic authors, he had 
a particular talent for heraldry, and for the arrangement 
and marshalling of- all splendid ceremonies, such as ca- 
nonizations, &c. so that his plans for those occasions were 
sought with great avidity. The fertility of his imagination 
constantly displayed itself in- an incredible variety of in- 
scriptions, devices, medals, and other ornaments. He tra- 
velled in Italy, Flanders, Germany, and England ; and in 
all places gained .improvement and amusement. His me-' 
ipory was so prodigious, that, in order to try it, Christina; 
queen of Sweden, pronounced in his presence at Lyons, 
and had written down, %QQ unconnected words, the strangest 

> JSond«— Pto9«MB Lwrtrnf.— 5«kkw in verbo fmu. * Mowri*— Diet Hist. 

Vol. XXII. E 




frire could think of, and it is said that he repeated them' alt 
exactly in .the same order. ' This wonderful memory sup* 
plied him with an inexhaustible fund of anecdotes; and he 
spoke Greek and Latin with as much facility as French. - 
He died Jan. 31, 1705, being then seventy-four. His. 
works that remain are, 1. " History of Louis the Great, by 
medals, emblems, devices, &c." 2. " Consular History 
of the city of Lyons," 1693, folia 3. Several small trea- 
tises on devices, medals, heraldry, &c» particularly- his 
" Metbode de Biason," an edition- of which was published 
at Lyons, in 1770, 8vo, with many additions to the ori- 
ginal work. 4. " La Philosophie des Images," 1694, 12mo, 
wkh several others of smaller consequence, which are all 
enumerated by Niceron. 1 

, MEN GO LI (Peter), an able Italian mathematician it* 
the seventeenth century, concerning whose birth there is . 
jqo trace,, studied mathematics, under Cavalieri, to whom 
the Italians ascribe the inventioa of the first principles of 
the infinitesimal calculus. Mengol* was appointed professor 
q{ " mechanics" in the college of nobles at Bologna, and 
Required high reputation by the success with which he 
filled that post. His principal works are, " Geometric 
Speciosre Elementa;" "Novae Quadrature Arithmetics,- 
seu de additione Fractionum ;" " Via regiaad Mathema*. 
ticas ornata;" " Refrazzione e paralasse Solare ;" " Spe- 
culation! de Musica ;" " Arithmetics ratioualis Elementa ;" 
V Arithmetic* realis." Of these Dr. Burney notices his 
" Speculationi di Musica/' a desultory and fanciful work,, 
published at Bologna, 1670. An account of this treatise was. 
given in the Phil. Trans, vol. VIII. No. c. p. 6194, seem* 
ingly by Birchensha. The speculations contained in Men- 
goli' s work are some of them specious and ingenious ; but 
the philosophy of sound has been so much more scienti-: 
fically and clearly treated since. its publication, that the 
difficulty of finding .the book great impediment ta 
the advancement of music. He was Mill living in 1678. * > 
. MENGS (Antony Raphael), a celebrated modern 
painter, was born at Aussjg in Bohemia,, in 1726. H» 
father was. painter to Augustus III. king. of Poland, and. 
be, observing the talents of his son. for the same art r 
took him to Rome in 1741. After studying about four 
years, the young painter returned to Dresden, where* 

) Nicsron, toV I.«!-M©*eri. * Jtyrou.— Bunwy in Rees's Cyclojmdi** i 

^ MENGS. 51 

executed several works for Augustus with uncommon 
success. But bis greatest patron was Charles III. king of 
Spain, who having, while only king of Naples, become 
acquainted with Mengs and his merits, in 1761, within 
two years after bis accession to the throne of Spain, settled 
upon him a pension of 2000 doubloons, and gave him an 
bouse and an equipage. Mengs, nevertheless, did not go 
to Spain, but resided chiefly at Rome, where he died in 
1779. The labours of his art, grief for the loss of a most 
beautiful and amiable wife, and the injudicious medicines 
of an empiric, his countryman, who pretended to restore 
his health, are said to have occasioned his death. His cha- 
racter was very amiable, with no great fault but that which 
too commonly attends genius, a total want of (Economy ; 
so that, though his profits in various ways,for the last eigh- 
teen years of his life, were very considerable, he hardly left 
enough to pay for his funeral. In his address, he was timid 
and aukward, with an entire ignorance of the world,' and 
an enthusiasm for the arts, which absorbed almost all his 
passions. He left five daughters, and two sons, all of 
whom were provided for by his patron the king of Spain** 
He was an author as well as a painter, and his works were 
published at Parma in 1780, by the chevalier d'Azara,' 
with notes, and a life of Mengs, in 2 vols. 4to, which were 
translated into English, and published in 2 vols. 1796, 8vo. 
They consist chiefly of treatises and letters on taste, on- 
several painters, and various subjects connected with the 
philosophy and progress of the arts. They were partly 
translated into Freuch, in 1782, and more completely in 
1787. All that is technical on the subject of painting, in 
the work of his friend Winckelman, on the history of art, 
was Supplied by Mengs. He admired the ancients, but 
without, bigotry, and could discern their faults as well as 
their beauties. As an artist, Mengs seems to have been 
mostly admired in Spain. In this country, recent con- 
noisseurs seem disposed to under-rate his merit, merely, as* 
it would appear, because it had been over-rated by 
Azara and Winckelman. . The finest specimen of bis art in 
this country is the altar-piece of All Souls Chapel, Oxford. 
The subject of this picture is our Saviour in the garden : 
it consists of two figures in the foreground, highly finished, 
and beautifully painted. It was ordered by a gentleman 
of that college* whilst on his travels through Spain ; but. 
being limited to the price, he was obliged to choose a sub- 

£ 2 

H At C N C 5. 

ject of few figures. This gentleman relates a aingukt 
anecdote of Meags, which wtl\ further ? how the profimdity 
of bis knowledge end discernment in things of antiquity. 
While Dr. fturoey was abroad collecting materials for 1ms 
History of $4usic, be found at Florence an ancient statue 
of Apollo, with a bow aod fiddle in hb hand: this, he cop* 
•Wered, would be sufficient to decide the long-contested 
point, whether or not the ancients had known the use of the 
bow. He consulted irnany people to ascertain the certainty if 
statue were, really of antiquity ; and at last Mengs was 
to give his opinion, who, directly as he bad ex* 
amined it, without knowing the cause of the inquiry, 
•aid, " there was no doubt but that the statue was of anti- 
quity, but thai the arms and fiddle had been recently 
added." This had been done with such ingenuity that no 
one had discovered it before Mengs 5 but the troth of the 
lame was not .to be doubted. '. 

MEN IN SKI (Franciscus a MBsevinr), or Miwsn, a 
most celebrated Geraum orientalist, was bora 2a Lorraine, 
then subject to the emperor, in 1623; and for copkwwnee* 
of learning, elegance of genius, and profound knowledge 
of languages, part|culariy those of the East, proved 
undoubtedly one of the principal ornaments of the age m 
which be lived He studied at Rome under Giattino. When 
be was about thirty, his Joore of letters induced him 4o ac- 
company the Polish ambassador to Constantinople, where 
he studied the Turkish langaage under Bobotiu* and Ab- 
ided, two aery skilful teachers. 80 .successful .was be m 
this study, that when he had been there only two years, 
the fdaoe of first interpreter to the Polish embassy at the 
forte was promised to. him. Wiheti the place became **• 
cant, be was accordingly appointed to it, and obtained so 
much credit by his conduct, that, alter a time, be was sent 
for into Poland, and again sent out with fall powers as am* 
bassador to the Porte. For. his able execution of this ofece, 
be waa, farther honoured, by being natuipUaed in Poland, 
on which occasion be added the Polish termination of ski 
to his .family name, which was Meniu. Being desirous 
afterwards to estead &s sphere of action, he went *to the 
court of the emperor, as interpreter of oriental languages, 
in 16a I. Hcreaho, as in other instances, his talents and 

1 Life of M«^.-—Pilk'ujrtoo.— Cumberland spe*!* jfC M**$9 W .*« *9*fto*t 
cfSpu'nb pauttert, but tYrttebtly with much prejtdice. 


btbavtotfr obtained the highest approbation ; on which ac* 
count be was not only sent an interpreter to several impe- 
rial ambassadors at the Porte, but was entrusted in many 
important and confidential services, and, in 1669, hating 
paid a visit to the holy sepulchre at Jerusalem, was toad* 
One of the knights of that order. After his re tarn to Vifentoi 
he was advanced to farther honours j being made one of 
the counsellors of war to the emperor, and first inter*, 
preter of oriental languages. He died at Vienna, at the 
age of seventy-five, in 16$ 8. Hit great work, 1. Ttte 
" Thesaurus linguatum orientalipm," was published at 
Vienna, in 1680, in 4 vols, folio: to which was added, itt 
1687, another volume, entitled M Complementum The- 
sauri linguarom brientalium, sen onomasticuttt Latino-Tttr- 
cico-Atabico<»Persicttm.'' The former volumes having 
become extremely scarce, partly on account of the de- 
struction of a great part of the impression in the siege of 
Vienna by the Turks in 168S, a design was formed some 
time ago in England of reprinting the work, by a society Of 
learned men, among whom was sir William Jones. But as 
this undertaking, probably on account of the vast etpenee 
which most have been Incurred, did not proceed, the em- 
press queen, Maria Theresa, who had heard of the plan, 
took it upon herself, and with vast liberality furnished every 
thing necessary for its completion. In consequence of this, 
it was begun to be splendidly republished at Vienna in 
1780, with this title, "Francisci 1st Mesgnien Meninski 
Lcsicon Arabico-Persico-Turcicum, adjecta ad singulas 
Voces et phrases interpretative Latinft, ad mi tat lores, 
etiam ItalicS," and has been completed in four volumes 
folio. In this edition, say the editors, the Lexicon of Me- 
ninski may be said to be increased, diminished, and 
amended. Increased* because many Arabic and Persian 
words are Added, from Wankuli and Ferhengi, the best 
Arabic and Persic Lexicographers whom die East has pro- 
duced; and, from Herbeiot, are inserted the names of. 
kingdoms, cities, and rivers, as well as phrases in common 
use among the Turks, &c. ; diminished, because many use- 
less synonyma are omitted, which rather puzzled than as- 
sisted the student; as well afc all the French, Polish, and ' 
Gerafean interpretations, die Latin being considered Its suf- 
ficient for all men of learning ; amended, with respect to 
innumerable typographical errors ; which, frQm a work of 
this nature, no care can per haps altogether exclude. Brunet 



remarks, however, that this edition does not absolutely 
supplant the preceding, as the grammar and onomasticon 
are not reprinted in it. There is a Vienna edition of the 
grammar, entitled " Institutiones linguae Turcice," 1756, 
in quarto, two vols, in one ; but the onomasticon must still 
be sought in the original edition. The other works of 
Meninski were occasioned chiefly by a violent contest be- 
tween him and J. B. Podesta, in which much acrimony was 
employed on both sides. These it is hardly worth while to 
enumerate, but they may all be seen in the account of his 
life from which this article is taken. It should be observed 
however, that, in 1674, Podesta published a book entitled 
5* Prodromus novi linguarum OrFentalium collegii, jussu 
Aug. &c. erigendi, in Univ.'Viennensi;" to which Me- 
ninski opposed, 2. " Meninskii Antidotum in Prodromum 
novi ling* orient collegii, &c." 4to. But such was the cre- 
dit of his antagonist in the university, that soon after there 
came out a decree, in the name of the rector and consis- 
tory, in which that antidote of Meninski's is proscribed 
and prohibited, for six specific reasons, as impious and in- 
famous." Meninski was defended against this formidable at- 
tack by a friend, in a small tract, entitled "Veritas defensa, 
seujustitia causae Dn. F. deM. M. [Meninski] Contra in- 
fame deoretum Universitatis Viennensis, anno H574, 23 
>Joverubris, &c, ab Amico' luci exposita, anno 1675," iri 
which this friend exposes, article by article, the falsehood 
of the decree, and exclaims strongly against the arts of 
Podesta. This tract is in the British Museum. Podesta 
was oriental secretary to the emperor, and professor of 
those languages at Vienna; but is described in a very 
satirical manner by the defender of Meninski : " Podesta, 
natura Semi-Italus, statura nanus, caecutiens, balbus, imo 
bardus repertus, aliisque vitiis ac stultitiis plenus, adeoque 
ad discendas linguas Orientales inhabilis." A list of the 
works of Podesta, is, however, given by the late editors of 
Meninski. * 

MENIPPUS, a Cynic, and a disciple of the second Me- 
jiedemus before mentioned, was a native of Gadara in Pa- 
lestine. His writings were chiefly of a ridiculous kind, and 
very satirical ; so much so, that Lucian, himself no very 
lenient satirist, calls him in one passage " the most bark-' 
ing and snarling of all -the Cynic dogs." For this reason 

i Life of Meninski prefixed to bis Thesaurus. 

lie is introduced into two or three of Lucian's dialogues, 
as a vehicle for the sarcasms of that author. It appears, 
that the satires of Menippu? were written in prose, with 
Verses occasionally intermixed ; for which reason the satires 
of Varro, who' wrote in the same style, were called Menip- 
pean ; and the same title, that of " Satyre M6nipp6e," was 
given, for the same reason, to a famous collection, writ- 
ten in France against the faction of the league ; in which 
compositions Pierre le Roy, Nicolas Rapin, and Florent 
Chretien, bore a principal share. Varro himself has been there- 
fore called jfenippeus, and sometimes Cynicus Romanus. 
Menippus was imitated also by his countryman Meleager, 
of whom an account bar been given before. It is said by 
Laertius, that Menippus, having been robbed of a large sunt 
of money, which* he had amassed by usury, hanged himself 
in despair. The same author mentions some of his works, 
of which, however, , no part is now extant. He had been 
> originally a slave, but purchased his freedom, and procured 
himself to be made a citizen of Thebes. 1 
, MENNES, or MEN N IS, (Sir John,) a celebrated sea- 
man, traveller,. and poet, the third son of Andrew Mennes, 
esq. of Sandwich in Kent; was born there March 1, 1598. 
He was educated at Corpus Ohristi college, Oxford, where 
he distinguished himself by his literary acquirements ; and 
afterwards became a great traveller, and well skilled in 
naval architecture. In the reign of James I. he had a place 
' in -the Navy-office, and by Charles I. was appointed its 
comptroller. Iq the subsequent troubles be took an active 
part, both military and naval, in favour of his royal mas- 
ter:' and being a vice-admiral,, in 1641 was knighted at 
Dover. In 1642, he commanded the Rainbow: but was 
afterwards displaced from his services at sea for his loyalty, 
and was implicated in the Kentish insurrection in favour 
of the king in 1 648. After the Restoration he was made 
governor of Dover-castle, and chief comptroller of the 
navy, which he retained till his death. In 1661 he wasap-< 
pointed commander of the Henry, and received a com- 
mission to act as vice-admiral and commander in chief of 
bis majesty's fleet in the North Seas. He died Feb. 18 y 
167CM, at the Navy-office in Seething-lane, London, 
with the character of an honest, stout, generous, and re- 
ligious man, whose company had always been delightful to, 

l Bxuekef/— Diogene* Laertius.— Moreri. 



the ingenious tad witty* He was buried id tbe church of 
St. Olave, Hart-*treet* Where a monument and inscription 
were erected oyer his grave* add are there stilL Wood 
says be Was the author of a poem entitled " Epsom Wells/' 
and several other poems scattered in other men's works* 
What can with most certainty -be attributed to him are 
contained in & volume entitled " Musarum Delicisft, or the 
Mutes Recreation/' second edit 1656* 12mo. The cele* 
brated sdoffing ballad on sir John Suckling, " Sir John got 
him an ambling nag/' &c. was written by Mennes. The 
poems in this volume are the joint compositions of sir John 
Mennes and Dr. James Smith* l 

MENNO, surriamed Simon, or Simonson, was the 
founder bf a iect called from him Mennoflke** He waft 
born at Witmarsum* in Frifesland* in 1505. He was at first 
a Romish priest, and a notorious profligate, and resigned 
his rahk and office in the Romish church* arid pehlicly em* 
braced the communion bf the anabaptists* He died in 
1561, in the duchy of Hblstein, at the country-seat of d 
certain nobleman, not far from the city of Oldeslbe, who, * 
moved With compassion t>y a view of the perils to which 
Menno' was eJcf>osed, and the spared that were daily laid 
for his ruin, took him* with certain of hit associates, tntd 
his protection, and gave hita ail Asylum... He began td 
propagate his opinions In 1656,. and had many follower**: 
whbse history mfcy be found in Mosheim. They split after* 
wards into parties, but the Opinions that Are held in com* 
mdn by thfc Menneitibes, seem to be all derived from this 
fundamental principle, that the kingdom which Christ 
established upon earth is a visible church or community 4 
into which the holy and just alone are to be admitted, and 
which is consequently exempt from all those institutions 
and rules of discipline, that have been invented by human 
wisdom, for the correction and reformation of tbe Wicked* 
This principle, indeed, was avowed by the ancient Menno * 
nites, but it is now almost wholly renounced ; nevertheless* 
from this, ancient doctrine, many of the religions opinions, 
that distinguish the Mennonites from all other Christian 
communities, seem to be derived : in consequence of this 
doctrine, they admit none to the sacrament of baptism, but 
persons tbat are come to tbe full use of their reason ; they 
neither admit civil rulers into their communion, nor allow 

1 Atb. Ox. vol. II.— Centura Literaria, rol. IV,— *Rt!it'i Specimens. 

MEN*KO. 5? 

any other members to perform the functions of magistracy ; 
t&ey deny the lawfulness of repelling force by forcfe, and 
qonsider wdr, in ail its shapes, as unchristian and unjust : 
they entertain the utmost aversion to the execution of jus- 
tice, and more Especially to capital punishments; and they 
also refuse to confirm thdir testimony by an oath. Af enno'sr 
writings, in Dutch, Were published in 1601, folio. 1 

MENOCHIUS (James), a native of Pavia, was born in 
1534, and acquired such skill in the law, that he was sur- 
named the Baldus and the Bartholus of his age. Hd 
taught law in Piedmont^ at Pisa, at Padua, and lastly at 
Pavia. Philip IL king of Spain, appointed him counsellor, 
afterwards president of the council at Milan. He died 
Adg. 10, 1607, aged seventy-five, leaving, " De recupe- 
rattdfc possessione, de a^ipiscendi possessionem" 8vo; "De 
Pnfesumptionibus," Geneva/ 1670, 2 vols, folio; " De 
Arbitrariis Judicum qufestionibus, et causis Consiliorum," 
folio, and other valuable works.* 

MENOCHIUS (John Stephen), son of the preceding, 
born in 1516, at Pavia, entered "among the Jesuits at the 
age of seventeen, and died at Rome, February 4, 1656, 
aged eighty, leaving, «* Institutions, political and econo- 
mical," taken from the Holy Scriptures ; a good treatise 
" On the Hebrew Republic ;" and a " Commentary on the 
Bible," the best edition of which is by Pere Toarnemine, 
a Jesuit, 1719, 2 vols, folio. All the above are in Latin. 3 

MENZ1KOFF (Alexander), was a prince of the Rus- 
sian empire, deeply concerned in , the politics of his time. 
Tb6 general opinion of the origin of Menzikoff is, that his 
father was a peasaht, who had placed him at Moscow with 
a pastry-cook, and that he carried little pies about the 
streets, singing as he went In this situation, be was seen 
fay the etftperor Peter, who, pleased with the wit and live- 
liness which on examination he found in him, took him 
about his person, and thus opened the way to his fortune. 
Others, however, say, that his father was an officer in the 
sendee of the czat Alexis Miehaelowitz, and that, as it 
was not extraordinary for gentlemen to serve in the stables* 
of the czar, Menzikoff was there employed as one of th* 
head grooms, and that in this situation his talents were 
noticed by the caar, and his advancement begun. 

1 Mosheim.*— Brandt's History of the Reformation. 

9 Tiraboschh— Diet, Hl$t. » Dupin. — Moreri. 1 

€0 M E N Z I N I. 

MENZINI (Benedict), an Italian poet, was born at 
Florence in 1646, of poor and bumble parents. Notwith- 
standing the disadvantage of his circumstances, he began 
bis studies under Miglioraccio, and pursued thetii with ar- 
dour ; till, being noticed for his talents by Vincentio SaU 
tiati, he was removed from the difficulties of poverty, re- 
ceived into the house of that patron,. and encouraged to 
indulge his genius in writing. In 1674, he inscribed 4 
volume of poems to Cosmo III. of Medicis, but obtained 
no great approbation from that depraved man. In 1679, 
he published a book, entitled " Construzione irregolarfr 
della linga Toscana ;" on the irregular construction of the 
Tuscan language; and, in the following year, a volume of 
lyric poems, by way of illustrating his own precepts. His 
first patron seems now to have deserted him, or not to bave 
afforded him sufficient support, for we find him at this 
period, after several disappointments, and particularly that 
of not obtaining a professorship at Pisa, venting his dis-* 
content in twelve satires. These, however, were not pub* 
lisbed in his life, but given to a friend, Paulo Falconeri. 
When they did appear, they went through several editions. 
In 1685, Menzini obtained the notice and patronage of 
Christina queen of Sweden, whom he celebrated in Latin 
as well as in Italian. Under her protection he lived at 
Rome, and enjoyed the best period of his life. It was at 
this period, in 1688, that hie published his "Arte Poetica," 
which he dedicated to cardinal Aszolini. Being always 
more or less in want, owing to mismanagement, he contrived 
by these dedications to lay some of the chief nobility of 
his country under contribution : but he did not so succeed 
with cardinal Atestini, who received his dedication of " It 
Paradiso terrestre," without granting him any remunera* 
tion. As he had a wonderful vein of ready eloquence, one 
of his resources was that of composing sermons for 
preachers who were not equally able to stipply themselves. 
To this there is an allusion in one of the satires of his con- 
temporary Sectatnis, 

" Parte alia Euganius, pulchro cui pectus honesto 
Fervet, et Ascraeas libavit cominus undafc, 
Ut satur ad tigilem posuit remeare luctrtiaito, 
Cogitur indoctts compofiere verba cucullis/' 

We are told, by his biographer Fabroni, that being not 
a little in awe of the satirical talents of that writer, he had 
cultivated his kindness with no little anxiety ; and thus, it 

Jf E N Z I H J- 61 

ijugr be supposed, obtained dps cgmpliment. He.was now 
appointed by the pope, canon of Sl Angelo in Piscina ; 
an<J continued to publi^b several works,, in Latin as well as 
in Italian : as, " Oratipnes de morum, philosophic, huma- 
naruoqque literarum studtis, et de Leonis X. P. M. laudi- 
bus/' ^Ujt bis. Latin compositions did not so well jsatisfy 
the learned ?s those be produced in bis own language ; and 
their criticisms lpd him to writQ and publish a tract, ',' De 
poesis innocentia, et de literajtorupi bopiinum invidia." 
Thi?, however, was prior to the present period, as it bears 
da(e in 1675. He published now a poetical version of the 
^4ip$ntation? of Jeremiah, in Italian, which was so much 
approved by pope Clement XL that he ordered it to be 
distributed to ibe ordinals in passion-week., Menzini was 
admitted a member of the society of Arqadi, tinder the 
name of Euganius, under which we have seen him men- 
tioned by the satirist : and being also admitted .of the aca- 
demy DfiUq. Crusca, h? was very anxious to have bis verses 
cited in their dictionary, as authority. I& this be could 
not prevai}, except after a time for his satires,' in which he 
had revived some classical Italian expressions then growing 
obsolete. In 1731, however, long after his death, and in 
the fourth edition of that vocabulary, all bis Italian works 
w^re admitted* as affording classical citations. Towards 
the end of life he became dropsical, and. died at the age of 
fifty-eight, in 1704. He left the fortune of a poet, his 
vyor^s only, which he bequeathed to a friend ; and they 
war? ia 1730— 17 34, .published collectively, in 4 vols. Svo, 
the contents of which are recited by FabronL An edition 
pfjrie "Art of Poetry" has lately been published by Mr. 
Sfcthia% perhaps the most accomplished Italian scholar 
and, critic in thif kingdom.. His satires were published 
with Sevan's noftes, in 1759, 8vo, and with those of Ri- 
qaJ4o Maria Bracei, at Naples in 17£3, 4to. 1 

JVIERC^TI (RJlQHAEL), a pbyaician and naturalist, the 
son of feXer M^rcati^ a physician of St. Miniato, in Tus- 
cany, was bom April 8, 1541. After having finished his 
scholastic education at his native place, he was sent to 
Pisa, and ptaged under the tuition of Cesalpini, from whom 
fye derived hi* taste for the study of nature. Having re- 
c Skc4.W s degree of .doctor in philosophy and medicine in 
that university, he went to Rome, where pope Pius V. ap- 

i Fatooi Vto Ralorua, wl. VU. , ' * 

6« iiERCAT t. 

* * 

pointed bins superigtendant of the botanical garden of the 
Vatican, at the age of twenty-six, but Niceron says be . 
Was not more than twenty. Afterwards Ferdinand I. the 
grand duke of Tuscany, raised him to the rink of nobility ; 
and soon afterwards the same dignity was conferred upon 
him by the senate of Rome. Among his othet honours, 
Sixtu* V. conferred upon him the office of apostolical 
prothonotary, and sent him into Poland with cardinal Al- 
dobrandini, that be might enjoy the opportunity of in- 
creasing bis collections in natural history. The same car- 
dinal, when elected pope in 1592, under the- title of Cle- 
ment VIII. nominated Mercati bis first physician, and had 
in contemplation higher honours to bestow upon him, when 
this able physician died, in 1593, in the fifty-third year of 
his age. His character in private life' was universally es- 
teemed, and the regret of the most distinguished persons 
of Rome followed him to his grave. • 

Mercati wrote in Italian, at the request of his patron' 
pope Gregory, a work " On the Plague, on the Corruption' 
of the Air, on the Gout, and on Palsy, 1 ' Rome, 1576, 4 to; 
and likewise a " Dissertation on' the Obelisks of Rome/ 9 
1589, 4to. But be is principally remembered for his de- 
scription of the subjects of natural history,' particularly bF 
mineralogy, contained in the museum of the Vatican,' 
which was formed under the auspices of Gregory XIII. and' 
Sixtus V. and was afterwards totally dispersed. He was 
about to prepare engravings of the principal subjects, when 
his disease, which terminated his life, interrupted his pro- 
gress. His manuscript came into the hands of Carlo Dat'f 
of Florence, where it remained till the time of Clement XL 
who purchased it, and caused it to be splendidly edited by 
Lancisi, his first physician, in 1717, at Rome, under the- 
title of " Metallotheca, opus posthumum authoritate et' 
munificentia ClementigXI. Pont. Max. e tenebrk in lucem 
eductum ; operft & stud. J. M. Lancisi Archiat. Prat, illus- 
tratum," folio. An " Appendix ad Metallothecam" was 
published in 1719; * 

Besides his father and grandfather, both men of learning - 
and eminence in their day, there was a Louis Mercati, a 
physician of the same century, whose medical and surgical' 
works were printed in 1605, and often reprinted, but are ' 
not now. held in much esteem. 1 - •. % ; 


1 Eloge by Magelli, prefixed to the Metallotheca.— fckaufepie.— Niceron, 
to!. XXXVUI.— Eloy Diet. Hist, de Medicine.— Reel's Cyclopadia. 



• MERCATOR (Gerard), an eminent geographer and 
mathematician, was born in 1514, at Ruremonde in the 
Low Countries. He applied himself with such industry to 
the sciences of geography and mathematics, that it has 
been said he often forgot to eat and sleep. The emperor 
Charles V. encouraged bim much in his labours ; and the 
duke of Julters made him his cosmographer. He composed 
and published a chronology; a larger and smaller atlas; 
apd some geographical tables ; besides other books in phi* 
losophy and divinity. He was also so curious, as well as 
ingenious, that he engraved and coloured his maps him- 
self. He made various maps, globes, and other mathe- 
matical instruments for the use of the emperor ; and gave 
tbe most ample proofs of his uncommon skill in what lie 
professed. His method of laying down charts is still used, 
which bear the name of " Mercatpr's Charts ;" also a part 
of navigation is from him called Mercatofs Sailing. He 
died. at Duisbourg in 1594, at eighty-two years of age. 1 

MERCATOR (Marius), a celebrated ecclesiastical au- 
thor of the fifth century, St. Augustine's friend, who wrote 
against the Nestorians and Pelagians, died about tbe year 
451. All his works, which are in Labbe's Councils, and 
in the library of the Fattters, were published in 1673, by- 
Gar nier, a Jesuit, with long Dissertations, 2 torn, in one 
volume, folio, M. Baluze published a new edition of thent 
at Paris, 1684, 8vo. f 

MERCATOR (Nicholas), an eminent mathematician 
and astronomer, whose name in High-Dutch was KaufFteaii, 
was born about 1640, at Holstein in Denmark. From his 
works we learn, that he bad an early and liberal education, 
suitable .to his distinguished genius, by which he was ena- 
bled to extend his researches into tbe mathematical sciences, 
and to make very considerable improvements : for it ap- 
pears from his writings, as well as from the character given 
of bim by other mathematicians, that his talent rather lay 
in improving, and adapting any discoveries and improve- 
ments, to use, than invention. However, his genius for 
the mathematical sciences was very conspicuous, and in- 
troduced him to public regard and esteem in his owiy 
country, , and facilitated a correspondence with such as 
were eminent in those sciences, in . Denmark, Italy, and 

1 Moreri.— Foppen Bibl. . Belg.— Hutton's Diet,— Bullsrt'i Academic de* 
Sciences, rol. II. — Saxii Onomast. 
«* Cafe, vqK I^-Dtipm.— Moreri,— S»xii Onomast \ 

.* .a. » 


England. In consequence, some of bis correspondents 
gave him an invitation to this country, which he bo 
cepted ; and he afterwards continued in England till his 
death. In 1666 be was admitted F. E.S. and gave fre- 
quent proofs of bis close application to study, as well as 
of his eminent abilities in improving some branch or other 
of tbe sciences. But he b charged sometimes with bof+ 
rqwing the inventions of others, and adopting them as hi* 
own, and it appeared upon some occasions that be was not 
pjf an over-liberal mind in scientific communications. Thus, 
it had some time before bim heen observed, that there was 
an analogy between a scale of logarithmic tangents and 
Wright's protraction of tbe nautical meridian line, which 
consisted of the sums of tbe secants ; though it does not 
appear by whom this analogy was first discovered. It ap- 
pears, however, to have been first published* and intro- 
duced into the practice of navigation, by Henry Bond, who 
mentions this property in an edition of Norwood's Epitome 
of Navigation, printed about 1645 ; and be again treats of 
it more fully in an edition of Gunter's works, printed in' 
1653, where he teaches, from this property, to resolve all 
the; cases of Mercator's sailing by the logarithmic tangents, 
independent of tbe table of meridional parts. This analogy 
bad only been found to be nearly true by trials, but not 
demonstrated to be a mathematical property. Such de- 
monstration seems, to have been first discovered by Mecca* 
tor, who, desirous of making the most advantage of this and 
awtther concealed invention of bis in navigation, by a paper, 
in tbe Philosophical Transactions for June 4, 166 6, invite* 
the public to enter into a wager with bim on his ability to 
prove the truth or falsehood of the supposed analogy. This 
meueenary proposal it seems was not taken up by any one^ 
and Mercator reserved his demonstration. Our author, 
however, distinguished himself by njany valuable pieces on 
philosophical and mathematical subjects. His first attempt 
was, to reduce astrology to rational principles, yrhioh 
proved a vain attempt. But his writings of more particular 
note, are as follow : 1 . " Cosmographia, sive Descrtptio 
Coeli & Terne in Circulos, qua fundamentum steraiier se- 
quentibus ordine Trigonoraetrise Spbericorum Logarithm 
micee, &c a Nicolao Hauffmau Hoiaato," Dantaic, 1651, 
12mo. 2. " Rationes Mathematics subducts anno 1653," 
Copenhagen, 4to. 3. " De Emendatione annua Diatribe 
duae, quibus exponpntur & dexnonstrantur Cycli Solis & 



LuiMe," £c. 4to. 4. " Hypothesis Astronomica nova, 06 
Consensus ejus cum Observationibu*," Lo.nd. 1664> folio. 
5. " Logarithmotecbnia, sive Metbodus construendi Lo- 
garitbmos nova, accurata, et facilis ; scripto aotebac com* 
municata anno sc. 1667 nonis Augusti ; cui nunc ac^edit, 
Vera Quadratura Hyperbolae, & inventio summee Logarithm 
uiorum. Auciore Nicolao Mercatore Holsato e Societal* 
Regia. Huic etiam jungitur Michaelis Angeli Ric/cM Ex* 
ercitatio Geometrica de Maximis et Minimis, hie ob argu 
menti prsestanti^m & exemplarium raritatem recusa, 
Lond. 1668, 4to. 6. " Institution |*m Agtronqmicarqm U- 
bri duo, ,de Motu Astroruot communi & proprto, secundum 
hypotheses veterum & recen riorum prs&cipuw; deqme Hy r 
potheaeon ex observatis constructione, cum tabulis Tycho- 
nianis, Solaribus, Lunaribus, Luns-solaribus, fy. Rudoln 
phinia Solis, Fix&rum & quinque £rrantium 3 earuwque usi* 
praceptis et exemplis commonstrato. Quibusaccedit Ap- 
pendix de iis, quae novissimis temporibus coelitus innotue- 
runt," Lond. 1676, 8vo. 7. " Euclidis Elementa Geome- 
trica, novo ordine ac methodo fere, demonstrata. Una? 
cum Nic. Mercatoris in Geometriam Introductione brevi. 
qua Magnitudinum Ortus ex genuinis Principii% & Orta- 
rum Affectiones ex ipsa Genesi derivantur," Lond. 1678, 
12oio. His % papers in the Philosophical Transactions are, 

1. A Problem on some Points of Navigation ; vol. I. p. 215. 

2. Illustrations of the Logarithmo-technia ; vol. III. p. 759. 

3. Considerations concerning his Geometrical and Direct 
Method for finding the Apogees, Excentricities, and Ano~ 
malies of the Planets; vol. V. p. 1168. Mercator died in 
1594, about fifty -four years of age. 1 

MERCER (James), a major in the army, and a very 
elegant and accomplished scholar, was the son of ^ private 
gentleman in Aberdeenshire, who, having joined the High- 
land army in the year 1745, retired to France after the 
battle of Culloden, where be resided till his death. His 
ion, who was born Feb. 27, 1734, was educated at Maris^ 
cbal college, Aberdeen, and afterwards went to reside with 
his father at Paris. There he spent his time in elegant 
society, and devoted his leisure hours to the cultivation of 
letters, and thus acquired those polished planners, and that 
taste for study, by which he was ever after so highly dis- 

1 Button's Diet. — Martin's Biog. Phil. — Usher* Life and Letters, pp. 607, 
> <22<~- Letters of Eminent Persons, 1813, 3 Vols. 8to, where are son* anecdote* 
ef him by Aubrey. 

Vol. XXIL ' ' ' ' F 

' / 



tingotsbed. He possessed, too, a very high degree of 
elegant and chastised wit and humour, which made his 
compter to be universally sought after by those who had 
the bappioess of his friendship or acquaintance. 

On the death of his father, he returned to Scotland, and 
soon afterwards entered into the army at the commence- 
ment of the seven-years war, during the greatest part of 
which be served in Germany under prince Ferdinand of 
Brunswick, and was in one of the six British regiments of 
infantry, that gained such reputation for their gallantry at 
the memorable battle of Minden. The regiment in which 
he afterwards served, being reduced at the peace of Paris, 
he returned to Aberdeen, where be married Miss Kathe- 
rine Douglas, sister to the present lord Glenbervie, a beau- 
tiful and accomplished woman, with whom he lived many 
years in much happiness. In order to fill up the vacant 
hours of bis then unemployed situation, he devoted his 
time chiefly to books, and, in particular, recommenced the 
study of the Greek language (of which he had acquired the 
rudiments at college) with such assiduity, that bis intimate 
friend, Dr. Beattie, was of opinion there were not six gen- 
tlemen in .Scotland, at that time, Who knew Greek so well 
as major Mercer. Then it was likewise, ' that by attention 
to the purest models of antiquity, he -corrected that partia- 
lity for French literature, which he had strongly imbibed 
by bis early habits of study at Paris. 

Not long after, be again entered into the army, in which 
he continued to serve till about 1772, when he had ar- 
rived at the rank of major; but he then quitted the profes- 
sion, and only resumed a military character when he held 
a commission in a regiment of fencibles (militia) during the 
American war. On the return of peace, he retired with 
his family to Aberdeen, where he continued chiefly to re-* 
side during the rest of his life. An acquaintance had first 
taken place between him and Dr. Beattie, on bis return to> 
Aberdeen after the seven years' war ; and as their taste in 
books, and their favourite studies, were in some respects 
entirely similar, a lasting friendship ensued, which proved 
to both a source of the highest enjoyment. Of this we 
have many interesting proofs in sir William Forbes' s " Life 
of Beattie," 

Major Meroer's acquaintance with books, especially of 
poetry and belles lettres,* both ancient and modern, was 
not only uncommonly extensive, but he himself possessed- 


a rich and genuine poetical vein, that led him, for his own 
amusement only, to the composition of some highly finished, 
Jyric poems. These he carefully concealed, however, from 
the knowledge of his most intimate friends ; and it was 
with much difficulty that bis brother- in-law, lord Glenber- 
vie, at length could prevail on him to permit a small col- 
lection to be printed, first anonymously, afterwards with 
his name; the latter edition, with the title of " Lyric Poems. 
By James Mercer, esq. Second edition, with some addi- 
tional poems," 1804, 12mo. These beautiful poems pos- 
sess much original genius, and display a taste formed on 
the besc classic models of Greece aud Rome, whose spirit 
their author .bad completely imbibed, especially that of 
Horace, who seems to have been the model whom he had 
proposed to himself for his imitation. 

In 1802 major Mercer had the misfortune to lose his 
wife, after a long course of severe indisposition, during 
which he had attended her with the most anxious assiduity. 
Of this loss, indeed, be may be said never to have got the 
better, and he survived her little more than two years. 
He bad long been in a very valetudinary, nervous state, till 
at last his constitution entirely failed : and he expired with- 
out a struggle or a pang, Nov. 18, 1804, in the seventy- 
first year of his age. Besides possessing no ordinary share 
of knowledge both of books and men (for in the course of 
his military life especially, he had lived much in society of 
various sorts), and being one of the pleasantest companions, 
he was a man of much piety, strict in the observance of 
ail the ordinances of religion, and of high honour in every 
transaction of life. 1 

'MERCIER (Bartholomew), a learned bibliographer 
and miscellaneous writer, familiarly knowti in France by 
the title of the abb£ de St. Leger, was born at Lyons, 
April 1, 1734. He entered when young, into the congre- 
gation of St. Genevieve, of which he became librarian, at 
the time that the learned Pingre, his predecessor in that 
office, went to observe the transit of Venus. In 1764, 
When Louis XV. visited this library, he was so much 
pleased with Mercier's intelligent manner of displaying its 
treasures, that he appointed him abb£ of St. Leger at Sois- 

1 Taken, with little variation, from sir Wm. Forbes's Life of Dr. BeaUie. 
We bad the honour of knowing major Mercer, and at the end of thirty-five years, 
cherish the teoderest remembrance of nil early kindness, his elegant manners, 
?*d well-informed mind. 

F 2 

69 M E R C I E R. 

son, a preferment which then happened to be vacant 
Merrier often travelled to Holland and the Netherlands to 
visit the libraries and learned men of those countries, and 
was industriously following his various literary pursuits, 
when the revolution interrupted his tranquillity, and re- 
duced him to a state of indigence. This be could have 
borne ; but the many miseries he witnessed around him, 
. and particularly the sight of his friend the abb6 Poyer 
dragged to the scaffold, proved top much for his constitu- 
tion. He continued to linger on, however, until May 13, 
1799, when death relieved him. He was a man of great 
learning and research, as his works evidently shew, and ia 
his private character, social, communicative, and amiable. 
His works are, 1. " Lettre sur la Bibliographic de Debure," 
1763, 8vo. 2. " Lettre a M. Capperonier," on the 
same subject, which was followed by a third, printed in 
the " Journal de Trevoux." 3. " Lettre sur le veritable 
auteur du Testament Politique du cardinal de Richelieu,'* 
Paris, 1765, 8vo. 4. " Supplement a PHistOire de l'im- 
primerie de Prosper Marchand," 1765, 4to, reprinted with 
additions, &c. 1771., 5. " Lettre sur la Pucelle D'Or- 
leans," 1775. 6. " Dissertation sur I'auteur du livre de 
P Imitation de Jesus-Christ." 7. " Notice du livre rare, 
intitule Pedis Admirandae, par J. d'Artis." 8. " Notice 
de la Platopodologie d'Antoine Fianc6, medecin de Be- 
sangon," a curious satire by Fianc6. 9. " Lettre a un ami, 
sur la suppression de la Charge de Bibliothecaire du roi en 
France," (Paris), 17 87, 8vo. 10. " Notice sur les torn- 
beaux, des dues de Bourgogne." 1 1. " Lettres sur diffe- 
rentes editions rares du 15 siecle," Paris, 1785, 8vo, par- 
ticularly valuable for Italian books. 12. " Observations 
surl'Essai d'un projetde Catalogue de Bibliotheque." 13. 
41 Description d'une giraffe vue a Fano." 14. " Notice 
raisonnee desouvrages de Gaspard Schott, Jesuite," 1785,. 
8vo. 15. " Bibliotheque de Romans trad u its du Grec." 
1796, 12 vols. 12mo. 16. " Lettre sur le projet de decret 
concernant les religieux, propos£e a I 1 Assemble Nationale 
par M. Treilhard," 1789, 8vo. 17. " Lettre sur un nou- 
veau Dictionnaire Historique portatif en 4 vols. 8vo." This, 
which appeared in the " Journal de Trevoux," contains a 
sharp critique upon the first volumes of Chaudon's Dic- 
tionary. Mercier bestowed great pains in correcting and 
improving his. copy of this work, which fell in the hands of 
the editors of the last edition of the Diet. Hist Mercier 

M E R C I E R. 6» 

was frequently employed in the public libraries ; and those 
of Soubise and La Valliere owe much of their treasures to 
his discoveries of curious books. He was also a frequent 
writer in the Journal de Trevoux, the Journal des Sgavans, 
the M&gazin Encyclopedique, and the An nee Litteraire. 
He left some curious manuscripts, and manuscript notes 
and illustrations of many of his books. 1 

MERC1ER (John le), or Mkrcekus, a celebrated 
philologer, was a native of Usez in Languedoc. He was 
bred to the study of jurisprudence, which be quitted for 
that of the learned languages, Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and 
Chaldee; and in 1549, succeeded Vatablus in the pro- 
fessorship of Hebrew in the royal college at Paris. Being 
obliged to quit the kingdom during the civil wars, he re- 
tired to Venice, where his friend Arnoul du Ferrier resided 
as French ambassador; but returned with him afterwards 
to France, and died at Usez, his native place, in 1572. 
He was a little man, worn by excess of application, but 
with a voice which he could easily make audible to a large 
auditory. His literature was immense, and among the 
proofs of it are the following works: 1. " Lectures on 
Genesis, and the Prophets," Geneva, 1 598, folio. 2. " Com- 
mentaries on Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Canti- 
cles," 1573, 2 vols, folio, which have been much esteemed, 
3. "Tables of the- Chafdee Grammar," Paris, 1550, 4to. 
These are all written in Latin. He was considered as in- 
clined to Calvinism. His son Josiah le Mercier, an 
able critic, who died December 5, 1626, published an ex- 
cellent edition of "Nonnius Marcellus ;" notes on Aristac- 
netus, Tackus, DictysCretensis, and Apuleius's book " De 
Deo Socratis," and an " Eulogy," on Peter Pithon; some 
of his letters are in Goldast's* collection. Salmasius was 
his son -in-law. • 

MERCURIALIS (Jerome), a learned and eminent phy- 
sician, was boru at Forli, in Romagna, Sept. 30, 1530. 
He was educated according to Niceron at Padua, and ac- 
cording to Eloy at Bologua. It seems, however,- agreed 
that he received his doctor's degree in 1555, and began to 
practice at Forli. In 1562 he was sent as ambassador to 
pope Pius IV. at Rome, where he was honoured with the 
citizenship, and upon a pressing invitation determined to 
reside in a place which presented so many opportunities 

* Diet. HUt. » Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 


for the pursuit of bis favourite studies. During bis abode 
at Rome, besides' his professional concerns, be studied 
classical literature, and the monuments of antiquity, and 
produced a learned and elegant work, which acquired him 
much celebrity in the literary world, and which was first 
published at Venice in 1569, under the title of " De Arte 
GymnasticS. Libri sex," 4to. It was many times reprinted, 
and its merit occasioned bis being appointed professor of 
medicine in the university of Padua. In 1573 he was 
called to Vienna by the emperor Maximilian IL, to con* 
suit respecting a severe illness under which that personage 
laboured ; and his treatment was sq successful, trjat be re* 
turned loaded with valuable presents, and honoured with 
the dignities of a knight and count palatine. In 1 587 he 
removed to a professorstp at Bologna, which has been 
partly attributed to a degree of dissatisfaction or self-adcu- 
sation, in consequence of an error of judgment, which had 
been committed by him and Capivaccio, .several years 
before, when they were called to Venice, in order to give 
their advice respecting a pestilential disorder. which pre- 
vailed in that city. On this occasion both be and bis col- 
league seem to have fallen into the mistake of several 
medical theorists, of denying the reality of contagion ; 
and their counsels were said to have been productive of 
extensive mischief. Nevertheless his reputation appears 
to have suffered little from this error ; for be was invited 
by Ferdinand, the grand duke of Tuscany, to settle at 
Pisa in 1599, where he was ordered a stipend of eighteen 
hundred golden crowns, which was ultimately raised to two 
thousand. Here he died Nov. 9, 1606, and was interred, 
with great honours, in a chapel, which be had himself 
erected at Forli. He left a large property in money and 
effects, among, which was a valuable collection of pictures ; 
and he made a great number of charitable bequests. 

Mercuriali was a voluminous writer, as the following 
catalogue of his works will evince. He was a learned com- 
mentator on Hippocrates, and edited a classiBed collection 
of bis works. Like the learned of bis age, however, he 
was bigotted to the doctrines of the ancients, and fond of 
hypothetical reasoning, to the disparagement of sound 
observation ; and he strongly imbued his pupils with the 
same erroneous principles. His first publication was a 
tract entitled " Nomothesaurus, seu Ratio lactandi Infan- 
tes." His second, the work " De Arte Gymnastica," be- 


fore- mentioned* 3. " Variarum Lectionum in Medicinae 
Scriptoribus et aliis, Libri iv." Venice, 1571. +. " De 
Morbis Cutaneis, et omnibus corporis humani Excremenr 
tis," ib. 1 572. 5* " Tractatus de Maculis pestiferis et Hy r 
drophobia," Basle, 1577. 6. " De Pestilentia in univer r 
sum, prasertim verd de Veneta et Patavina," Venice 1577. 
T, " Hippocratis Opera Graece et Latine," ibid. 1578. 

8. " De Morbis Muliebribus Praelectiones,'! Basle, 15$2. 

9. " De Morbis puerorum Tractatus locupletissimi," Ve- 
nice, 1583. 10 v " De Veneois et Morbis venenosis," ibid. 
1584. 1 1. " De Decoratione liber,' ' ib. 1585. 12. " Qon- 
sultationes et Responsa. Medicinatia," Four volumes were 
successively published in 1587, 1590, and 1597 ; and were 
republished together after bi$ death. 13, "Tractatus de< 
Compositione Medicamentorum, D-e. Morbis oculorum et 
auriuro," ibid. 1590. 14. " De Hominis Generatione," 
1597. 15. " Comnaentarii in Hippoc. Coi Prognostics^ 
Prorrhetica," &c. ibid. 1597. 16. « Medicina Practica, 
seu, de cognoscendis, discernendis, et curandis omnibus 
humani corporis affectibus," Francfort, 1602, folio. All 
these works have been several times reprinted, and some 
of them were selected after bh death, and printed together, 
under the title 'of " Opuscula aurea et selectiora," Venice, 
1644, folio. 1 

MERIAN (John Bernard), perpetual secretary of the 
academy of sciences at Berlin, was born at Leichstal, near 
Basil, Sept 27, 1723, of a reputable family, and received 
a learned education, with the particulars of which, how- 
ever, we are unacquainted. In 1750 he was invited from 
Holland to Berlin, on the recommendation of Maupertuis, 
a^nd died in that city Feb. 12, 1807, in the eighty- fourth 
year of his age. The best known of his works were French 
translations of Claudian, and of Hume's Essays, the latter, 
published at Amsterdam, 1759 — 1764, 5 vols. 12mo, en- 
riched with commentaries and refutations of the most ob* 
jectionable principles. He . translated also pome of Mi* 
<:haelis's works. The Memoirs of tl?e Academy .of Berlin 
contain several of his pieces on philosophical subjects and 
on geometry. One of the best is a parallel between the 
philosophy of Leibnitz and Kant, which was much noticed 
on its first appearance* Merian bore an estimable private 

i NiceroB, vol. XXVI.— Efey, Diet. Hjft, de Medicine:— Morari .—Beet's 

Tf ME It IAN.. 

character, and preserved- all the activity- and rigour of 
youth to a very advanced age. A few day* before his 
tieath he officiated as- secretary at a sitting of the academy, 
to celebrate, according to custom, the memory of the 
Great Frederic. ' 

MERIAN (Maria Sibylla), a lady much and justly ce- 
lebrated for her skill in drawing insects, flowers, and other 
subjects of natural history, was born at Francfort on the 
Maine, in 1647; being the grand 'daughter and daughter 
of Dutch engravers of some celebrity, whose talents were 
continued and improved in her. She was instructed by 
Abraham Mignon. She married John Andriez Graff, a 
skilful painter and architect of Nuremberg, but the fame 
she had previously attached to her own name, has pre- 
vented that of her husband from being adopted. They 
bad two children, both daughters, who were also skil-» 
fill in drawing. By liberal offers from Holland, this in- 
genious couple were induced to settle there ; but Sibylla, 
whose great object was the study of nature, had the cou- 
rage to travel in various parts, for the sake of delineating 
the insects* and several other productions peculiar to each 
country. She ventured to take the voyage to Surinam, 
where she remained two years, for the express purpose of 
making the drawings which have since added so consider- 
ably to her fame; and, though it does not appear that 
there was any kind of disagreement between her and her 
husband, she went, if we mistake not, without him. His 
own occupations, probably, precluded such a journey. 
Madame Merian died at Amsterdam in 1717, at the age of 

The drawings of this lady have a delicacy and a beauty 
of colour, which have seldom been equalled, and her de* 
signs are still in high estimation, notwithstanding the great 
attention which has since been paid to the accurate execu- 
tion of such works. She published, 1. " The origin of 
Caterpillars, their nourishment and changes; 19 written in 
Dutch; Nuremberg, 1679 — 1688, in 2 vols. 4to. This 
was afterwards translated into Latin, and published at Am- 
sterdam, in 1717, 4to. This work, much augmented by 
berself and daughters, with thirty-six additional plates 
and notes, was published in French -by John Marret, Am- 
sterdam, 1730, folio, under the title of, " Histoire des 

1 Biog. Diet— Athenaeum, tqK II. . 

M E R I A N. 75 

Inieetes d* Europe." 2. " Dissertatio de Generatione et 
Metamorpbosibus insectorum Surinamensium," Amst. 1705, 
folio. This* contains only sixty plates. To some of the 
later editions twelve plates were annexed, by ber daughters 
Dorothea and Helena. There is an edition of tbis in folio, 
French and Dutch, printed at Amsterdam,' in 1719. An- 
other in French and Latin, 1726 ; and another in Dutch, 
in 1730. There have been also editions of the two works 
united, under the Jitle of " Histoire des Insectes de l'Eu- 
rope et de PAmerique," Atnst. 1730 ; Paris, 1768 — 1771. 
Many of the original drawings of tbis artist are in the 
British Museum, in two large volumes, which were pur- 
chased by sir Hans Sloane, at a large price. The current 
opinion is, that he gave five guineas for each drawing ; but 
tbis is not sufficiently authenticated. Of these volumes, 
one contains the insects of Surinam, the other those of 
Europe^ and among them are many designs which have 
never been engraved. Among those of the Surinam in- 
sects are several, which, though very elegantly finished, 
appear evidently, on examination, to be painted on im- 
pressions taken from tbe wet proofs of the engravings. 
Those of Europe are, perhaps, entirely original drawings. 
In the engraved works, much less justice has been done to 
the European insects than to those of America. Matthew 
Merian, the father of tbis lady, published many volumes 
of topographical engraviugs and collections of plates in 
sacred history. 1 

MERLIN (Ambrose), a British writer, who flourished 
towards the latter end of the fifth century, but of whom 
little memorial remains, except such as is wholly disfigured 
by fictioh, was reputed to be both an enchanter and a 
prophet, and to have been begotten by an incubus. For 
want of more authentic materials, we may be allowed to 
give the account of Spenser, in his Faery Queen, b. Hi. 
canto 3. *dhere, after speaking of his supposed magical 
powers, be thus tells bis progeny : 

And sooth men say that he was not the sonne 

Of mortal syre, or other living wight, 

But wondrously begotten and begonne 

By false illusion of a guileful spright 

On a faire lady noane, that whilome hight 

Matilda, daughter to Pubiclius, 

Who was the lord of Mathtraval by right, 


* Moreri.— -Stratt's Diet, of Engravers.— Diet. Hwt 


And coosin, unto king Ambrosius, -•$ , , 

Whence he indued was with skill so mayveiloip. ... 

Merlin is said to have foretold the arrival and conquest*: of 
the Saxons, to which allusion is made by Andrew, of Wy»f 
town, in hi* fifth book, cb. 13, \ 

The Saxonys of Duche-hmd . » 

Arrywyte that tyme, in Ingiand, 

Merlyne alsud mystyly 

That tyme made his prophecy* 

How Vortygerne wyth hys falsheede 

Of Brettane made the kyiigis dede, &c> 

It was supposed that Merlin did not die, but was laid 
asleep by magic, and was, after a long period, to awake 
and live again. Spenser alludes to this fable also. Ex~ 
travagant prophecies, and other ridiculous works are 
ascribed to Merlin, and some authors have written Com* 
mentaries pn them, as ridiculous as the text. In the 
British Museum k " Le compte de la vie de Merlin et de 
ses faiz, et compte de ses prophecies," 2 vols. fol. on 
vellum, without date or place. There is s> French edition, 
3 vols, sm^ll folio, black letter, dated 1498. There are 
also other French and Italian editions. In English we have 
" The Life of Merlin, surnamed Ambrosius. His prophe- 
sies and predictions interpreted : and their truth made 
good by our English annals, published by T. Heywood," 
Lond. 1641, 4to. This was Heywood the actor, of whom 
some notice is taken in our seventeenth volume. 1 

MERLIN (James), a learned doctor of the Sorbonne, 
born in the diocese of Limoges, was curate of Montmartre, 
and afterwards canon and grand penitentiary of Paris. 
Having preached against some persons belonging to the 
court, who were supposed to be favourable to the reformed 
religion, he was confined in the castle at the Louvre, .1527, 
by order of Francis I. and then banished to Nantes, from 
whence he returned to Paris, 1530. Merlin was appointed 
grand vicar of Paris, and curate of la Magdelaine. He 
died September 26, 1541. He was the first who published 
a " Collection of Councils; 91 of which there are three edi- 
tions. It is said to be a compilation of great accuracy and 
impartiality. Merlin also published editions of *' Richard 
de St. Victor, Peter de Blois, Durand de St Pourcain, and 

* Spenser's faery Queen. — Warton's Hist, of Poetry.— -Afacpherion's Andrew 
of Wyntowa, vol. 1. p. 118.— Tanner. 


Origen;*' and bas prefixed to the. works of the latter an 
Apology, in which he undertakes to clear Origen from the 
errors imputed to him. He had a violent dispute on this 
,subject with Noel Beda. 1 

MERRET (Christopher), a physician and naturalist, 
born at Winchcombe, in Gloucestershire, ' in February 
1614, was educated at Gloucester-hall, and Oriel-college, 
Oxford, and after taking the degree of M. D. in 1642, 
settled in London. He appears to have bad a considerable 
share of practice, was a fellow of the college of physicians, 
«id one of the original members of the philosophical so* 
ciety, winch after the restoration became the royal society. 
He died in 1695. His first publication was "A Collection 
of Acts of Parliament, Charters, Trials at Law, and Judges 1 
Opinions, concerning those Grants to the College of Phy- 
sicians," 1660; 4to< This became the basis of Dr. Good- 
all's History of the College* and was followed, in 1669,. by 
*' A short View, of the Frauds and Abuses committed by 
Apothecaries, in relation to Patients and Physicians," 
which involved him in an angry controversy, with Henry 
fitubbe. He also, in 1662, published a translation of Neri's 
work, " De arte vitriaria," with notes; but his principal 
work was entitled "Pinax Rerum Natural ium Britannia 
carum, continens Vegetabilia, Animalia, et Fossilia in bac 
insula reperta," Lond. 1667, 8vo. This^ though incom- 
plete and erroneous, was the first of the kmo* relating to 
this country, and 'was without doubt instrumental in pro- 
moting the study of natural history here* A great portion 
of his knowledge of plants was obtained through the me* 
diura of Thoraas Williselj a noted herbalist, whom he em- 
ployed to travel through the kiagdom for him during five 
summers. Merret communicated several papers to the 
royal society, which are printed in the earlier volumes of 
the Philosophical Transactions ; particularly an account of 
some experiments on vegetation ; of the tin mines in Corn* 
wall ; of the art of refining; and some curious observations 
relative to the fens of Lincolnshire. 1 

MERRICK (James), an English divine and poet, whom 
bishop Lowth characterised as one of the best of men and 
most eminent of scholars, was the second son of John 
Merrick, M. D. He was born Jan. 8, 1720, and was edu- 

- * Moreri.*— Dapia.— Diet. Hist. 
* Ath. Ox. woL lI.~P0ltei»y'i Sketches, vol. U p. 290, 

76 ' MERRICK. 

cated at Reading school. After being opposed, (very un- 
justly according to his biographer) as a candidate for a 
scholarship at St. John's, on sir Thomas White's founds* 
tion, he was entered at Trinity-college, Oxford, April 14, 
1736, and admitted a scholar June 6, 1737. He took the 
degree of B. A. in Dec. 1739, of M. A. in Nov. 1742, and 
was chosen a probationer fellow in May 1744. The cele- 
brated lord North, and the late lord Dartmouth, were his 
pupils akthis college. He entered into holy orders, but 
never engaged in any parochial duty, being subject to 
acute pains in his head, frequent lassitude, and feverish 
complaints ; but, from the few manuscript sermons which 
he left behind him, appears to have preached occasionally 
in 1747, 1748, and 1749. His life chiefly passed in study 
and literary correspondence, and much of his time and 
property were employed on acts of benevolence. Few 
men have been mentioned > with higher praise by all who 
knew him*. He had an extraordinary faculty of eiact 
memory ; had great good nature, and a flow of genuine 
wit ; his charity was extensive, and his piety most exem« 
plary. He died after a short illness at Reading, where he 
had principally resided, Jan. 5, 1769; and was buried at 
Caversham church, near the remains of hk father, mother, 
* and brothers. i 

He was early an author. In 1734, while he was yet at 
school, he published " Messiah, a Divine Essay," printed 
at Reading; and in April 1739, before be was twenty 
years of age, he was engaged in a correspondence with the 
learned Reimarus. The imprimatur from the vice-chan- 
cellor, prefixed to his translation of " Tryphiodorus," is 
dated Oct 26, 1739, before he had taken his bachelor's 
degree. In Alberti's last volume of Hesychius, published 
by Ruhnkenius, are many references to Mr. Merrick's 
notes on Tryphiodorus, which are all ingenious, and serve 
to illustrate the Greek writer by historical and critical ex* 
planations; many of them haye a reference to the New 
Testament, and show how early the author had turned his 
thoughts t6 sacred criticism. The translation itself is cor*- 
rect and truly poetical. It is indeed, for his years, a very 

* Dr. Hunt, the Hebrew professor, the leastof bis many good qualifications, 

in a letterto Dr. Doddridge, dated Feb. He has every virtue which renders 

1746, says of Mr. Merrick, " There learning; amiable and useful ; is not 

cannot be a more deserving man in alt only a good scholar, bat (which Is in*' 

respects. His learning (which is be- finitely better) a good Christian." 
yond comparison great for his years) is 


extraordinary proof of classical erudition and taste, and 
.was deservedly supported by a more numerous list of sub* 
scribers than perhaps any work of the time. . It was hand- 
somely printed ip an 8vo volume, at the Clarendon press, 
but without date or publisher's name. 

The rest of Mr. Merrick's works were published in the 
following order : 1. " A Dissertation on Proverbs, chapter 
ix. containing occasional remarks on other passages in sa- 
cred and profane writers," 1744, 4to. 2. " Prayers for a 
time of Earthquakes and violent Floods," a small tract, 
printed at London in 175.6, when tbe earthquake at Lisbon 
had made a very serious impression on the public mind. 
3. " An encouragement to a good life ; particularly ad* 
dressed to some soldiers quartered at Reading, 9 ' J 759* 
His biographer informs us that a list is still preserved of 
the names of many thousand soldiers, whom Mr. Merrick 
bad instructed in religious duties, and to whom he had 
distributed pious books. Among the latter, Granger men* 
tions Rawlet's " Christian Monitor," of which he says Mr. 
Merrick distributed near 10,000 copies' " chiefly among 
the soldiers, many of whom he brought to a sense of reli- 
gion." 4. " Poems on Sacred subjects," Oxford, 1763, 
4to. 5. " A Letter to the rev. Joseph Warton, chiefly re- 
lating to the composition of Greek Indexes," Reading, 
1764. In this letter are mentioned many indexes to Greek 
authors, some of which were then begun, abd others com- 
pleted. Mr. Robert Robinson, in the preface to his " In- 
dices Tres," of words in Longinus, Eunapius, and Hiero- 
cles, printed at the Clarendon press in 1772, mentions 
these as composed by the advice of Mr. Merrick, by whose 
recommendation to the delegates of the press they were 
printed at the expence of the university; and they re- 
warded the compiler with a very liberal present. 6. " An- 
notations, critical and grammatical, on chap. I. v. 1 to 14 
of the Gospel according to St. John," Reading, 1764, 8vo, 
7. " Annotations, critical, &c. on the Gospel of St. John, 
to the end of the third chapter," Reading, 1767, 8va 
S. " The Psalms translated, or paraphrased, in English 
verse," Reading, 1765. Of this, which is esteemed the 
best poetical English version of the Psalms now extant, 
the only defect was, that not being divided into stanzas. 
it could not be set to music for parochial use. This ob- 
jection has been removed, since the author's death, by the 
rev. W. D. Tattersall; who with great and laudable zeal 


for the improvement of our parochial psalmody, has pub- 
lished three editions properly divided, and procured tune* 
to be composed for them by the best masters. Custom, 
however, has so attached the public to the old versions, 
that very little progress has yet been made in the intro- 
duction of Mr. Tattersall's psalmody in churches and cha- 
pels. 9, " Annotations on the Psalms/' Reading, 1769, 
4to. 10. " A Manual of Prayers for common occasions/* 
ibid; 1768, 12mo. This is now one of the books distri- 
buted by the society for promoting Christian knowledge; 
who have also an edition of it in the Welsh language. 

Mr. Merrick occasionally composed several sm^U poems* 
inserted in Dodsley's Collection ; and some of his classical 
effusions may be found among the Oxford gratulatory 
poems of 1761 and 1762. In the second volume of Dods^ 
ley's " Museum," is the " Benedicite paraphrased" bjr 
him. Among his MSS, in the possession of the Loveday 
family at Willi amscot, near Banbury, are his MS notes on 
the whole of St. John's Gospel, being a continuation of 
what he published during his life. He had begun an ela- 
borate and ingenious account, in English, of all the Greek 
authors, in alphabetical order, which was left unfinished at 
his death. It extends as far as letter H : the manuscript 
ending with " Hypsicles." The late rev. William EtwaW, 
editor of three dialogues of Plato, with various indexes, in 
1771, mentions, in his preface, his obligations to Mr. 
Merrick, who was always happy to communicate informa- 
tion *, and encourage genius. The indexes of that work 
were composed according to the plan recommended by 
him in his letter to Dr. Warton, whose brother, Thomas, 
in his edition of "Theocritus," in various passages, ex- 
presses his obligations to Mr. Merrick, arid pays a just 
compliment to his skill in the Greek language. His know- 
ledge both of the Greek and Hebrew was truly critical ; 
and was applied with great success to the illustration of -the 
sacred writings ; as his annotations- on the Psalms, and his 
notes upon St. John, abundantly testify. It remains to be 
mentioned that in the former of these works, the " Anno- 
tations/' he was assisted by Dr. Lowth* then bishop of 

* In Larduer's Works, vol. VIII. corresponded. See also a letter from 

p. 167, we find some curious obsexra- him to Mr. Warton on " Theocritus/* 

tions on a fragment of Longinus, com- in Wooll's Life of Dr. Warton, p. 396, 

municated by Mr. Merrick to that an- and another curious one on Indexes in 

tfeor, with whom be appears lo hare, the same work, jx 210. 


Oxford, who supplied many of the -observations, and by a 
person whom he described as " virum summa erudition*, 
iummo loco" who was afterwards known to have been arch- 
bishop Seeker. Some remarks introduced here in opposition 
to Dr. Gregory Sharpens criticism on the 1 10th Psalm, pro- 
duced from that gentleman" " A Letter to the right rev. the 
Lord Bishop of Oxford, from the Master of the Temple, 
containing remarks upon some strictures made by his grace 
the late archbishop of Canterbury, in the rev. Mr. Mer- 
rick's Annotations on the Psalms," 1769,' 

MERRY (Robert), an English poet of considerable 
merit, was born in London, April 1755, and was descended 
in a right line from sir Henry Merry, who was knighted 
by James L at Whitehall. Mr. Merry's father was gover- 
nor of the Hudson's Bay company. His grandfather, who 
was a captain in the royal navy, and one of the elder bre* 
thren of the Trinity-house, established the commerce of 
the Hudson's Bay company upon the plan which it now 
, pursues. He made a voyage to Hudspn's Bay, and disco* 
vered the island in the North seas, which still bears 7 the 
name of Merry's island. He also made a voyage to the 
East Indies, and was, perhaps, the first Englishman who 
returned home over land ; in which expedition he encoun- 
tered inconceivable hardships. Mr. Merry's mother was 
the eldest daughter of the late lord chief justice Willes, 
who presided for many years with great ability in the 
court of Common Pleas, and was for sometime first lord 
commissioner of the great seal. Mr. Merry was educated 
at Harrow, under Dr. Sumner, and had the celebrated 
Dr. Parr as his private tutor. From Harrow he went to 
Cambridge, and was entered of Christ's college. He left 
Cambridge without taking any degree, and was afterwards 
entered of Lincoin's-inu, but was never called to the bar. 
Upon the death of his fattier he bought a commission in 
the horse-guards, and was for several years adjutant and 
lieutenant to the first troop, commanded by lord Lothian. 
Mr. Merry quitted the service, and went abroad, where he 
remained nearly eight years ; during which time he visited 
inost of the principal towns of France, Switzerland, Italy, 
Germany, and Holland. At Florence he stayed a con- 
siderable time, enamoured (as it is said) of a lady of dis- 

- i CMteft Hitt. of Rea4iDg.-~pod<!ridge'4 Letter** p. 339,-*Wo»U'ti Ute <rf 
W*rfcp, fee. . 

*0 MERRY. 

tinguished rank and beauty. Here he studied the Italian 
language, encouraged bis favdurite pursuit, poetry, and 
was elected a member of tbe academy Delia Crusca. Here 
also he was a principal contributor to a collection of poetry, 
by a few English of both sexes, called " Tbe Florence Mis- 
cellany." The name of tbe academy he afterwards used 
as a signature to many poems which appeared in the perin 
odical journals, and the newspapers, and excited, so many 
imitators as to form a sort of temporary school of poets, 
whose affectations were justly ridiculed by the author of 
the " Baviad and Maeviad," and soon despised by the; pub- 
lic. Mr. Merry, however, bad more of tbe qualities of a 
poet than his imitators, although not much more judgment. 
His taste, originally good, became vitiated by that love of 
striking- novelties which exhausts invention. Of hit poems 
published separately, scarcely one is now remembered or 

In 1791 be married miss Brunton, an actress, who per- 
formed in his tragedy of " Lorenzo,*' and a prospect 
opened to him of living at his ease, by the joint produc- 
tion of that lady's talents, and bis own pen ; but tbe 
pride of those relations upon wbom he had most depend- 
ence,, was wounded by tbe alliance ; and he was con- 
strained, much against Mrs. Merry's inclination, to take 
her from tbe stage. This he did as soou as her engage- 
ment at the theatre expired, which was in tbe spring of 
1792. They then visited the continent, and returned in 
the summer of 1793. They retired to America in 1796, 
and our author died suddenly at Baltimore, in Maryland, 
Dec. 2<f, 1798, of an apoplectic disorder, which proceeded, 
as is supposed, from a plethora, and the want of proper 
exercise. He was author of the following dramatic pieces, 
viz. " Ambitious Vengeance ;" " Lorenzo ;" " The Ma- 
gician no Conjurer;" and " Fenelon," a serious drama, 
none of which had great success. 

Mr. Merry was an accomplished gentleman, and for many 
years highly esteemed by a numerous circle of friends of 
rank and learning, but in his latter years be unfortunately 
became enamoured of those loose and theoretical princi- 
ples which produced tbe French revolution; and this change 
gave a sullen gloom to his character, which made him re- 
linquish all his former connexions, and attach himself to * 
company far beneath his talents, and unsuitable to hip 
habit*. There is reasoq to think, however, that his min4 



■ecovered somewhat of its better frame after he had resided 
a few months in America, and had leisure to reflect on what 
he bad exchanged for the gay visions of republican fancy. 
Mrs. Merry, who married Mr. Warren, the manager of a 
theatre in America/ died in 1808. 1 

MERSENNE (Marin), a learned French writer, was 
born at Oyse, in the province of Maine, Sept. 8, 1588. 
He cultivated the belles lettres at the college of la Fleche ; 
and afterwards went to Paris, and studied divinity at the 
' Sorbonne. Upon his leaving the schools of the Sorbonne, 
he entered himself among the Minims, and received the 
habit of that order/ July 17, J 611. In 1612 he went to 
reside in the convent of Paris, where he was ordained priest* 
He then applied himself to the Hebrew language, which 
he learned of father John Bruno, a Scotch Minim. From 
1615 to 1619, he taught philosophy and theology in the 
convent of Nevers; and then returned to Paris, where he 
spent the remainder of his life. Study and conversation 
were afterwards his whole employment. • He held a cor- 
respondence with most of the principal men of his time; 
being as it were the very centre of communication between 
literary men of all countries, by the mutual correspondence 
which: he. managed between them ; and was in France 
what Mr. Collins was in England. . He omitted no oppor- 
tunity to engage them to publish their works ; and the 
world is obliged to him for several excellent discoveries, 
which would probably have been lost, but for his encou- 
ragement;' and on all accounts he, had the reputation of 
being one of the. best men, as well as philosophers, of his 
time. He was the chief friend and literary agent of Des 
Cartes, in particular, with whom he had contracted a 
friendship . while he studied at la Fleche, which continued 
to his death. He was that philosopher's chief agent at 
Paris. Thus, when; Mersenne. gave out in that. city, that 
Des Carter was. erecting a new system, of physics upon the 
foundation of a;vacuum, and found the public very indif- 
ferent to it on that' very account, it was said, that he im- 
mediately sent intelligence to Des Cartes, that a vacuum 
was not then the fashion at Paris'; which made that philo- 
sopher change his system, and adopt the old' doctrine of a 
plenum. - In the mean time, Mersenne's residence at Paris 
did; not .hinder him. from making several journies into 
foreign countries^ for he < went to Hollaiid in 1629, and 


1 Gent.IH.aff. roi. LXtX^-Bioj, D *». 



stayed a year there ; and he was in Italy fottr times ; in 
1639, 1641, 1644, and 1646. He fell sick, in L64&, o£ 
au abscess iu the right side, which the physicians, took to* 
be a bastard pleurisy ; and bled him several times to na 
purpose. At last it was thought proper to open the* side? 
but he expired in the midst of the operation, when, he was 
•almost sixty years of age* He ordered the physicians aft' 
his death to open bis body, which they did, and found art 
abscess two inches above the place where they had opened 
his side ; sa that, if the incision* had been made at the 
proper place, his life might possibly have been saved* 

He was a man of universal learning, but excelled sol 
much in physical and mathematical 1 knowledge, that Dee 
Cartes scarcely ever did any thing, or at least was. not 
perfectly satisfied with any thing he bad done, without finis 
knowing what Mersenne thought of it. He published 4 
great many books, the first of which occasioned him soma 
trouble* The title is, " Qusestiones celeberriraee in Ge«*. 
nesim^ cum accurata textus explication© : in quo voIumine> 
athei & deisti impugnantur^" &c. Paris* 16213. Two shorts* 
of this book, from column 669 to column 676 inclusive* 
were suppressed by him.; and it ia very difficult to meet 
with any copy in which these sheets are not taken outv 
He. bad given there a list of the atheists. of his time,, men- 
tioned their different works, and specified th»i» opinions*, 
as appears from the index in the word Athei* which haw 
not beenr altered* Whether this detail was thought eft 
dangetous consequence, or whether Mersenne; had? ev~ 
larged too much the number of atheists, is was judged; 
proper that he should retrench alii he badi said upon that: 
subject. Baillet calls Mersenne* to whose 671st page he- 
refers, the most credulous; man alive- for believing* that 
there could be at that time* as he- supposes, 50,000 atheist*, 
in Paris; and considers this pretended number, asaiothiwg* 
more than it fiction of the Hugonota, that they aright tskfe 
occasion thence to abuse- the catholics. In. this work, be 
has undoubtedly inserted a variety of things which are- ef* 
at nature foreign to bis maifr subject; Thus he oalls it »> 
his title-page, << Opu»ibeologis r philosophis, medacis, juri»». 
consultis, mathematician musicis vero & catoptricis pr«Q<- 
sertim utile " His largesfrdigression relates to music,, wbicfr 
he had studied, and upon which he wrote several boobs* • 
He attacks also Dr. Robert Fludd, fellow of the college of 
physicians in London; the severity of whose answers raised 
up many defenders for Mersenpe, and among the rest the 

M E It S E N H E. 83 

illustrious Gassendi, whose? tract on this subject was printed 
at Paris in 16£fy under this title : *f Epistolica exercitatio, 
in qua prsecipua principia philosophise Robert! Fludd dete* 
guntur, & ad recentes illius libros adversus- patrem Mari- 
num Mersennum scriptos respondetur." This piece is re- 
printed 1 in the third volunte of Gassendi's works at Paris-, 
in 1658, under the title of u Examen philosophise Flud- 
danae," &c. 

Mersenne was a man of good invention ; and had a pe«* 
culiar talent in forming carious questions* though be did 
Hot always succeed in resolving them; however, he at 
least gave occasion to. others to do it. It is said he in* 
vented the Cycloid, otherwise called the Roulette. Pre* 
sently the chief geometricians of the age engaged in the 
contemplation of this new curve, among whom Mersenne 
himself held a distinguished rank. 

Mersenne was author of many useful works, particularly 
the following : 1. " Questiones celeberrimae in Genesim,** 
already mentioned. • 2. (( Harmonicorum Libri." 3. " De 
Sonorum Natura, Causis, et Effectibus." 4v " Cogitata 
Pbysico-Mathematica," 2 vols. 4to. 5. t( La Veriti des 
Sciences." 6. " Lesr Questions inouies." He has also many 
letters in the works of Des Cartes, and other authors. * 

MERTON (Walter de), the illustrious founder of 
Morton college, Oxford, which became the model of all 
other societies of that description, was bishop x>f Rochester 
and chancellor of England in the thirteenth century. 0£ 
his personal history vei*y little is known. From.a pedigree 
of him, written about ten years after his death, we learn, 
that he was the son of William de Merton, archdeacon of 
Berksin 1224, 1231, and 1236, by Christina, daughter of 
Walter Fitz-Oliver, of Basingstoke. They were botl* 
buried in the church of St. Michael, Basingstoke,- where, 
the scite erf their tomb has lately been discovered. Their 
son was born at Merton, in Surrey, and educated at the 
convent there* So early as 1239 he was in possession of a? 
fenrily estate, as well a* of one acquired. From his* mo- 
ther he received tb$ manor of St. Johh» with which' he 
crftnmencetfa public benefactor, by founding, in 12$ I, the? 
hospital of xSt; Johrr, for poor and infirm «clergy ; andafwtf 
Ae 'foundation of Merton college, it was- appointed itt tiid 
rtatqtes, that ttie infeurabiy-sick fellows or scholar^ of ft&£ , 

,J l^/i/.'Vi 

1 HUarigtuIi Coste's Mersenne.— Geu. D]ct.— Niceron, vol. XXXI I JU 
^Holie^'i Diet: '* \ '"' '■'■■'■ ' * ■ ; ' 

84 M E R T O N. 

college should be sent thither; and the office of master 
was very early annexed to that of warden of Merton. Not 
many years ago, part of the chapel roof of this hospital re- 
mained, pannelled with the arms of Merton college in the 
intersections, and one of the gothic windows stopped up j 
but all this gave way to a new brick building in 1773. 

According to Mr. Denne (Custumale Roffense, p. 193), 
he occurs prebendary of Kentish town, and afterwards bad 
the stall of Finsbury, both of them in the church of St. 
Paul's, London. He held in 1259 a prebend in Exeter 
cathedral ; and, according to Browne Willis, was vicar of 
Potton in Bedfordshire at the time of bis promotion to the 
see of Rochester. Other accounts say, that he was first 
canon of Salisbury, and afterwards rector of Stratton. He 
became eminent in the court of Chancery, first as king's 
clerk, theh as prothonotary, and lastly rose to be chancel- 
lor of England in 1258. Of this office he was deprived in 
the same year by the barons, but restored in 1261, with a 
yearly salary of four hundred marks ; and held it again in 
1274, in which year he was consecrated bishop of Roches- 
ter. He appears to have been of high csedit in affairs of 
state, and consulted on all matters of importance, as a 
divine, a lawyer, and a financier. His c|€ atn was occa- 
sioned by a fall from his horse, in fording a river in his 
diocese; soon after which accident he died, Oct 27th, 
1277. Notwithstanding his liberality, at his death he was 
possessed of goods valued by inventory at 51 10/. of which 
he left legacies to the amount of 2726/. His debts 
amounted to 746/., and he had owing to him about 622/. 
He was interred on the north side of St. William's chapel, 
at the north end of the cross aile in Rochester cathedral, 
with a marble monument, which had probably been in- 
jured or decayed, as in 1598, the present beautiful ala- 
baster monument was erected by the society of Merton J 
college,, at the suggestion of the celebrated sir Henry 
Savile, then warden of the college. 

. With respect to the foundation of this college, an opi- 
nion has long prevailed, which the inquiries of some re- 
cent antiqi^aries have rendered doubtful. It was stated by 
Wood and others, that Walter de Merton first fqunded au 
college at Maldon, as a nursery for that at Oxford ; that at 
a certain age the scholars were rempved from Maldon. to 
Oxford, where the founder provided a house for them 
on the site of the present -college, and that the whole 
establishment was not removal from Maldon to Oxford 

MERTON. 8.5 

until the year 1274, when the third and last charter was 
obtained. On the other hand, bis original intention ap- 
pears to have been to establish a religious house at Maldon, 
consisting of a warden and priests, who were to appropri- 
ate certain funds, with which he entrusted them, to the 
maintenance and education of twenty scholars at Oxford or 
elsewhere, and that when he founded Merton college, he 
removed the warden and priests thither. What seems to 
confirm this account is, that the founder appointed a fel- 
low of Merton college to instruct such of his students as 
were ignorant of grammar, which would not probably have 
been the case had they been brought from a preparatory 

Nothing could be more satisfactory than to be able to 
trace the progress of this great work from these small be- 
ginnings, but all that can be now collected is, that having 
purchased several tenements, on the ground where the 
college stands, he began bis erection, and by charter dated 
Jan; 7, 1264, established it by the name of Domus Schola- 
riumdc Merton. This first charter, with the statutes pre- 
scribed in it, continued in force until 1270, when it was 
confirmed by a second, in which great additions were 
made to the endowment by estates in Oxford, Oxfordshire, 
and other counties ; the scholars were increased, and the 
term fratres became used as a farther step towards the 
present form. A third charter was granted in 1274. All 
these which respect the creation in 1264, the enlarge- 
ment in 1270, and the completion in 1274, and refer to, 
and confirm one another, are now perserved in the library, 
and were consulted as precedents in the foundation of 
Peterhouse, the earliest college of the sister university, 
and probably of others in both universities. The first offi- 
cers of Merton were appointed in 1276. It yet remains to 
be noticed that Walter de Merton's preference of Oxford 
is thought to have been owing to his better acquaintance 
with the place, there being a tradition that he studied 
some time among the canons regular of Oseney, or in 
Manger hall, in St. Martin's parish, Oxford. By the 
assistance of subsequent benefactors, Merton college was 
progressively raised to its present state, in which it consists 
of a warden, twenty-four fellows, two chaplains, fourteen 
portionista or postmasters, four scholars, and two clerks. 1 

» Wood 1 * College* and Hall*.— Chapmen's HiiL of Oxford. 

S6 M E R U L A. 

MORULA (George), an Italian of very uncommon ta- 
lents and learning, was born at Alexandria, in the dacby 
of Milan, about 1420. His family name was Merlani, 
which he exchanged for Merula. He was the disciple of 
Phile y phus, and taught polite literature at Venice and at 
Milan for forty years, and laboured with great success in 
restoring and correcting ancient authors. Jovius .calls him 
" Grammaticorum. exactissimus," the most exact of gram- 
marians ; and Erasmus, in his " Ciceronianus," represents 
him as a man, who translated the Greek authors with a 
dignity and elegance sufficient to rank him with many of 
the ancients. He died at Milan in 1494. His original 
works are of the historical kind, the most distinguished of 
which is his " Antiquitates Vicecomitum, lib. X." fol. with- 
out place or date, but printed at Milan about the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. This only extends to the 
death of Matthew, whom the Italians are accustomed to call 
" the Great." The style is pure, but be has adopted too* 
many of the fabulous reports of the old chronicles, and is 
in other respects incorrect as to dates and facts. It is not, 
however,, to this, or his other historical pieces that he ow£* 
his reputation, which was more substantially built on the 
aid he gave in the restoration of classical learning, as one 
of the. first editors of ancient authors. It is to him we are 
indebted for the first edition, collectively, of the " Scrip- 
tores de re Rustica," Cato, Varro, Columella, and Palla- 
dius, which he published at Venice, 1472, fol. with notes. 
He also published the first edition of Plautus, at Venice, 
1472, fol. and assisted in the publication of the early 
editions of Juvenal, Martial, and Ausonius, and translated 
several of the Greek authors. His Juvenal is entitled 
li Enarrationes Satyrarum Juvenalis, per Georgium Meruloua 
Alexandrinum," Tarvisii (Trevigny) 1478, fol. 

From these works the character of Merula justly stood 
high; but whether he was naturally vain and arrogant, or 
spoiled by flattery, .his disposition was jealous and irrita- 
ble, and he treated some of his learned contemporaries 
with that* species of harshness and contempt which, al- 
though in all ages the; disgrace of literature, seems reviving 
in our own. In our authorities may be found an account 
of his quarrels with bis old master Philephus, with Politian, 
whom he once declared the only scholar in Italy that had 
any share of merit, and with others, in whose cases his 
provocations were so trifling, that we may be justified in 

MERULA. <8? 

asctikiftg the -virulence of his style in controversy to the 
worst of sources. It. is said, however, that at his death he 
repented of his conducttowards Politian, at least ; earnestly 
desired 'to be reconciled to him, and ordered that every 
thing he had written against that illustrious scholar should 
be expunged from his works. 1 

MERULA (Paul), or Vah Merle, a very learned Hol- 
lander, -was born at Dort, Aug. 19, 1558; and went to 
France and Geneva, to study the law. Afterwards he tra* 
yelled to Italy, Germany, and England ; -and, having been 
absent nine years, returned to Dort. Here be frequented 
the bar four years,, and then quitted it for the professorship 
of history, which was vacated by the cession of Justus Lip- 
sius in 1592. It has been thought -a sufficient encomium 
on him that he was deemed worthy to succeed so great a 
man. In 1598, the curators of the university of Leyden 
joined to his professorship the office of public librarian, va- 
cant by the death of the younger Dousa- He married in 
1589, andiiad several children. He hurt his constitution so 
much by an overstrained .application to books, that he died 
July 20, 1607, when "he was no more than forty-nine. 
Meruia was the author or editor of several works, some of 
the principal of which are, 1. " Q. £nnii annalium libro- 
ram xviii. fragmenta oollecta '& commentariis illustrata," 
Lfiat. 1595, 4 to. 2. " Eutropii Historiae Romanse, libri x." 
1592, 8vo; but more complete with the entire notes of 
Glareanus and Merula, Leyden, 1594, 8ro. 3. " Urbis 
RomaB delineatio & methodica ex variis anthoribus descrip- 
tion* 1529. ,4. "Vita Desiderii Erasmi ex ipsius manu 
fideliter representata. Additi sunt epistolarum ipsius libri 
duo," 1607, 4to. 5. " Cosmographiae generalis libri tres. 
Item geographic particularis libri quatuor, quibus Europa 
in genere, speciatim Hispania, Gallia, Italia describuntur, 
cum tabulis geographicis," 1605, 4to. This work went 
through many editions; but its use is now superseded »by 
the more . accurate labours of subsequent geographers. 
Merula published several other works enumerated in our 
authorities. * 

. MESENGUY (Francis Philip), a French divine, was 
born at Beauvais, August 22, 1677. After having .been 
a literary professor for several years, in the college of 
that place, he was invited by his friends to Paris, and 

Vossius de Hist Lat— TllPaboschi.^-Gioguene Hist. Lit. D'ltalie, vol. III. 
•-Niceron, vols. VII. and X. — Roscee's Life of Lorenzo,— 3axii Onomait. 
* Foppeo Bibl. Bel#.— Nicerorf, vol. XXVI. 


there soon became coadjutor to Coffin, then principal of 
the college of Beauvais. His zeal for some points, not 
approved at court, particularly his opposition to the bull 
Unigenitus, having undermined his favour there, he quitted 
the college in 1728, and lived the remainder of his days in 
literary retirement, though still at Paris; and from this 
time employed himself in several considerable works. 
This mode of life was so congenial to his feelings, which 
were of a candid and tranquil, kind, that he attained the 
age of eighty-six, and died Feb. 19, 1763. He wrote, 
1. for the use of his pupils, while employed in the college, 
his " Exposition de la doctrine Chretienne," 6 vols. 12mo. 
This 1 work, though written with clearness and precision, 
contained some passages not approved at Rome, and 
therefore was condemned by Clement XIII. in 1761. 2. 
* Abreg6 de l'Histoire, & de la morale de PAncien Testa- 
ment,". Paris, 1728, 12mo; highly commended by Rollin.'. 
a. " Abr6g6 de l'Histoire de l'Ancien Testament, avec dea 
Iclaircissemens et des reflexions," Paris, 10 vols, in l2mo. 
This is also a useful work, and, as may be supposed, 
chiefly an extension of the former plan. 4.. An edition of 
the New Testament, with short notes. 5. " La constitu- 
tion Unigenitus, avec des remarques," 12mo, 6. " Let- 
tres a un Ami sur la constitution Unigenitus" also in 12 mo. 
7. " Entretiens sur la Religion," 12mo. This author had 
also a large share in the lives of the saints, published by 
the abbe Goujet ; and in the Missal of Paris. 1, 


MESTON (William), an ingenious burlesque poet of 
Scotland, was born in the parish of Midmar in Aberdeen- 
shire, about 1688, He received a liberal education at the 
Marischal college in Aberdeen, and, after finishing his 
studies, became one of the teachers in the high-school of 
New Aberdeen. Thence he removed into the family of 
Marshal, to be preceptor to the young earl of that name,- 
and his brother, afterwards marshal Keith ; and, in 1714, 
by the interest of the countess, was appointed professor of 
philosophy in the Marischal college. He did not long re- 
tain this situation,' for, when the rebellion broke out in 
1715, be followed the fortunes of his noble patrons, who 
made him governor of Dunotter castle. After the defeat 
at Sheriffmuir, he lurkfed among the mountains, till the act 
pf indemnity was passed, with a few fugitive companions, 

» Diet. Hist 


for whose amusement and his own, he composed several of 
the burlesque poems, which he called " Mother Grim's 
tales. 99 He appears to have remained steady to his princi- 
ples, and consequently was not restored to his professor- 
ship; but, while the countess of Marshal lived, resided 
chiefly in her family ; where his great pleasantry and live-* 
liness made him always an acceptable guest. After her 
death, he must have been . for some time without much 
provision, till he commenced an academy at Elgin, in con- 
junction with his brother Mr. Samuel Meston. He was, 
however, little formed for prudence and regularity, but 
much more given to conviviality ; for which cause proba- 
bly, among others, this academy at Elgin after a time 
began to decline. He then successively, settled at Turiff, 
in Aberdeenshire* and at Montrose, where he lost his 
brother and coadjutor. He made the same attempt at 
Perth, but soon after entered as preceptor into the family 
of a Mr. Oliphant. Here he qontinued till his health de- 
clined, when he removed to Peterhead for the benefit of 
the mineral waters. There be was chiefly supported by 
the bounty of the countess of Errol, under whose patron- 
age he had formerly undertaken the academy at Turiff. 
At length he removed to Aberdeen, where he was taken 
care of by some relations, till he died of a languishing dis- 
temper in the spring of 1745. . 

Meston is said to have been one of the best classical 
scholars of his time, and by no means a contemptible phi- 
losopher and mathematician. His wit also was very lively, 
and shone particularly in jovial meetings, to which un- 
happily he was rather too strongly addicted. His poems 
were first published separately, as they were written, and 
doubtless by way of. assisting him in bis necessities. 
That called " the Knight, 9 ! appears to have been first 
printed in 1723; and, after it bad received several cor- 
rections, a second edition was printed at London. The 
first decade of " Mother Grim's Tales," afterwards ap- 
peared; and next, the second part, by Jodocus, her grand- 
son. Some years after, the piece called, " Mob contra 
Mob.'* . The whole were first collected in a small volume, 
12 mo, at Edinburgh, in 1767, to which a short account of 
his life is prefixed, whence the present memoirs have been 
extracted. "The Knight," and several others of hi* 
poems, are in the style of Butler, whom he greatly ad- 
mired and imitated, perhaps too servilely! yet with, some 

$0 M.ES.T ON. 

ftucbess. In the -second decade, written under the name 
of Jodocus, there are several poems in Latin, and tbe 
title was in that language. It runs thns : " Decadem al- 
teram, ex probatissimis auctoribus, in usum Jtrventtttis 
Knguse Latins, praesertim veroe poeseos studios®, selectarn, 
et in scholis ad propagandam fidem iegendam: admrxtis 
subinde nonoullis, in gratiam Pulchrioris Sexus, vernaculis, 
subjunxit Jodocus Gpimolns Aniculae nostras pronepos." 
His Latin poetry is of no great excellence. 1 

METASTASIO (Peter), the most illustrious poet of 
modern Italy, whose true name was Trapassi, was born 
at Rome Jan. 6, 1698, the second son of Felice Trapassi 
of Assisi. Felice, though a free citizen of Assisi, was very 
poor, and settled at Rome in a small way of business. His 
son was very early distinguished for an extraordinary talent 
at speaking extemporary verses ; and, at ten years old, 
used to attract a little audience in the street by the melody 
of his voice, and the sweetness of his unpremeditated 
poetry. The celebrated Gravina, among others, acci- 
dentally heard him, and was so charmed with his talents, 
that, with the consent of his parents, he undertook to give 
him an education ; and changed his name from Trapassi to 
Meta&tasio, a kind of Italianized Greek translation of the 
former na/ne : and so much was he pleased with his dispo-' 
sition and talents, that he finally adopted him, and made 
kirn his heir. 

Though Gravina had first noticed his^ young friend for 
tps extraordinary poetical talents, be was very desirous 
afterwards to wean him from that delightful art, and fix 
him to his own profession of the law ; an attempt which 
has equally failed in the case of many other celebrated 
poets. Metastasio struggled hard to obey his patron ; but 
bis passion for poetry was insuperable, and Gravina was 
obliged to give way a little, and put the best poets into his 
hands. Thus indulged, he produced at fourteen the tra- 
gedy of " Giustiho," written to please his master, exactly 
on the Greek model. Gravina appears to have been so 
mollified by this, as to be still more indulgent to his na- 
tural propensity, and carried him at eighteen to Naples, 
that he might contend, in singing extemporaneous verses, 
with the most celebrated improvisstori of Italy. This he 
did with a success that confirmed and much extended his 

1 Life, af above. 


fMrie.' The order, clearness, and learning, with which he 
treated the subjects, the sweetness of his voice, the grace 
<^f his action, his modest deportment, with the expression, 
j^eauty, and dignity of his countenance, gained 'him uni- 
versal admiration. But with his poetical studies, Meta* 
stasio continued to pursue that of the law ; and in order to 
obtain a passport to the two most promising roads to pre* 
ferment in 'Rome, assumed the clerical habit, and took the 
minor order of priesthood. Hence he is usually styled 

< At the age of twenty be lost his excellent preceptor and 
patron, Gravina, who died in 1718. Metastasio, whose 
writings evince him to have been all tenderness, bewailed 
bis death in the celebrated elegy called " La strada della 
Gloria," and found when the will was examined, that he 
was made heir to all his fortune. Being now become a 
patron, instead of a dependant, he kept a handsome table, 
?t which, as may be supposed, he easily obtained guests : 
he abandoned the law, and cultivated poetry ; and in about 
two years found himself nearly at the end of bis 15,000 
crowns, Which had been the bequest of his patron. He 
flow went to Naples, with a serious intention to return to 
the study of the law ; but his instructor Paglietti was harsh, 
the admirers of his poetry were numerous, and, in 1721, 
we find him addressing an epithatamium to the marquis 
Pignatelli, at the desire of the countess of A 1 than. His 
drama of Endymion, the first that he produced expressly 
for music, was written about the same time. He went on, 
though partly by stealth, on account of the inexorable 
lawyer under whom he was studying ; till the acquaintance 
of the Romaniua, the greatest singer and actress of the 
time, finally determined him to quit both his preceptor 
and that profession which he had ever studied so unwill- 
ingly- The effect of his first opera, " The Garden of the 
Hesperides," upon the audience, is described as singular 
in the extreme. By the beauties of the verse, the excel* 
lence of the sentiments, and every species of merit, the 
audience, usually noisy, was charmed into profound atten- 
tion, and the whole was heard with a silence then perfectly 
Uncommon in the Italian theatres. 

From this time Metastasio united his family establishment 
frith that of the Romanina and her husband, and lived the 
Hfe of a poet,' amidst harmony and poetry. Thus situated, 
he wrote within a short period, three more dramas; " Catone 



in Utica," a Ezio," and " Semiramide riconosciata." 
But it was now, in 1729, the thirty-second year of Meta- 
stases life, that he was to change his country. A letter, 
dated Aug. 31, in that year, from prince Pio of Savoy* 
invited him to the court of the emperor, as coadjutor to 
signior Apostolo Zeno, in the office of imperial laureat. 
All matters of appointment being settled to his mind, be 
resolved, though with reluctance, to quit Italy, and his 
Italian connections, for this new country: and he actually 
arrived at Vienna in July 1730. From this time the life 
of Metastasio was uniform, even beyond what is usual to 
men of letters. He resided continually in one city, Vienna; 
and in one house, that of M. Martinetz : with the /excep- 
tion only of a visit in the autumn, which for a long time 
was annual, to the countess of Althan in Moravia, where 
he sought health from the bracing air of the mountains. 
To make the uniformity of his life more singular, he was 
naturally and habitually attached to an exact regularity, 
and passed one day precisely as he passed another, al- 
lotting particular hours for particular occupations. His 
usual routine was this, according to the report of Dr. Bur~ 
ney. " He studied from eight in the morning till noon ; 
then he visited his friends, and those families and indi- 
viduals from whom he had received civilities. He dined 
at twb ; and at five received his most familiar and intimate 
friend 3. At nine, in summer, he went out in his carriage, 
visited, and sometimes played at ombre > a game which 
he liked better than those of mere chance, as it afforded 
him exercise of mind in calculation. He returned home 
at ten o'clock, supped, and went to bed before eleven." 
This monotonous mode of life has by some been ridiculed, 
and certainly would not be expected in a poet; but the 
varieties of human nature are endless, and in him the love 
of order had superseded the more common passion for 
change and variety. A very interesting part of the history 
of Metastasio, is his long and steady friendship with the 
celebrated Farinelli. From appearing first before the pub- 
lic about the same time, the one as a singer, the other as 
a poet, in 1723, they called each other Gemelli, or twins ; 
and their attachment, which was of the most sincere and 
ardent kind, ended only with tbeir lives, which were ex- 
tended nearly to the same period. His other tuneful friend 
died early, namely, in the beginning of 1734, and, as 
a mark of her regard, left him heir to all her property, 


after the death of her husband, to the amount of 25,000 
crowns ; but Metastasio, with his usual sense of propriety, 
and with great generosity, relinquished the whole bequest, 
*nd restored it to the disposal of her husband. 

" Whether Metastasio's connection with the Romanina 
.was purely Platonic," says Dr. Burney, " or of a less se- 
raphic kind, I shall not pretend to determine; but the 
husband residing in the same house with them, both at 
Naples and at Rome, and the friendly manner in which the 
poet always mentioned htm in his letters to the wife, with 
the open manner in which he expressed his affliction, in 
writing to him after her death, would, in England, be 
thought indications favourable to conjugal fidelity. But a 
chaste actress, and opera singer," he adds, "is a still 
more uncommon phenomenon in Italy, than in Britain." 
The ideas of that country are indeed totally different from 
those which we entertain on these subjects ; and it is very 
probable, that the mutual attachment of Metastasio and 
his wife gave great pleasure to the husband Bulgarini, as 
£n honour conferred upon his family. 

In 1738 Metastasio was honoured by the voluntary gift 
of nobility, from the city of Assisi. In 1740 he lost his 
patron, the emperor Charles VI. His place was, however, 
continued under Charles VII. and Francis I. the successor 
•f that prince. Through the interest of Farinelli he after* 
wards enjoyed also the regard and patronage of the court 
of Spain, for which, though he did not visit the country, 
he was often employed to write. 

- Thus lived Metastasio. Always employed in writing, 
sometimes by imperial, sometimes by regal command : al- 
ways anxious about the merit of his productions, and 
always composing such as ought to have removed all 
anxiety. He died, after a short illness, on the 12th of 
April, 1782, being just eighty-four. Farinelli, a letter to 
whom, from mademoiselle IVJartinetz, gives the most ^ex- 
act account of his death, lived only to September of the 
same year. Metastasio was interred in the parish church 
of St. Michael, in Vienna. His funeral rites were per- 
formed with splendor by signior Joseph Martinetz, whom 
he had made his heir. The inheritance he left, "consisted 
in a well furnished habitation, a coach, horses, a great 
quantity of princely presents, a very ample and select col- 
lection of books, with a capital of 130,000 florins ; from 
which; however, were to be deducted twenty thousand for- 



each of Metastases sisters, and three thousand for each of 
bis younger brothers.'! The circumstances of his life are 
chiefly preserved by means of his letters, a large collec- 
tion of which has been published ; and they are used by 
his English biographer for amplifying the narrative. His 
correspondents are among the most extraordinary men of 
his time, and, in all points of view, his character vfcas re- 
spectable, and indeed amiable. Hist life has frequently 
been written, and his works appear united in edition* pub* 
lished in several parts of Europe. He was an enemy t<> 
that pompous, verbose, and obscure style which prevailed 
in his country a few years- ago ; and he was persuaded that 
the first duty "of a writer, in prose or verse, is to be un- 
derstood. " The style of Metastasio," says an Italian cri* 
tic, " never fails to please those who give way to their own 
feelings, more than persons of profound meditation ; and 
I would rather be accused of partiality to him whom I ve- 
nerate and love, than ranked with cold philosophers and 
deep thinkers, whom I may respect but cannot love/ 9 He 
regarded " Atilio Regolo," as his best opera ; " Betulia 
liberata," as his' best oratorio ; and " Artaserse," as the 
most fortunate of bis dramas ; for, however set or sung, it 
was always successful. To give a list of his works, as they 
are always found collectively, would be superfluous. Dr. 
Burney. has given one that is very ample, and arranged in 
chronological order, with the character and peculiarities of 
each. Hence it appears, that he produoed twenty-six 
operas, eight oratorios, or sacred dramas, besides occa- 
sional pieces, such as we should call masques, in great 
numbers; with cantatas, canzonets, sonnets, and every' 
kind of miscellaneous poetry. He wrote also, sometraos- 
lations from classics ; an excellent analysis of Aristotle'* 
poetics, entitled " Estrato dell 1 Arte Poetica d'Aristotiie* 
et oonsiderationi sue la medesima ;" with short accounts of 
all the Greek dramas, tragic and comic, and bis own cri- 
tical remarks. Few authors have been more prolific, « and 
none, perhaps, so completely successful in every effort of 
the mind. It is a, pleasing reflection that Metastasio wa& 
always as much beloved for his amiable qualities-, as ad-4 
mired for those by which he was constituted a poet, and! 
one of the most enchanting of all poets. Perfectly master 
of the resources of his art, he reduced the opera to rules. 
He banished from it machines, and other, improbabilities** 
which amuse the eye without affecting the heart; substi* 


tuting natural situations of interesting personages,. which, 
often produce the full effect of tragedy. His. actions ar* 
great, bis characters well conceived and supported, and 
his plots conducted with address. There are scenes of 
Metastases, says Voltaire, worthy of Corneille when he 
avoids declamation, or of Racine when he is not languid. 
Never, therefore, was patronage better bestowed thart that 
of Grayina; and though such talents could not have been 
bidden,, their early maturity and final perfection must be 
in a great part attributed to the culture and attentions of 
that able roaster. * 

METEREN (Emanuel de) a protestant historian, was 
born at Antwerp July 9, 1535. His father, Jacob de Me- 
taeren, was of Balda; his mother, Ortelia, was the daughter 
of William Ortelis, or Ortelius, of Augsburgh, grand* 
father of the celebrated geographer, Abraham Ortelius. 
He wps carefully educated in the languages and sciences, 
and when a youth, is reported to have attempted to trans* 
late the Bible into English, which, says fiullart, made his 
x&ligious principles to be suspected. His father, who had 
embraced the protestant religion, being obliged to take 
refuge in England, took this son with him, and gave him? 
the choice of continuing his studies, or embarking in com- 
mence. Emanuel, having preferred the latter, was sent to 
Antwerp, and engaged with a merchant in that city, where 
he continued about ten years, but his father had not the' 
happiness to witness his progress, as he and his wife were 
drowned in their passage from Antwerp to London. Ema- 
nuel, during his residence at Antwerp, after this disaster, 
employed his> leisure hours in collecting information re- 
specting the history of the Netherlands; and having ac- 
qvured' the confidence of various persons of eminence in 
the government* he succeeded in obtaining much secret 
history of the times, which be published under the title of 
"t Hwtowa.rernm potissitnum in Belgio gestarum," &c. It' 
appears that he had sent some copies of this work in Ger- 
man to a friend, who was to procure engravings for it, but* 
who caused it to lie printed for his own benefit in Latin 
and German, yet with the name of the author, whose re- 
putation? he did not value so much as the profits of the 
wotfki Meteven, on hearing this, procured an order from 
the* States ta suppress this .edition, which is dated 1599, 

■* Burney's fcife df MctMtesta 


and afterwards published it himself. He was enabled t<fc 
revisit London again in the reign of James I. as consul for 
the Flemings. In this office he acquitted himself with 
spirit and ability, and wrote an ample volume of the trea- 
ties of commerce which formerly subsisted betwixt the 
English nation, the house of Burgundy, and the states of 
Holland. He died at Loudon, April 8, 1612, and was 
interred in the church of St. Dionis Back-Church, Ferr- 
church-street, where his relict erected a monument to his 
memory, which was destroyed in the. great fire. * 

METHODIUS, a father of the church, bishop of Olym- 
pus, or Patera, in Lycia, and afterwards of Tyre in Pa- 
lestine, suffered martyrdom, at Cbalcis, a city of Greece* 
towards the end of Dioclesian's persecution in the year $02 
or 303. Epiphanius says " that he was a very learned 
man, and a strenuous asser tor of the truth." St, Jerome 
lias ranked him in his catalogue of church writers; but 
Eusebius has not mentioned him ; which silence is attri* 
buted by some, though merely upon conjecture, to Me-. 
thodius's having written very sharply against Origeny wlw. 
was favoured by Eusebius. Methodius composed in < a< 
clear and elaborate style several works : a large one " Against 
Porphyry jthe philosopher;" u A Treatise on thelResur- 
rection," against Origen; another on " Pythontssa," against 
the same ;- a book entitled " The banquet of Virgins ;" one 
on " Free-will ;" " Commentaries upon Genesis, and the 
Canticles; 9 ' and several other pieces extant in St Jerome's 
time. Father Combesis collected several considerable frag* 
ments of this author, cited by Epiphauius, Photius, r and. 
others, and printed them with notes of bis [own at Paris, in. 
1644, together with the works of Amphilochius and An- 
dreas C re ten sis, in folio. But afterwards Possious,. a Jesuit, 
found "„ The Banquet of Virgins" entire, in a manuscript, 
belonging to the Vatican library ; and sent it, with a Latin:* 
version of his own, into France, where it was printed in' 
1657, folio, revised and corrected - by another manuscript 
in the library of cardinal Mazarin. . We cannot doubt, 
that this is the true and genuine work of Methodius;, as; 
it not only carries all the marks of antiquity in it, but: 
contains word for word all the passages that Photius had 
cited out of it It is written in the way of dialogue, after 
the manner of " Plato's Banquet of Socrates ;" with this 

1 Rallart's Academie des Sciencts, rol. I.— Granger.*— Foppen Bibl, Belg. 

ME T HO D I U g. 97 


difference, that the speakers here are women, who indeed 
talk very learnedly and very elegantly. 1 

(Adolphus), a learned writer, was born at Bruges in 1528, 
and passed the greater part of his life in the service of 'the 
revolted states of the Low Countries, as counsellor of state, 
aftd envoy to the foreign potentates. He was employed 
on an embassy to queen Elizabeth in the latter part of his 
life, an office which was probably very agreeable to him, as 
lie was a protestant, and had resided here for the quiet en- 
joyment of his religion for some time before he was ap- 
pointed on the embassy. He appears to have been an or- 
nament and delight of the age in which he lived, second to 
none in literary accomplishments, and was a man also of 
great benevolence and amiable temper. Grief for the loss 
of his son is said to have hastened his death, which took 
place at London in 1591, in his sixty-fourth year. He was 
buried in the church of St. Botolph, Aldersgate, under a 
monument which, when that church was rebuilt, was con- 
veyed to Julians, near Buntingford, in Hertfdrdshire, the 
seat of his descendants who settled in this country, and 
where some of them are still living. The present owner 
of the estate is in possession, among others, of a folio MS. 
of Greek and Latin poetry »by his ancestor, the subject of 
this article, with additions by his son Adolphus, who died 
without issue, and by his son Edward, D. D. of Christ- 
church, Oxford, professor of Hebrew in that university, and 
prebendary of Winchester. He became professor in 1621, 
and died in 1660. Foppen asserts that sir Adolphus, as 
the ambassador was called, declared in writing, on his 
death -bed, that there was no true religion out of the ca- 
tholic church, and that his daughter was so struck with this 
as to return to Bruges, arid to the Roman catholic religioa: 
As far as respects the daughter, this may be true, but her 
father certainly died in the protestant faith,- as appears by 
the inscription on his monument, which Fopplen is ob- 
liged to confess, is written " stylo acatholico." ' Sir Adol- 
phus published in 1565, not a translation of sortie pieces of 
ffitfn and Moschus, as it hks* been erroneously Called, b\x% 
tfee-first edition of " Bion and Rioschus," printed at Bruges* 
in 1565, 4to, Gr. and Lat. It has a double Latin version 
with the Variorum scholia, the elegies of PhanocHs, and 

1 Cave, vol, I,*-Dupin. — Lardrier's Works. • 

Vol.. XXII. H 



sonre fragments of propertius. It is a very rare and curious 
edition. He translated into Latin verse " Theocriti EpU 
grammata," and published a treatise/' De veteri et recta 
pronuntiatione lingua Graecae Commentarius," Bruges,. 
J56.5, and Antwerp, 1576, 8vo. He contributed also to 
editions of the " Fasti Consulares," " Vitae Cfiesarum,* 7 
" Magna Graecia," &c; and in his political character pub- 
lished "A Collection of the Proceedings at the Peace of 
Cologne, in 1579." * 

METO, or METON, a celebrated mathematician of 
Athens, who flourished 43.2 B. C. was the son of Pausanias* 
He observed^ in the first year of the 87th olympiad, the 
solstice at Athens, and published his cycle of 19 years, by 
which he endeavoured to adjust the course of the sun anil 
moon^ and to make the solar and lunar years begin at the 
same point of time. This is called the Metouic period, ox 
cycle. It is also called the golden number, from its great 
use in the calendar. Meton was living about the year 412 
B. C. for when the Athenian fleet was sent to Sicily, be 
escaped from being, embarked on that disastrous expedition, 
by counterfeiting an appearance of idiotism.* 
\ METOCHITA (Theodore), of Constantinople, was. 
one of the most learned Grecians in the fourteenth cen- 
tury. He held considerable offices under the emperor An- 
dronicus the Elder, but in the reign of his successor, was. 
banished, and hisVoods confiscated. He was afterwards 
recalled, and died in 1332, in a monastery which he had 
founded. He was called a living Library, from his great 
erudition ; and left several valuable works, the principal 
among which are, "An Abridgement of the Roman History,, 
from Julius Caesar to Constantine the Great," 1628, 4to;. 
*/ The Sacred History," iu two books,," translated by Herve* 
Paris, 1555, 4to; "The History of Constantinople ;" and. 
^A Paraphrase on Aristotle's Physics." In 1790, was 
published " Specimina operum Theod. Metochitae, cum* 
praefatione et notis primum vulgata ab Jano Blocb," Hau-. 
fiioe, in.8vo. * 

' METROPHANES CRITOPYLUS, the patriarch o£ 
Alexandria in the seventeenth century, was sent into Eng^ 
land by Cyrillus Lucar, to be instructed in the doctrine and* 

'' * Foppen Bib). Bel^.— Freh'eri Theatrum;— Gent. Mag. vol LXVlh where i&- 
^portrait of hipi copied from Foppen'r;*— Saxii Onomast. . * 

8 Moreri.-— Rees's Cyclopaedia.— Hutton's Diet. 

3 Vossius de Hist. Gracap-Moreru— • -Saxii Onomast.. • 


discipline of our church, and to learn the English and' La- 
tin languages. For these purposes he applied to archbishop 
Abbot, who procured him admission into Baliol college, 
Oxford, where he remained until 1622, at which time be 
was chancellor to the patriarch of Constantinople ; but on 
his return .to his .own country, was chosen patriarch of 
Alexandria. On his way home, and while in Germany, he 
drew up " A Confession of Faith of the Greek Church," 
printed at Heimstadt, Gr. and Lat. in 1661. It inclines 
chiefly to the protestant doctrines ; but catholic writers 
have declared themselves satisfied with some parts of it. 
The time of his death is not known, but he is said to have 
been living in 1640. 1 < 

, METTRIE (Julibn Ofpray de la), a very eccentric 
French author and physician, was born at St. Maloes in 
1709. He studied physic under Boerhaaye,* after which 
he removed to Paris, and became an army-surgeon in the 
French guards. The duke of Grammont, who was his pro- 
tector, being takep very ill at the siege of Fribourg, he 
began, in his attendance upon him, to speculate upon the 
nature of the soul, and to perceive, as he fancied, that it 
is mortal. He wrote " The Natural History of the Soul," 
which being highly impious in its doctrines, raised a storm 
against him from which his patron with difficulty could 
defend him. He then turned his pen against his brethren, 
atyd wrote " Penelope, or the Machiavel in medicine," in 
3; vols. 12mo. The rage of the faculty, in consequence of 
this satire, drove him out of France ; and he retired to 
Leyden, where he published u L'Homme Machine," .a 
treatise of materialism, in which the philosophy is as' in- 
correct and ill argued as it is pernicious. But lie declaims 
with an ardour too likely to captivate weak minds, and 
draw them over to his opinions. This book could not de- 
tain toleration even in Holland ; it was publicly burnt, and 
the author obliged, in 1748, to fly for refuge to Berlin, 
and at this court he was protected, made a member of the 
academy, and honoured with places under the king. Here 
he lived in tranquillity, till his violent system of bleeding, 
very like that of Dr. Sangrado, put an early period to his 
life, as it had to those of several patients ; and he died in 
1751, being then only 48. , His works were published col- 
lectively at. Berlin the same year, in one vol 4to, and two * 

} Sazii Onomsst* in Critopylus.— Ath. Ox. vol. I. 

H 2 


12 mo. The same kind of false philosophy pervades then* 
all. The king of Prussia, however, conferred on- him a 
very singular honour, even after his death; for he wrote 
his funeral oration, which he caused to be pronounced in* 
the academy by one of his secretaries. Voltaire said of 
him, that he was a madman who wrote in a state of intoxi- 
cation. f 

METZU (Gabriel), a Dutch painter of small portraits, 
was bqrn at Ley den in 1615. His master is not known, 
Itut he, studiously imitated Gerard Dow, and Mieris. The 
beauty of bis colouring is particularly esteemed, and he 
finished his paintings with great labour. His subjects were 
usually taken from low life, but they were alL designed' 
after nature, and represented with astonishing skill ; such 
as women selling fish, fowls, or game; sick persons at-' 
tended by the physician ; chemists in their laboratories ; 
painters rooms, shops, and drawing-schools, hung with 
prints and pictures ; all which he finished with extraordi- 
nary neatness, They are not scarce in this country, al- 
though highly valued. By confining himself so closely to 
a sedentary, life, he became violently afflicted with the 
stone. He submitted to the operation of cutting for it, 
but had not strength of constitution to survive the opera- ' 
tion, and died in 1658, at the age of forty-three. 9 
. MEULEN (Anthony Francis Vander), an eminent'' 
artist, was born at Brussels in 1634. He was a disciple of 
Peter Snayers, a battle painter of considerable note, and 
his early progress gave strong promise, of his future emi- 
nence. His ingenious pictures attracted the attention of 
M. Colbert, the minister of. Louis XIV., who induced V. 
Meulen to settle in Paris; and soon afterwards introduced 
him to the king, who appointed him to attend and paint 
the scenes of his military campaigns, gave him a pension * 
of 2000 livres, and paid, him besides for his performances* 
He made sketches of almost all the most remarkable events * 
that occurred in these expeditions of Louis; designing upon, 
the spot the encampments, marches, sieges, &c. of the 
armies ; the huntings of the king ;* the assembling of tlje 
officers, &c: from these he composed his pictures, which ' 
are skilfully arranged, with great bustle, animation, anil 
spirit, and executed with a very agreeable, thoifgh hot 
always a natural tooe of colour, and with a sweet and • 

i Diet, flfet. * Argentine, voK HI.— Pilkrogtdrtv 

MEULEN. noi 

/delicate pencil. Some' of his pictures exhibit uncommon 
fikill and taste in composition. Frequently the scene he 
had to paint. wa$ flat and insipid, such as a marshy country 
before long extended walls ; even these he contrived to 
render Agreeable by his judicious management of tbechiarq-r 
scuro, and the pleasiug groups which he displayed with 
his figures* which, though dressed in the stiff uncouth 
frippery of the French court of that period, are handled 
with so much delicacy and corresponding taste, that they 
never fail to please. He was particularly skilful in pouv- 
traying the actions of the horse, of which he has left be- 
hind hi® ,a nuitober of excellent studies, drawn with great 
care from nature. His pictures frequently include a great 
extent of country, and an immense number of objects. 
His perfect knowledge of perspective enabled him to 
manage the objects and distances with the greatest ease 
and effect, so that the eye accompanies the figures without 
confusion, and assigns to each its due action and distance. 
He lived not beyond. the age of 56, but left a great num- 
ber of pictures, most of which are in France, but they are 
not very unfrequent in this country. * 

MEUN, or MEUNG (John de), was born at a little 
town of that name, situated on the rivet Loire, near Orleans, 
in 1280, and on account of his lameness acquired the name 
of Clopinel. His range of study appears to have been 
very extensive, including philosophy, astronomy, chemis- 
try, arithmetic, but above all, poetry. His talents recom- 
mended him to the court of Philip le Bel, which he en- 
livened by his wit, but often at the same time, created 
.enemies by his satirical remarks. He is supposed to have 
/died about 1364. His name is preserved on account of 
the share he bad in the celebrated " Roman de la Rose*' 
.{see LoaRis), which the French efrteem the most valuable 
piece of their old poetry. It is, says Warton, far beyond 
the rude efforts of jdl their preceding romancers. John of 
Meuo's share in this poem, however, is inferior in poetical 
merit to that of Loiris, as he had little of his predecessor's 
inventive and poetical vein ; but it has strong satire and 
great liveliness. Chaucer, who translated all that was 
written by William of Lorris, gives only part of the con- 
tinuation of John de Meun. Some other works are attri- 
buted to the latter, which are of little value unless as cu- 
riosities. •. 

* Argenville, vol. III.. — Kees*§ Cyclopaedia.— -Walpole's Anecdotes. 
f JWct HiBU^Bfnnet'i Manuel da Libmk«w--»Warioa't Hist. »f Poetry. 

102 M E U R S I U S. 

MEURSIUS (John), a. learned Dutchman, was born 
in 1579 at Losdun, a town near the Hague, where bis 
father was minister. At six years of age his father began 
• to teach hitti the elements of the Latin language 4 ; and the 
year, after sent him to a school at the Hague, where he 
continued four years. He was then removed to Leyden, 
and made so great a. progress in literature, that at twelve 
be could write with fluency in Latin. He advanced with, 
-no less rapidity in the Greek language, for which he con- 
ceived a particular fondness ; insomuch that at thirteen he 
made Greek verses, and at sixteen wrote a " Commentary 
upon Lycophron," the most obscure of all the Greek 
authors. When he had finished the course of his studies; 
and gained the reputation of a person from whom much, 
might be expected, the famous John Barnevelt intrusted 
him with the education of his children ; and he attended 
them ten years, at home and in their travels. This gave 
him an opportunity of seeing almost all the courts in Eu- 
rope, of visiting the learned in their several countries, and 
of examining the best libraries. As he passed through 
Orleans, in 1608, he was made doctor of law. Upon hte 
return to Holland, the curators of the academy of Leyden 
appointed him, in 1610, professor of history, and after- 
ward of Greek; and the year following, the States' of 
Holland chose him for their historiographer. In 1612 he 
married a lady of an ancient and good family, by whom. 
be had a son, called after his own name, who died in the 
flower of bis age, yet not till he had givdn specimens bf 
bis uncommon learning, by several publications. 

Barnevelt having been executed in 1619, they pro- 
xeeded to molest all who had been any way connected with 
him, and who were of the party of the Remonstrants', 
which he had protected. Meursius, as having been pre- 
ceptor to his children, was unjustly ranked in this number, 
although he had nevet interfered in their theological dis- 
putes : but as he had always acquitted himself well in his 
professorship, they had not even a plausible pretence to 
remove him from the chair. They used, however, all the 
means of ill treatment they could devise, to make him quit 
it of himself: they reproached him with writing too many 
books, and said that the university, on that account, did 
not reap any benefit from his studies. - Meursius, thus 
ill-treated, only waited for an opportunity of resigning his 
post with honour; and, at last, in 1625, the following fair 
one presented itself. Christiem IV. king of Denmark, 

M. £ U R S 1 U S. 103 

offered him at that time the professorship of history ancl 
"politics, in the university of Sora, which he bad just re- 
established ; and also * the place of his historiographer. 
These Meursius accepted with pleasure, and went imme- 
diately to Denmark, where he tally answered all the ex- 
pectations which had been conceived of his capacity, and 
was highly respected by the king and the chief men at 
court. . He was greatly afflicted with the stone at the 
latter end of his life, and died Sept. 20, 1639, aji his 
epitaph at Sora shews; and not in 1641, as Valerius An- 
dreas says in his *' Bibiiotheca Belgica." 

^fost authors have agreed in extolling the ingenuity, 
learning, and merit of Meursius : he excelled particularly 
in the knowledge of the Greek language and antiquities; 
and applied himself with such indefatigable pains to cor- 
rect, explain, translate, and publish many works of the 
ancients, that John Imperialis asserted that more Greejc 
authors, with Latin versions and emendations, had been 
published by Meursius alone than by all the learned to- 
gether for the last hundred years. He was the author and 
editor of above sixty works, many of. which are inserted in 
the collection of Greek and Latin antiquities by Gravius 
and Gronovhis. His " Eleusinia, sive de Cereris Eleusinse 
♦sacro et festo," to which all who have since written upon 
that subject have been greatly indebted, is a very valuable 
work, but now become scarce. We do not know that it 
has been printed more than twice : first at Leyden, 1619, 
in 4to, and afterwards in the seventh volume of Grono- 
vius's Greek Antiquities. The entire works of Meursius, 
however, edited by Lami, were published in twelve large 
volumes in folio, at Florence, in 1741 — 63. 

It seems almost heedless to observe, that the shamefully 
obscene Latin work, entitled " Meursius de elegaotiis La- 
tinae linguae," was not written either by this author or his 
"son; but was, as* the French biographers assures us, the 
production of Nicolas Chorier, an attorney at Grenobl^. 
It probably had the name of John Meursius prefixed by 
way of throwing a ridicule upon the grave and learned pro- 
fessor. His son produced, as we have said, some learned 
works, but not such* as to rival those of his father. ' 

MEXIA (Peter), a historian of some note in Spain, 
-when history was mere compilation, was a native of Seville, 

J Kjcerou, vol. XII. — Moreru 

.ia* ' ■ ■■ M E X I A* - 

*. ' • * 

.of a. family of some rank, aqd liberally educated, Hv» 
inclination being principally for. historical studies, be w^s 
made chronograi>her, perhaps, what we should call, histo- 
riographer to Charles V. He is also said to have been a 
jpoej. Antonio has collected from various authors, his con- 
temporaries, opinions highly favourable to bis learning aod 
knowledge.... The only fault imputable seems to be that of 
mixing Latin words too frequently with his Spanish. He 
died about. 1532. His principal work, for which he is 
known in this country, is entitled " Silvade varia l*eccion," 
which with the additions of the Italian and French trans^ 
Jators> was published at London under the title of the 
'" Treasury of ancient and modern Times," . fol. TJae 
original was first printed at Seville, in black-letter, in 1542, 
fol. often reprinted, and translated into most European 
languages, with additions. His other writings were, a 
** History of the Csesars," Seville, 1545, fol. likewise trans- 
lated by W. T. and enlarged by Edward Grimestoq, 
Xond. 1623. foL 2. « Colloquios o Dialogos," or " Laos 
Asini," in imitation pf Lucian and Apuleius, Seville 1547, 
Svo, often reprinted and translated into Italian. 3. " Pa- 
rentis de Isocrates," He }eft some MSS. and an utv- 
{inished life. of Charles V. ! 

MEYER (James), a Flemish historian- of some note, 
was born near Bailleul in Flanders, Jan. 7, 1491, whence 
.he is sometimes called Baliolanus. He became an ecclesi- 
astic, and finally rector of Blackenbergh, but had under- 
taken the education pf youth as an additional source of sup- 
port. * He died Feb. 5, 1552,< Hb principal productions 
are, 1. "Annates rerum Flandricarura," folio, published 
at Antwerp, in J56K These annals are carried as far as 
,1477, and have been esteemed, not only for their matter, 
but for ease and purity of style, 2. " Flandricarum rerum 
decas," printed at Bruges, in 1531, 4to.* 

MEYER, or MEYERS (Jeremiah), an excellent minia- 
ture painter, was born at Tubingen, in the duchy of Wir- 
temberg, in 1735, and came to England in 1749, with his 
father, who was portrait-painter to the duke 6f Wirtem- 
berg, a painter, says Edwards, of small subjects, but of. no 
great talent. His son studied two years (1757 and 1758), 
under JSink, the eminent painter in enamel, to whom he 
paid two hundred pounds for instruction, and two hundred 

J Antonio Bib]. Hist, • tficeron* vol. X^XIX.— Moreri. 

.. ME YE;R. rios 

♦pounds more for. materials of his art; but Meyer soou sur- 
passed bis master, in (he elegance and gusto of his por- 
traits, a superiority which he 1 acquired by bis attention to 
.the works of sir Joshua Reynolds, who, as well as himself, 
was at that time rising to fame. In 1761, the Society far 
.the Encouragement of Arts, offered a premium of twenty 
.guineas for the best, drawing of a profile of the . king, for 
.the purpose of having a die engraved from it ; and Meyer 
.obtained the prize* He was afterwards appointed miniature 
.painter to the queen. In 1762» he was naturalized by act 
of parliament, and in the following year married a lady of 
considerable fortune and great accomplishments. In 1764, 
be wa$.,appointed painter in enamel to his majesty. 

.He wrought both in enamel and water-colours, and bad 
^bo competitor until Mr. Humphrey, in the latter process, 
.produced some performances of exquisite merit: but as 
that gentleman soon quitted miniature painting, be left 
Meyer without a rival in his department. Meyer was many 
years a member of the academy in St. MartinVlane; and 
at the institution of the royal academy he- was -chosen one 
of the founders. He long resided in Covent-garden, but 
at the latter part of his life he retired to Kew, where be 
.died Jan. 2Q, 1789. This event was the consequence of a 
fever contracted by friendly zeal, in the service of a gen- 
tleman in a contested election. Mr. Hayley says he was 
no less admirable as, a friend than as an artist : and endeared 
to all who. knew him by a pleasant social vivacity, and by 
an indefatigable spirit of extensive beneficence. " Were 
I required," adds Mr, Hayley, " to name the individual 
whom I believe to have been most instrumental in pro- 
moting tbe prosperity of others (without the advantages of 
official authority, or of opulence), I should say, . without 
hesitation, Meyer." ' 

MEZERAI (Francis Eudes de), a« eminent French his* 

-torian, was born at Ry, near Argentau in Lower Normandy, 

in 1610. He was educated in the university of Caen, where 

.he discovered an early inclination for poetry ; and had him- 

<*ell so high an opinion of bis talent in that art, that he 

thought be should be able to raise both a character and a 

fortune by it. But, upon going to Paris, be was dissuaded 

from pursuing poetry, by Vauquelin des Yveteaux, who bad 

1 Edwards's CouHowtion of Wal pole's Anecdotes.~»JJayley , g Life of Rom* 
P*7t PPf 6& 138, 

106 M E Z E R A I. 

*t>een the preceptor of Louis XIII. and advised to apply 
' himself earnestly to history and politics, as the surest means 
of succeeding in life. In the mean time, that gentleman 
procured him the place of commissary of war, which he 
held for two or three campaigns, and then quitted it. 
Upon his return to Paris, he resolved to spend the remainder 
of bis life there; and, changing the name of his family as 
t>eing an obscure one, he took the name of Mezerai, which 
is a cottage in the parish of Ry. But his little stock tff 
money made him apprehensive that he should not be able 
to continue long at Paris ; and therefore, to support him-* 
«elf, he bad recourse to writing satires against the ministry, 
articles which were then extremely well received, and for 
-which he had naturally a turn. M. Larroque, in his Life of 
Mezerai, assures us, that he was author of all the piece* 
published against the government under the name of San- 
dricourt They, are written in a low and burlesque style, 
jand adapted merely to please the populace. Larroque has 
given us the titles of nineteen of these pieces, but would 
1aot give those of others which Mezerai wrote, either 
during the minority of Louis XIV, or against cardinal 
Richelieu ; u because," he says, " they ought to be 
forgotten, out of reverence to the persons whom they at- 

By these satires Mezerai gained a considerable sum in 
less than three years; and being now in easy circumstances, 
applied himself, at the age of twenty- six, to compile an 
" History of France." Cardinef Richelieu, hearing of hw 
character and circumstances, made him a present of two 
hundred crowns, with. a promise to remember him after- 
wards. He published the first volume of his history ih 
1643, which extends from Pharamond to Charles VI. ; thte 
second in 1646, which contains what passed from Charles 
VI. to Charles IX.; and the third in 1651, which com- 
prehends the history from Henry IH. till the peace of Ver- 
vins, in 1598; all in folio. This history procured him* 
pension from the king. It was received with extraor- 
dinary applause, as if there had been no history of France 
before : and perhaps there was none more agreeable as to 
veracity/ In 1668, he published, : in 3 vols. 4to, an 
u Abridgement of the history of France :" in which there 
being several bold passages, which displeased Colbert, that 
minister ordered Perrault, of the French academy, to tqjl 
Mezerai, in his name, that " the king had not given him 

MEZERAi. 107 

Si pension of 4000 Hvres to write in so free a manner ; that 
hismajesty had indepd too great a regard to truth, to require 
bis historiographers to disguise it, out of fear or hope ; but 
that, he did not think they ought to take the liberty of re- 
flecting, without any necessity, upon the conduct of his 
ancestors, and upon a policy which had long been estab- 
lished, and confirmed by the suffrages of the whole na- 
tion." Upon this, remonstrance, the author promised to 
retouch the passages complained of, which he did in a 
new edition, 1672, in 6 vols. 12mo. In this, however, he 
was so unfortunate as neither to satisfy the public, who 
were displeased to see the truth altered, nor the minister, 
who retrenched half his pension. Mezerai was extremely 
piqued at this, and complained of Colbert in such severe 
terms, as induced that minister to deprive him of the re- 
mainder of his pension. Mezerai then declared that he 
would write history no longer; and that the reason of his 
silence might not be concealed, he put the last money 
which he recieved as historiographer, into a box by itself, 
with this note : " Here is the last money I have received of 
the king ; he has ceased to pay me, and 1 to speak of hini 
either good or ill." Mezerai had designed at first to revise 
his great work ; but some friends giving him to understand 
that a correct abridgement would be more acceptable, he 
followed their advice, as we have related* and spent tea 
whole years in drawing it up. The first edition of it met 
with greater applause than even his larger work, and wai 
much sought after by foreigners as well as Frenchmen; 
Learned men,, and critics in historical matters, have re^ 
marked *many errors in it ; but he did not value himself at 
all upon correctness ; and used to tell his friends, who re- 
proached him with the want of it, that " very few persons 
could perceive the difference between a history that is cor- 
rect and one that is not so'; and that the glory which he 
might gain by greater accuracy was not worth the pains it 
would cost." ' 

In. 1649, he was admitted a member of the French aca*» 
demy, in the room of Voiture; and, in 1675, chosen pen- 
peflual secretary of that academy. Besides the works above- 
mentioned, he wrote a " Continuation of the general his- 
tory of the Turks," in which he is thought not to have suc- 
ceeded ; " U Origine des Frangbis," printed at Amster- 
dam, in 1632 ; " Les Yanit& de la Cour," translated from 
the Latin of Johannes Sarisburie n sis, in 164-0; and a French 

to* ME Z E R A L 

translation of "Grotius de Veritate Christians Religionist 
in 1644. He died July 10, 1683, aged seventy-three. He 
A? as,, according to Larroque, a man who was subject to 
strange humours. He was extremely negligent in his per- 
son, and so careless in his dress, that he bad more the ap» 
pearance of a beggar than a gentleman. He was actually, 
seized one morning by the archers des pauvrts, or .parish 
officers ; with which mistake he was highly diverted,, and 
told them, that " he was not able to walk on foot, but that, 
as soon as a new wheel was put to his chariot, he would 
attend them wherever they thought proper." He used to 
study and write by candle-light, even at noon-day in sum- 
mer; and always waited, upon hfs company to the door 
whh<a candle in his band. He had a brother, father Eudes, 
a man of great simplicity and piety, whom he insidiously 
drew in to treat of very delicate points before the queen- 
mother, regent of the kingdom, who was of the Medici 
family ; and to lay down some things relating to govern- 
ment and the finances, which could not fail of displeasing 
that princess ; and must have occasioned -great trouble to 
father Eudes, if the goodness of the queen had not excused 
the indiscretion of the preacher. But of all his humodrs, 
none lessened bim more in the opinion of the public, thart 
the unaccountable fondness he conceived for a man who 
kept a public t house at Chapelleio, called Le Faucbeur. 
He was so taken with this man's frankness and pleasantry, 
that he used to .spend whole days with him, notwithstancU 
ing the admonition of his friends to the contrary ; and not 
only kept up an iotimate friendship with htm during his 
Jife, but made him sole legatee at bis death. With regard 
to religion, be affected Pyrrhonism ; which, however, was 
..not, it seems, so much in his heart as in his mouth. This 
appeared from his last sickness ;. for, having sent for those 
friends who had been the most usual witnesses of his Licen* 
jtious talk about religion, he made a sort; of recantation, 
which he concluded by desiring them " to forget what he 
•might formerly have said upon the subject of religion, and 
to remember, that Mezerai dying, was a better believer 
than Mezerai in health." These particulars are to be found 
in his life by M. Larroque: bat the abb6 Olivet tells us, 
•that he *? was surprised, upon reading this life, to find Me- 
•zerai'* character drawn in such disadvantageous colours*" 
Mezerai was certainly a man of . many singularities,, and 
though agreeable wheu he pleased in his conversation,' yet 

MEZERA t lot 

full of whim, and not without ill-nature. It was a constant 
way with him, when candidates offered themselves for va- 
cant places in the academy, to throw in a black ball instead 
of a white one : and when his friends asked him the reason 
of this unkind procedure, he answered, " that it was to 
leave to posterity a monument of the liberty of the elec- 
tions in the academy." As an historian, he is valued very 
highly and deservedly for his integrity and faithfulness, hi 
relating facts as he found them ; but for this solely : for as 
to his style, it is neither accurate nor elegant, although he 
had been a member of the French academy long before he 
wrote his " Abridgment." * 

MEZIRIAC (Claude Gaspar Bachet, Sieur de), a 
very able scholar, was born at Bresse in 1581. At the age 
of twenty he was admitted into the order of Jesuits, but out 
his recovery from an illness, he returned to a secular life 
again. About this time, he resided occasionally both at 
iParis and Rome ; and at Rome wrote a small collection 
of Italian poems, in competition with Vaugelas, who was 
there at the same time; among which there are imitations 
of the most beautiful similies in the eight first books of the 
iEneid. He published also Latin and French poetry in 
1621, and translated some of Ovid's epistles, which he 
illustrated with commentaries, esteemed more valuable 
than his translation. He is also said to have been welt 
versed in the controversies, both in philosophy and reli- 
gion j and an able algebraist and geometrician.. Of the 
fatter we have a proof in his edition of " Diophantus," en- 
riched with a very able commentary and notes, Paris, 
1621, and reprinted several times in Germany. Des Cartes 
had a very high opinion of his knowledge in mathematical 
science. Such was his fame at one time, that he was pro- 
posed as preceptor to Louis XIII. upon which account he 
left the court in great haste, and declared afterwards, that 
he never felt so much pain upon any occasion in his life : 
for that he seemed as if he had had already upon his 
shoulders the weight of a whole kingdom. He was, though 
absent, made a member of the French academy, when in 
its infancy; and, when it came to his turn to make a dis- 
course in it, he sent up one, which was read to the assem- 
bly by Mr. de Vaugelas. He died at Bourg in Bresse, 

* • 

1 Bibl. Anc.,et Moderne, vol. XXV. p. 440. — Niceron, vol. V. an I X.— *Mo» 
reri,-»Hnft. de rAcad±mie Francoise deptiis. 16$2 jusqti'a 17-00, p. 221, edit. 

p«»; 1730.— aw* ai*t. - i 


Feb. 26, 1638. He left several MSS. in a finished stcltg, 
but which have never been printed, and had brought a 
translation of all Plutarch's works with notes almost to a 
conclusion when he died. 1 


MICHAELIS (John David), a celebrated biblical cri- 
tic, and professor of divinity and the oriental languages, 
was born at Halle, in Lower Saxony, in 1717. His first 
education was private, out in 1729 he was sent to the pub- 
lic school of the orphan-house, where he studied divinity 
and philosophy, and at the same time he occasionally at-* 
tended the lectures of his father, who was professor of di- 
vinity and the oriental languages. During the latter part 
of his time at school, he acquired a great facility in speak* 
ing Latin/ and in thinking systematically, from the prac- 
tice of disputation, in which one of the masters frequently- 
exercised him. In 1733, he entered into the university of 
Halle, where he applied himself to the study of mathe- 
matics, metaphysics, theology, and the oriental languages. 
He also prepared himself for pulpit services, and preached 
with great approbation at Halle and other places. In 1739 
he took a degree in philosophy, and soon after was ap- 
pointed assistant lecturer under his father, having shewn 
how well qualified he was for that situation, by publishin 
a small treatise *' De Antiquitate Punctorum Vocalium. 
In 1741 he left his own country with a view of visiting 
England, and passing through Holland, became acquainted 
with the celebrated Schultens, from whom he received 
many marks of the most friendly attention. Upon his ar- 
rival in England, he engaged to officiate for the German 
chaplain to the court, who was at that time in an infirm, 
state of health, and continued to preach at the palace-cha- 
pel nearly a year and a half. During this period he visited 
the university of Oxford, greatly increased his knowledge 
of the oriental languages,' and formed an intimacy with 
some of the first literary characters of that age, particularly 
with Dr. Lowth, afterwards bishop of London, on some of 
whose lectures "De Sacra Poesi Hebraeorum" he attended. 
Upon his return to Halle, he resumed his labours as assist- 
ant to his father, and delivered lectures ou the historical, 
books of the Old Testament, the Syriac and Chaldee* Ian- 

, * Niceron, vol. VI.— » Gen, Plct.J-Pelision Hist, de 1'Academie Fraacoise, 
p.236. • 4 




guages, and also upon natural history, and the Roman 
classics ; but seeing no prospect of a fixed establishment, 
be left Halle in 1745, and went to Gottingen, in the capa- 
city of private tutor. In the following year he was made 
professor extraordinary of philosophy in the university of 
Gottingen, and, in 1750, professor in ordinary in the same 
faculty- In 1751 be was appointed secretary to the newly 
instituted Royal Society of Gottingen, of which he after- 
wards became director, and about the same time was made 
aulic counsellor by the court of Hanover. During 175Q F 
he gained the prize in the Royal Academy of Berlin y by a 
piemoir "On the Influence of Opinions on Language, and 
Language on Opinions." While the seven years' war 
lasted, Micbaelis met with but little interruption in his* 
studies, being exempted, in common with the other pro* 
feasors, from military employment; and when the new re* 
gulations introduced by the French in 1760, deprived them 
Qf that privilege, by the command of marshal Broglio it 
was particularly extended to M. Michaelis* Soon after 
this, he obtained from Paris, by means of the marquis de. 
Lostange, the manuscript of Abulfeda's geography, from, 
which he afterwards edited bis account of the Egyptians;, 
and by the influence of £he same noblemanr, he was chosen 
correspondent of the " Academy of Inscriptions at Paris," 
in 1764, and elected one of the eight foreign members of 
that institution* In 1 760, the professor gave great offence 
to the orthodox clergy, by publishing his " Compendium 
of dogmatic Theology," consisting of .doctrinal lectures- 
which he had delivered by special licence from the govern- 
ment. Shortly after this, Micbaelis shewed bis zeal for 
the interests of science and literature, by the part which 
he took in the project of sending a .mission of learned me a 
into Egypt and Arabia, for the purpose of obtaining such 
information concerning the actual state of those countries, 
as might serve to throw light on geography, natural history, 
philology, and biblical learning. He first conceived the 
idea of such, a mission, which he communicated by letter 
t.o. the privy counsellor Bernstorf, who laid it before his* 
sovereign Frederic V. king, of Denmark. That sovereign 
was so well satisfied of the benefits which might result from, 
the undertaking, that he determined to support the expence 
of it, and he even committed to Micbaelis the. management 
of the design, together with the nomination of proper tra- 
vellers, and the care of drawing up their instructions. Upon 

11* MICfiAELU 

the death of Gesner in 1761, Michaelis succeeded ifi th* 
office of librarian to the Royal Society, which he held 
about a year, and was then nominated to the place of di- 
rector, with the salary for life of the post, which he theri 
resigned. Two years afterwards he was invited by thef 
tins: of Prussia to removeto Berlin, but his attachment to' 
Gottingen led htm to decline the advantages which were? 
held out to him as resulting from the change. In 1766 he 
was visited at Gottingen by sir John Pringle, whom he had 
known in England, and Dr. Franklin. With the first he 
afterwards corresponded on the subject of the leprosy, 
spoken of in the books of Moses, and on that of Daniel's 
prophecy of the severity weeks. The latter subject was 
disscussed in the letters which passed between them during 
1771, and was particularly examined by the professor. 
This correspondence was printed by sir John Pringle in* 
1773, under the title of " Joan. Dav. Michaelis de Epis*. 
tolae, &c. LXX. Hebdomadibus D&nielis, ad D. Joan. Prin- 
gle, B&ronettum ; primo privatim misses, nunc vero'utri- 
usque consensu publice editue." In 1770, some differ- 
ences having arisen between Michaelis and his colleague* 
in the Hoyal Society, he resigned his directorship. In 
1775 his well-established reputation had so far removed the 
prejudices which had formerly been conceived against him 
in Sweden, that the count Hopkin, who some years before 
had prohibited the use of his writings at Upsal, now pre- 
vailed upon the king to confer upon him the order of the 
polar star. He was accordingly decorated with the en-. 1 
signia of that order, on which occasion he chose as a motto 
to his arms, " libera Veritas." In 1782 his health begain to 7 
decline, which he never completely recovered; in 1786 he 
was raised to the rank of privy counsellor of justice by the 
court of Hanover ; in the following year the academy of 
inscriptions at Paris elected him a foreign member of that 
body; and in 1788 he received his last literary honour by 
beiftg elected a member of the Royal Society of London. 
He continued his exertions almost to the very close of life, 
and a few weeks before his death, he shewed a friend seve-- 
ral sheets in MS. of annotations which he had lately writ- : 
ten on the New Testament. He died on the 22d of At*- 


gust, 1791, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. He wis- a* 
man of very extensive and profound erudition/ as well as-' 
of extraordinary talents, which were not less brilliant? that*' 
solid, as is evident from the^. honours which were paid t<y 

M I C H A E L I S.* 113, 


tys merits/ and the testimony of his acquaintance, and con* 
temporaries. His application and industry were unwea-. 
rjed, and his perseverance in such pursuits as he conceited; 
would pjrove useful to the world, terminated only with the . 
declension of his powers. His writings are distinguished 
not only by various and solid learning, but by a profusion 
of ideas, extent of knowledge, brilliancy of expression, 
and a frequent vein of pleasantry. In the latter part of his 
life (ie was regarded not only as a literary character, but as 
a man of business, and wa,s employed in affairs of consider- 
able importance by the courts of England, Denmark, and 
Prussia. I^is .works are very numerous, and chiefly upon , 
the subjects of divinity and oriental languages. A part qf , 
them are written in Latin, but by far the greater number] 
in German, Of the former class there are these : 1. 
"Commentatio de Battologia, ad Matth. vi. 7.'* Bremen, 
1753, 4to. 2," Paralippmena contra Polygamiam,'' ibid*. 
1758, 4to, .3..." Syntagma commentationum," Goett. 1759 
77-1767, 4(o. 4. " Curse in versionem Syriacam Actuum 
Apostolqrum," Goett. 1755, 4to. 5. " Compendium The- t 
ologiae dogmatipae," rb. 1760, 8 vo, 6. "Cpmmentationes 

*regiae soc. Scientiarum Goettingensis, per annos 1758— 
176,2," Bremen, 1775, 4to. 7. " Vol.^ II. Ejusdem, 1769.". 
8. ." £5picilegium Geographic Hebraeorum exterae, post, 
Bochartum," Goett. 1769 — 1780, 2 torn. 4to. 9. " Gram- 
matica Chaldaica," ib. 1771, 8vo. 10. " Supplementa ad 
Lexicon JJebraicum," 1784 — 1792, 6 torn. 4to. 11. 
" Grammatica Syriaca," Halae, 1784, 4to.. The following 
are in German; 12. "Hebrew Grammar," Halle, 1778, 
8yo. JL3. " Elements of Hebrew accentuation," ib. 1741, 
8vo. 14. "Treatise on the Law of Marriage, according 
to Moses," Qoett., 1768, 4to. 15. "Paraphrase and Re- 
marks on tfye Epistles of Paul to the Galatians, Ephesians, 
Colqssians, Thessalonians, Titus, Timothy, and Philemon," 
Bremen, 1769, 4to. 16. " Introduction to the Holy $crip- 
tyres of the New Testament," Bremer), 1750, 8vo. 17. 

. " ProphetiQal plan of the preacher Solomon," ib. 176{2, 
8va .18. " Thoughts on. the Doctrine of Scripture con- 
cerning Sin," tfenab. 1752, 8yo. 19. "Plan of typical Divi- 
nity," Brem. 1*763, 8vo. 20. " Criticism of the means^ 
employed to understand the Hebrew language." 21. " Cri- 
-tic^l Xectures on the principal Psalms which treat of 
Christ," Franfcf. 1759, 8 vq. 22. " Explanation of the* 
Epistle to the Hebrews," Frank f. 1784, 2 vols. $to. 23, 
Vol. XXII. v I 

II* ai I C H A E L I s. 


Questions proposed to a socifety of learned Men, whd» 
went to Arabia by order of the king of Denmark/ 9 ib. 1762, 
8Vo. 24. " Introduction to the New Testament," a second 
edition, Goett. 1788, 2 vols. 4tc*. 25. *' MisceNaneotrs 
Writings," two parts, Frankf. 1766 — 8, 8-vo. 26. "Pro* 
gramma concerning the seventy-two translators/ r Goett. 
1-767, 8 vo. .27. "Dissertation on the Syriac language,, 
and its use," Qoett. 1768, 8vo* 28. " Strictures concern- 
ing the Protestant Universities in Germany," Frankf. 1775, 
8vo. 29. " Translation of. the Old Testament," Goett. 
1769 — 8$, 13 parts. 30. " Fundamental Interpretation of 
the Mosaic Law," Frankf. 1770-5, 6 parts, with additions, 
Svo. 3!. " Of the Seventy Weeks of Daniel," Goett. 
1772, £vo. 32. " Arabic Grammar and Chrestomathy,* r 
ib'. 1781, 8i*o. 33. "Oriental and exegetical Library,**' 
Frankf. 1771 — r89, 24 parts, and two supplements, 8vo. 
34. " New Oriental and exegetical Library," Goett. 1786—; 
91, 9 parts. 35. " Of the Taste of the Arabians in their 
Writings," ib. 1781, 8vo. 36. " Dissertation otf the Syriac 
Language and its uses, together with a Chrestomathy," ib, 
1 ; 786, 8vo. 37. " On the Duty of Men to speak Truth,'* 
Kiel, 1773, 8Vo. 38. " Commentary on the Maccabees/*" 
Frankfort, 1777, 4to. 39. " History of Horses, and of the* 
Breedkig of Horses in Palestine," &c. ib. 1776, 8vo. 4Q„ 
** Thoughts on the doctrine of Scripture concerning Sir* 
and Satisfaction," Bremen, 1*779, 8vo. 41. "Illustration- 
of the History of the Burial and Resurrection of Christ/* 
JIalle, 1783, 8vo. 42. " Supplement, or the fifth Frag- 
ment of Lessing's Collections," Halle, 1785, 8vo. 43^ 

* German Dogmatic Divinity/' Goett. 1784, 8vo. 44.. 

* Introduction to the Writings of the Old Testament, 1 * 
Hamb„l787, IstvoLlst part, 4to. 45„ "Translation of 
the Old Testament, without remarks," Goett. 1789, 2 vols„ 
4to. 46* "Translation of the New Testament," ib. 1790,, 
2 vols. 4to. 47. u Remarks for the unlearned, relative td 
his translation of the New Testament," ib. 1790 — 92, 4« 
parts, 4to. 43- ** Additions to the third edition of the In- 
troduction to the New Testament," ibid; 1789, 4to. 49.. 
^Ethics," a posthumous work, published by C. F. Stead- 
fin, Goett. 1792; 2 parts, 8vo- 

Of those with which the English scholar has been 
brought acquainted, one of the principal is the " Introduce 
fidn to the New Testament," translated into English from: 
*btf firs* edition; and published in 1761, in a quarto Volume* 

M 1 C H A E L 1 S; us 

fn 1738, the fourth edition was published in two volume* 
quarto. The object of this work; which is purely critical 
and historical, id to explain the. Greek Testament, with 
the tame impartiality, and the same unbiassed Jove o£ 
truth, with which a critic in profane literature would exa- 
mine the writings of Homer*, Virgil, &c* The first volume* 
contain^ an examination of the authenticity, inspiration/ 
and language of the New Testament, The second volume 
Contains a particular introduction to each individual bbofc 
of the New Testament; An English translation of it had 
been published by the rev. Herbert Marsh, in six volumes^ 
royal Svo* To- this we may add another very important 
translation of his " Mosaisches Heche," or u Commentaries* 
in the Laws of Moses," by Alexander Smith, D. D< minister 
ef the Chapel of Garioch, Aberdeenshire, 1 8 1 4, 4 vols. 8voi 
This, says the learned translator, has always been esteemed 
the chef jPcewvte of Michaelis, but although a work of very 
great importance, demands the application of somewhat of 
that precautionary chastening, which Dr* Marsh has so ju- 
diciously applied in the 4t Introduction to the New Testa- 
ment*" From Dr. Smith, also, the public have reason to. 
expect a memoir of the life and writings of Michaelis^ 
tooref ample than has yet appeared in this country ♦* 
• MICHAELIS (John Henry), a learned orientalist, pro- 
fessor of divinity, Greek* and oriental languages, and di- 
rector of the divinity school of Halle, was born at Ketten- 
burg, in Hohenstein, July 26, 1668* His father sent him 
in 1683 to Brunswick, to learn trade, but a few month* 
after* he" allowed him to be placed at the school of St. Mar- 
tin in that city, where the rector, M. Meeringf, cultivated 
his talents, and found him capable, of instructing some of 
the younger scholars. An illness obliging him to leave this 
place, he continued bis studies, at Nordhausen, and in' 
1688 at Leipsiri, where he went through courses of phi* 
tosophy and divinity; and also studied the oriental lan- 
guages and rabbinical Hebrew. In 1694 he quitted Leip- 
sic for the university of Halle, where he taught the Greek^ 
Hebrew 1 , and Chaldee with great reputation. Here he pub- 
lished^ With the assistance of professor Fran eke, who men* 
tions hitn respectfully in his " Pietas Hallensis," a work- 
entitled " Conamina brevioris Manuductionis ad Doctri* 

. l Rees's Cyclopaedia, abridged from a German account translated in Dr. 
AikiW General Biography.'— See also Gent. Mag. 1792, p. 222, and Dr. Smith V 
preface to the " Commentaries of the Laws of Moses.' 1 



nam de Acceritibus Hebreorum Pfosalcis." In 1696 btf 
published another piece, entitled " Epicrisis phitologica de 
icverendi Michaelis Beckii, Ulmebsis, Disquisitionibu* phi* 
lologicis, cum responsionibus ad Examen XJV, Dictorj 
Gen." In 1699, he succeeded Fraricke in the Greek pro-' 
fessorsbip at Halle, and in 1707 was made keeper of the 
university library. He was afterwards nominated professor. 
of divinity in ordinary,, and admitted to the degree of D. D. 
In 1732 be was made senior of the faculty of divinity, and 
inspector of the theological seminary. He died in 1733,, 
at about the age of seventy. He was authdr of mahy workd 
besides those already mentioned, the titles of which are 
enumerated in our authority. 1 

MI^HELI (Peter Anthony), an Italian botanist of 
great celebrity, particularly in what is now railed the cryp- 
togamic department, was. born at Florence, 'December Tip 
1679. His parents were indigent, and took but little care 
of bis education. He is said,, nevertheless, to have been 
destined to the occupation of a bookseller, but an insatwn 
ble thirst after natural knowledge over- ruled all other bbt* 
jects* and his good character, and distinguished arrdour* 
3000 procured him the notice and favour of the marquis 
Cosmo da Castiglione, in whose family a taste for botany 
bas b^en almost hereditary, aod for whtmi ftl&heli in bis 
early youth made a collection of Umbelliferous plantsy 
which, even then proved his accuracy and disc^rnment- 
Tbis gentleman introduced him to the celebrated count 
Lawrence Magalo&i, by wbom'he was presented tohis so* 
vereign, the grand duke Cosmo II J. The " Iqstitutienesr 
Rei Hfirbariss" of Too rue fort had just appeared at Peris; 
and the first pledge of the grand duke's favour* was a pre- 
sent of that book, which to Micheli, who bad hitherto* 
found the want of some systematic guide, \vas a most im- 
portant and welcome acquisition. Hg. speedily : adopted 
the tone of his leader, with respect to -generic distioCtioasf 
and definitions, and improved upon him in a more frequent 
adaptation of original specific ones* 

1n the autumn of I70p, the care of the public gardefrtit 
Florence, founded by Cosmo 1, was confided to Micheli, 
and he was commissioned to travel, not only in Italy, but 
in various distant countries, tq Collect plants, and to esta«* 
blish a correspondence, for the benefit of his trust. By , 
the co-operation of his friends Franchi and Gualtierj, 'tli$ j 

1 Moreri. 

MI CHE LI. 117 

garden was enriched from the then more flourishing one at 
Pisa; ami' a botanical society. was instituted at Florence in 
1717) which greatly promoted the interests of the science: 
In the summer of. that year, the great William Sherard* 
returning from Smyrna to England, visited Florence in his 
way, and formed a friendship with Micheli, that continued 
till his own decease in 1728. A frequent correspondence* 
and interchange of specimens, took place between . them, 
as amply appears by the collections preserved at Oxford, 
and by the writings of Micheli. 

Micheli continued his scientific studies, as well as his 
bodily exertions in frequent journies. The fruit of th6 
former was the . publication of his great work, entitled 
?' Nova Plantarum Genera," 1729, a folio of 1234 pages and 
108 plates. The result of his journies proved but too soon 
disastrous. , He spent near three months, from the 4th of 
September to the 30th of November, 1736, in an excur- 
sion to the north of Italy, visiting the famous mount Bal- 
dus, and the. Venetian isles; but be caught a pleurisy, 
from the consequences of which he never recovered, dying 
at Florence, January 2, 1737, new style, in the fifty-eighth 
year of his age. He was buried in the church of Santa 
jCroce, amongst the ashes of some of the greatest men of 
his country, and. of the civilized world, where a neat mar- 
ble tablet was erected to his memory by his associates* 
The simple apd. elegant inscription was probably composed 
fay bis learned friend Antony Cocchi, to whom he always 
confided the revision of his Latin . works, before publica- 
tion, and who delivered an Italian oration in bis praise, in 
the council chamber of the old palace, August 7, 1737* 
which was soon after, published. 

Micheli is. described, by his contemporaries as a man of 
the most pleasing, modest, and liberal manners,, no lesp 
ready to communicate, than, eager to acquire* knowledge. 
His friend Cocchi informs us, that " he was endued with a 
clear. and concipe natural eloquence; and although the 
poverty of bis parents deprived him of .the advantages of a 
tainted education, be bad, by his own application, ac~ 
x quired, with wonderful felicity, a knowledge of Latin."— 
< u Whe writings jpf the fliost eminent botanists were so.fami- 
Jiarto him* that be had learned to express bis ideas in Latin, 
iby no means amiss, he having a very quick perception a* 
& any barbarous expressions.' 9 * 

1 i Fabroni Vit» Italorum, rol. iv!— By sir J. Smith in toss's Cyclopedic 

11* .MICKL E. 

MICKLE (William Julius), an ingenious poet, was th$ 
pon of the rev. Alexander Mickle or Meikle, who exchange 
ing the profession of physic for that of divinity, was ad* 
mined, at an age more advanced than usual, into the mi* 
nistry of the church of Scotland. From that country he 
removed to London, where be preached for some time in 
various dissenting meetings, particularly that of the cele- 
brated Dr. Watts. He was also employed by the book* 
sellers in correcting the translation of Bayle's Dictionary, 
to which he is said to have contributed the greater part of 
the additional notes. In 1716 he returned to Scotland, on 
being presented to the living of Langholm in the county of 
Dumfries; and in 1727, he married Julia, daughter of Mr.. 
Thomas Henderson, of Ploughlands near Edinburgh, and 
first cousin to the late sir William Johnstone, bart. of Wes? 
terhall. By this lady, who appears to have died before 
him, he had ten children. 

Our poet, his fourth, or as some say, his third, son, was 
born Sunday Sept. 29, 1734, and educated at the grammar 
school of Langholm, where he acquired that early taste for 
works of genius which frequently ends, in spite of all ob- 
stacles, in a life devoted to literary pursuits. He even at- 
tempted, when at school, a few devotional pieces in rhyme, 
which, however, were not superior to the common run of 
puerile compositions. About his thirteenth year, he acci- 
dentally met with Spenser's " Faerie Queene," which fixed 
a lasting impression on his mind, and made him desirous of 
being enrolled among the imitators of that poet. To this 
he joined the reading of Homer and Virgil, during his edu- 
cation at the high school of Edinburgh, in which city his 
father obtained permission to reside in consideration of his 
advanced age and infirmities, and to enable him to give a 
proper education to his children. 

About two years after the rev. Mr. Mickle came to re- 
side in Edinburgh, upon the death of a brother-in-law, a 
'brewer in the neighbourhood of that city, be embarked a 
great part of his fortune in the purchase of the brewery, 
and continued the business in the name of his eldest soi\. 
Our poet was then taken from school, employed as a clerk 
under his father, and upon coming of age in 1755, took 
upon him the whole charge and pr6perty of the business, 
«on condition of granting his father a share of the profits 
during bis life, and paying a certain sum to his brothers 
and sisters at stated periods, after bis father's decease, 

M I C K L E. |i? 

which happened in 1758. Young Mickle is said to have 
entered into these engagements more from a sense of filial 
duty, and the peculiar situation of his family, than froo) 
any inclination to business. He had already contracted 
the habits of literary life ; he had begun to feel the enthu- 
siasm of a son of the Muses, and while he was storing his 
mind with the productions of former poets, and cultivating 
those branches of elegant literature not usually taught at 
schools at that time, he felt the employment too delight* 
ful to admit of much interruption from the concerns of 
trade. In 1761, he contributed, but without his name, 
two charming compositions,, entitled " Knowledge, an 
Ode," and a " Night Piece," to a collection of poetry pub- 
lished by Donaldson, a bookseller of Edinburgh ; and about 
the same time published some observations on that impious 
tract <( The History of the Man after God's own heart," but 
whether separately, or in any literary journal, is not now 
known. He had also finished a dramatic poem of consider- 
able length, entitled " The Death of Socrates," and ha4 
begun a poem on " Providence," when his studies were in- 
terrupted by the importunities of his creditors. 

This confusion in bis affairs was partly occasioned by bis 
intrusting that to servants which it was in their power to 
abuse without his knowledge, and partly by imprudently 
becoming a joint security for a considerable sum with a 
printer in Edinburgh, to whom one of his brothers was' 
then apprentice, which, on his failure, iCf ickle was unable 
to pay. In this dilemma, had he at once compounded with 
his creditors, and disposed of the business;, as he was ad- 
vised, he might have averted a series of anxieties that 
preyed on his mind for many yean ; and he perhaps might 
have filtered into another concern more congenial to his 
disposition, with all the advantage of dear-bought expe-* 
rience. But some friends interposed at this crisis, and 
prevailed on his creditors to accept notes of hand in lieu of 
present payment, a measure which, however common, is in 
geperal futile, and seldom fails to increase the embarrass- 
ment which it is kindly intended to alleviate. Accordingly 
within a few months, Mickle was again insolvent, and al- 
most distracted with a nearer view of impending ruin ready 
M> fall, not only on himself, but on bis whole family. Per T 
haps an unreserved acknowledgment of iasolvency mighj 
not yet have been too late to shorten his sufferings, ha4 
apt the same friends again interfered, and again persuaded 

420 MICKLE. 

* * T * 

his creditor* to allow him more time to satisfy their de- 
mands. This interference, as it appeared to be the Ipst 
that was possible, in some degree roused him to a more 
close application to business;. but as business was ever se- 
condary in his thdugbts, he was induced at the same time 
to place considerable reliance on his poetical talents which, 
as far as known,' had been encouraged by some critics of 
acknowledged taste in his own country. He therefore be- 
gan to retouch and complete his poem on " Providence, 1 * 
from which he conceived great expectations, and at length 
had it published in London by Becket, in August 1762, 
under the title of " Providence, or Arandus and Emil£e." 
The character given of it in the Critical Review was highly 
flattering ; but the opinion of the Monthly, which was then 
esteemed more decisive, being less satisfactory, he 'deter* 
mined to appeal to lord Lyttelton: Accordingly, he *ent 
to this nobleman a letter dated January 21, 1763, under 
the assumed name of William More, begging his lordship's " 
opinion of his poem, " which, 1 ' he tells him* " was the 
work of a. young man friendless and unknown, but that, 
were another edition to have the honour of lord Lvttelton's 
frame at the head of a dedication, such a pleasure would 
enable him to put it in a much better dress than whit it 
then appeared in." He concluded with requesting the fit- 
trour of an answerto be left at Seagoe's Coffee-house, HoU 
born. This letter he consigned to the care of his brother 
in London, who was t6 send it io his own hand and call for 
the answer. But before this could arrive, his affairs became 
so deranged that, although he experienced many instances 
bf friendship and forbearance, it was no longer possible to 
avert a bankruptcy ; and suspecting that one of his creditors 
intended to arrest him for an inconsiderable debt, he was 
reduced to the painful necessity of leaving his home, which 
he did in the month of April, atid reached London -on the 
8th day of May. Here for some time he remained friend* 
less and forlorn, reflecting with the utmost poignancy that 
he had in all probability involved his family and friends in 
irremediable distress. 

' Among other schemes which he hoped might eventually 
succeed in relieving his embarrassments, he appears to 
have now had some intentions of going to Jamaica, but in 
what capacity, or with what prospects, he perhaps did not 
himself know. There was, however, no immediate plan so 
tea*ily practicable, by which he could expect at some dis- 

MIGKLE. i2t 

%int period W satisfy bis creditors, and the consciousness 
of this most painful of all obligations was felt by him in a 
•manner which can bfe conceived only by minds of the nicest 
honour and most scrupulous integrity. While in this per* 
plextty, he was cheered by a letter from lord Lyttelton, in 
Which his lordship assured him that he thought his geniui 
in poetry deserved to be cultivated, but Would not advise 
the republication of bis poem without considerable altera- 
tions. He declined the offer of a dedication, as a thing 
likely to be of -no use to the poet, " as nobody minded de- 
dications ;" but suggested that it might be of some use if 
be were to come and read the poem with his lordship, when 
they might discourse together Upon what he thought its 
beauties and faults. In the mean time he exhorted Mickle 
to endeavbbr to acquire greater harmony of versification ; 
and to take care that his diction did hot loiter info prose, or 
become hard by new phrases, or Words unauthorized by 
the usage of good authors. — In answer to this condescend- 
ing and friendly letter, Mickle informed his lordship of his 
real name, and inclosed the elegy of u PbMio" for his lord- 
Ship's advice* This was followed by another kind letter 
from lord Lyttelton, in which he gave his opinion, that the 
correction of a few lines would make it as perfect as- any 
thing of that kind in our language, and promised to point 
out its faults when he had the pleasure of seeing the author.. 
An interview accordingly took place in the month of Feb- 
ruary 1764, when his lordship, after receiving him with 
the utmost politeness and affability, begged him not to be 
discouraged at such difficulties as a young author must na- 
turally expect, but to cultivate his very promising poetical 
powers; and, with his usual condescension, added, that 
he wouid become his schoolmaster. -Other, interviews fol- 
lowed -this very flattering introduction, at which Mickle 
read with him the poem on "Providence," and communi- 
cated bis plan for treating more fully a subject of so much 
intricacy, intimating that be had found it necessary to dis- 
card the philosophy of Pope's ethics. But, as in order to 
render bis talents as soon productive as possible, be had 
. now a wish to publish a volume of poems, he sent to his. 
noble friend that on «• Providence,' 1 " Polho," and an 
" Elegy on Mary Queen of Scots." This produced a long 
letter from his lordship, in which after much praise of the 
two former, he declined criticising any part of the elegy 
*q Mary, because he wholly disapproved of the subject* 

422 M I C K L E. 

m * » 

He added, with justice, that poetry should not consecrate 
what history must condemn ; and in the view his lordship 
had taken of the history of Mary, he thought her entitled 
to pity, but not to praise* In this opinion Mickle acqui- 
esced, from convenience, if not from conviction, and again 
pent his lordship a copy of " Providence, 9 ' with further 
improvements, hoping probably that they might be the 
last; but he had the mortification to receive it back from 
the noble critic so much marked and blotted, that he began 
to despair of completing it to his satisfaction* He remitted* 
therefore, a new performance, the " Ode on May Day," 
begging his lordship's opimion " if it could be made pro- 
per to appear this spring (176$) along with the one already 

Whether any answer was returned to this application, 
we are not told. It is certain no volume of poems appeared, 
and our author, begat?, to feel how difficult it would be to 
justify such tardy proceedings to those who expected that 
he should do something to provide, for himself. He had 
pow been nearly two years in London, without any other 
subsistence than what be received from his brothers, or 
procured by contributing to some of the periodical publi- 
cations, particularly the British and St. James's Magazines. 
AH this was scanty and precarious, and bis hopes of greater 
advantages from his poetical efforts were considerably 
damped by the fastidious opinions of the noble critic who 
had voluntarily undertaken to be his tutor. It qow oc- 
curred to Mickle to try whether his lordship might not 
serve him more essentially as a patron ; and having still 
some intention of going to Jamaica, he took the liberty to 
request his lordship's recommendation to his brother Wil- 
liam Henry Lyttelton, esq. who was then governor of that 
island. This produced an interview, in which, lord Lyttel- 
ton intimated that a recommendation to his brother would 
be of no real use, as the governor's patronage was gene- 
rally bespoke long before vacancies take place ; be pro T 
Raised, however, to recommend Mickle to the merchants, 
and to one of them then in London, whom he expected tq 
see very soon. He also hinted thai: a clerkship at hpm$ 
would be desireable, as England was the place for Mickle, 
but repressed all hopes from this scheme, by adding, that 
as he (lord Lyttelton) was in opposition, he could ask up 
favours. He then mentioned the East Indies,, as a plac? 
where perhaps he could be of service j and after much con- 

MICKLE, 123 

Venation oh these Various schemes, concluded with a pro- 
mise, which probably appeared to his client as a kind of 
anti-climax, that be would aid the sale of his " Odes" with 
his good opinion when they should be published. 

This was the last interview Mickle had with his lordship. 
He afterwards renewed the subject in the way of corre- 
spondence, but received so little encouragement, that he 
was at length compelled, although much against the fond 
opinion he had formed of his lordship's zeal in his cause, 
to give up all thoughts of succeeding by his means. It 
cannot be doubted that he felt this disappointment very 
acutely, but whether he thought, upon more mature reflec- 
tion, that he had not sufficient claims on lord Lyttelton'* 
patronage, that his lordship could not be expected to pro-> 
vide for every one who solicited his opinion, or that he was 
really unable to befriend him according to his honest pro* 
fessioos, it is .certain that be betrayed no coarse resent* 
meat, and always spoke respectfully of the advantages he 
had derived from iris critical opinions* The conclusion of 
their correspondence, indeed, was in some respect owing 
to Mickle himself. Lord Ly ttelton so far kept his word as 
to write to his brother in his favour at the time when Mickle 
was bent on going to Jamaica, but the latter had, in the 
mean time, " in order to avoid the dangers attending aa 
uncertainty," accepted the offer of going as a merchant'* 
clerk to Carolina, a scheme which, being delayed by some 
accident, he gave up for a situation more agreeable to his 
taste, that of corrector of the Clarendon press at Oxford. 

To whom he owed this appointment we are not told* 
As it is a situation, however, of moderate emolument, and 
dependant on the printer employed, it required no extraor- 
dinary interference of friends. He was already known to 
the Wartons, and it is not improbable that their mention- 
ing him to Jackson, the printer, would be sufficient. He 
removed to Oxford in 1765 ; and in 1767, published "The 
Concubine," in the manner of Spenser, which brought 
him .into more notice than any thing he had yet written* 
and was attributed to some of the highest names ou the 
list of living poets, white he concealed his being the author* 
It may here be noticed, that when he published a second 
edition in 1778, he changed the name to "Sir Marty n," 
as " The Concubine" conveyed a very improper idea both 
of the subject and spirit of the poem. Living now in a 
society from which some of the ablest defenders of Chris* 


tianity Have risen, he was induced to take up bis peii in its 
defence, by attacking a " Translation of the New Testa- 
ment" published by the late Dr. Harwood. Mickle's 
pamphlet was entitled " A Letter to Dr. Harwood, where* 
in some of his evasive glosses, false translations, and blun* 
. dering criticisms, in support of the Arian heresy, con* 
tained in bis liberal translation of the New Testament, are 
pointed out and confuted." Harwood had laid himself so 
Open to ridicule as well as confutation by his foolish trans- 
lation, that perhaps there was no great merit in exposing 
what it was scarcely possible to read with gravity ; but our 
author, while he employed rather more severity than was 
necessary on this part of his subject, efigaged in the vindi- 
cation of the doctrine of the Trinity with the acuteness of 
a man who had carefully studied the controversy, and coo-* 
aidered the established opinion as a matter of essential 
importance. This was followed by another attempt to vin* 
dicate revealed religion from the hostility of the deists* 
entitled " Voltaire in the Shades, or Dialogues on the 
Peistical Controversy.*' 

In 1772, he formed that collection of fugitive poetry, 
which was published in four volumes by George Pearch, 
bookseller, as s continuation of Dodsley's collection, la 
this Mickle inserted his " Hen gist and Mey," and . the 
¥ Elegy on Mary queen of Scots." He contributed about 
the same time other occasional pieces, both in prose and 
verse, to the periodical publications *, when he couid spare 
leisure from his engagements at the Clarendon press, and 
from a more important design which he had long revolved 
in bis mind, and had now the resolution, to carry into exe* 
cation in preference to every other employment. This 
was his justly celebrated translation of the " Lu^ad", of 
Camoens, a poem which he is said to have read when a boy 
in Castera's French translation, and which at no great disr 
tance of time he determined to familiarize to the English 
leader. For this purpose be studied the Portuguese Ian* 
guage, and the history of the poem and of its author, and 
without greatly over-rating the genius of Camoens, dwelt 
on the beauties of the " Lusiad," until be caught the aur 

. * A correspondent in the Gentle- erer, was'fully refuted in a subsequent 

man's Magazine (vol. LXT. p. 402) letter in p. 504, written, probably, by 

Msefted that Mickle was employed by Mr. Isaac Reed, who knew. Mickle 

£vans, bookseller in the Strand, to well, apd drew up the first, account 

fabricate some of the old ballads pub- published of hit life id tk« European 

fished by bim. This calumny, bow- Magazine, 1789-. 

M I C K L E. t*S 

thor's spirit, atid became confident that he could transfuse 
it into English with equal honour to his original and to 
himself. But as it was necessary that the attention of the 
English public should be drawn to a poem at this time very 
little known, he first published proposals for bis traosla* 
tion to be printed by subscription, and afterwards sent' a 
small specimen of the fifth book to be inserted in the Geo* 
tleman's Magazine, which was then* as now, the common 
vehicle of literary, communications. This appeared in- the 
Magazine for March 1771, and a few months after he 
printed at Oxford the first book of the " Lusiad." These 
specimen were received with indulgence sufficient to en- 
courage him to prosecute hfe undertaking with spirit; and 
that he anight enjoy the advantages of leisure' and quiet,- 
he relinquished bis situation at the Clarendon press, and 
retired to an old ftismsion occupied by a Mr. Tomkins* • 
farmer at Forrest-hill, abput five miles from Oxford, Here 
be remained until the end of 1775, at which time he was 
enabled to complete his engagement with his numerous] 
subscriber!, and publish the work complete in a quarto 
volume printed at Oxford. 

With the approbation bestowed on this work by the cri-* 
tical world, he. had every reason to be satisfied, and thef 
profits he derived .from the sale were far from being incon** 
aiderable to. a man in his circumstances; yet the publica- 
tion was attended by some unforeseen circumstances of a 
less pleasing kind, for he had again the misfortune to be 
teazed by the. prospect of high patronage, which again 
ended in disappointment. It had at first been suggested 
to him that he might derive advantage from dedicating hi* 
Translation of thp Lusiad to some person of rank i« the. 
East. India department, but before he had made a choice*, 
hk friend the late commodore Johnstone, persuaded him to 
inscribe it to the late duke of Buccleugh. This nobleman, 
however, we "are told, had been a pupil of Dr. Adam Smith, 
some of whose doctrines respecting the Eastern trade, 
Mickte had controverted ; and upon this account the noble- 
man is said to have treated the dedication and the poemr 
with neglect Mickle's biographers have expatiated on 
this suhject at great length, and with much acrimony ; but 
as hi* igcace of Buccleugh was universally esteemed for his 
public and private worth, and » above all for his liberality, 
we must -abstain from any further notice of a story, of which 
probably, 6ue half only can ever be known. Qtnjs thiqg )ft 

128 M I C K L E. 


certain, that Mickle did not publish on the East India trade 
until 1779. 

• Soon after the publication of the " Lusiad," he returned 
to London/ and was advised by some who probably in thi# 
instance consulted his fame less than his immediate inte- 
fest, to write a tragedy. The story of his tragedy, which 
was entitled " The Siege of Marseilles," was taken fronr 
she French history in the reign of Francis I. When com- 
pleted, his friends recommended it to Garrick, who allowed 
its general merit, but complained of the want of stage 
effect, and recommended him to take the advice of Dr. 
Warton. This able critic was accordingly called in, with 
lis brother Thomas, and with Home the author of 
*** Douglas." In compliance with their opinion, Mickle 
made great alterations, and Thomas Warton earnestly re- 
commended the tragedy to Garrick, but irf vain; and 
Mickle, his biographers inform us, was so incensed at this, 
that he resolved to appeal to the judgment of the public* 
ky printing it. • • J 

* His conduct on this occasion must be ascribed to irrita-* 
tion arising from other disappointments. The mere printing 
would have been a harmless, and might have been a profita- 
ble experiment, but Mickle threatened to go farther. Hav-" 
ing been told by some officious person that Garrick had fol- 
lowed his refusal by sentiments of personal disrespect* he 
was so enraged as to threaten to write a new " Dunciad*" 
of which Garrick should be the hero. His more sensible 
friends naturally took the alarm at a threat so impotent, 
and persuaded him to lay aside his design. Yet he drew 
up an angry preface, and sent a copy fcf it to Mr. Garrick. 
It is unnecessary to say more of this play, than that it wa& 
afterwards rejected by Mr. Harris and Mr. Sheridan; 

The first edition of the " Lusiad," consisting of a thou- 
sand copies, had so rapid a sale, that & second edition, 
with improvements, was published in June 1778. About 
the same time, as he had yet no regular provision, some? 
means were employed, but ineffectually, to procure him a 
pension from the crqwn, as a man of letters. Dr. Lowth* 
then bishop of London, had more than once intimated, that' 
he was ready to admit him into holy orders, and provide? 
for him * but Mickle refused the offer, lest his hitherto uni- 
form support of revealed religion should be imputed to* 
interested motives. This offer was highly honourable to 
feiny ad it must have proceeded from a knowledge of the* 



excellence of his character, and the probable advantages 
which the church must have derived from the accession of 
such a member. Nor was his rejection of it less honour- 
able, for he was still poor. Although he had received 
nearly a thousand pounds from the sale and for the copy- 
right of the " Lusiad," he appropriated all of that sum 
which he could spare from his immediate necessities to the 
payment of hi3 debts, and the maintenance of his sisters* 
He now issued proposals for printing an edition of his ori- 
ginal poems, by subscription, in quarto, at one guinea 
each copy. For this he had the encouragement of many 
friends, and probably the result would have been very ad- 
vantageous, but the steady friendship of the late commo- 
dore Johnstone relieved him from any farther anxiety on 
this account. 


In 1779 * this gentleman being appointed commander 
of the Romney man of war, and commodore of a squadron, 
immediately nominated Mickle to be his secretary, by 
which, though only a bon-commissioned officer, he was 
entitled to a considerable share of prize-money. But 
What probably afforded him most delight, in the commence- 
ment of this new life, was the destination of the squadron 
to the native shores of his favourite Camoens, which the 
fame of his translation had already reached. On his land- 
ing at Lisbon in November 1770, he was received with 
the utmost politeness and respect by prince don John of 
Braganza, duke of Lafoens, and was introduced td the 
principal nobility, gentry, and literati of Portugal. 

In May 1780 the royal academy of Lisbon admitted hrm 
a member, and the duke of Braganza, who presided on that 
occasion, presented him with his portrait as a token of his 
particular regard. It is almost needless to add, that the 
admirers of Mickle owe his beautiful, though neglected 
poem of u AlmedaHiH" to this visit. He is said also td 
have employed some of his leisure hours in collecting ma- 
terials for a history of Portugal, which he did not live to 
prepare for the press. 

On his arrival in England, in November 1780, he was 
appointed joint agent for the disposal of the valuable prizes 

- * In this year be published a pant- nions of Dr. Adam Smith, to whose in* 

phlet in quarto, entitled " A Candid sinuations Mickle's friends have sup- 

, Examination of the Reasons for de- posed that he owed the loss of the no- 

priving the East India Company of its bie patron to whom he dedicated tha 

Charter.". This was written, in defence Lusiad, although his pamphlet had apt 

•f the Company, and against the opi- then appeared. 

121 MICKLE. 


taken during the Commodore's cruize ; and by the profits of 
this place, and bis share of the prize-money, he was en* 
abied to discbarge his debts. This had long been the 
ardent wish of his heart, the object of all his pursuits, and 
.an object which he at length accomplished with the strict- 
est honour, and with a satisfaction to his own. mind the 
most pure and delightful. In 1782 our poet published 
" The Prophecy of Queen Emnia," a ballad, with an 
ironical preface, containing an account of its pretended au- 
thor and discovery, and bints for vindicating the authen-r 
ticity of the poems of Ossian and Rowley. This irony, 
however, lost part of its effect by the author's pretending 
.that a poem, which is modern both in language and versi-r 
fication, was the production of a prior of Durham in the 
reign of William Rufus, although he endeavours to a ac- 
count for this with some degree of humour, and i? not un- 
successful in imitating the mode of reasoning adopted hy 
dean Milles and^Mr. Bryant,, in the case of Chatterton. 

In the same year be married Mary, the daughter of Mr. 
Robert Tomkins, with whom be resided in Oxfordshire 
while employed in translating the " Lusiad." The fortune 
which he obtained by his marriage, and what he acquired 
under commodore Johnstone, would have enabled, him to 
pass the. remainder of his days in efse and independences 
and with that view bei took a house at Wheat ly, near Ox T 
ford ; but the failure and death of a banker, with whom h^ 
was connected as agent for the prizes, and a chancery 
suit in which he engaged rather too precipitately, in order 
to secure a part of his wife's fortune, involved him iti 
Inany delays and much anxiety and expeqee. He stili» 
however, employed his pen on occasional subjects, and 
contributed essays entitled " The Fragments of Leo," arid 
some other articles, to the European Magazine. His last 
production wa* 4i Eskdale Braes," a song in qommemora* 
tion of the place of bis birth. 

- He died after a short illness at Forrest-bill, on the 23th> 
of October, 1788, and was buried in the church-yard -of 
that parish. His character, as drawn by Mr. Isaac R$ed 
ted Mr. John Ireland, who knew him well, may be adopted 
with safety. " He was in every point of view a man of the 
utmost integrity, warm in his friendship, and indigntfnt 
Only- against- vice, irreligton, or. meanness. The cotnpH-L 
men t paid byjord Lyttelton to Thomson, might be applied 
to him with the strictest truth ; not a line ia to be found 

ftu c k l & m 

iir bis works, which, dying, he would wish to blot* During 
jibe greatest part of his life, he endured the pressures of * 
parrow fortune, without repining, never relaxing in bis in* 
dustry to acquire, by honest exertions, that independence 
which at length be enjoyed* He. did not shine in convert 
sation ; por would any person, from his appearance, have 
been able to form a favourable judgment of his talents. In 
every situation in which fortune placed him, he displayed 
ap. independent spirit* undebased by any meanness.; and 
when bis pecuniary circumstances made him, on one oc- 
casion, feel a disappointment with some force, he even 
then seemed more ashamed at his want of discernment of 
character, than concerned for his loss. He seemed to en* 
tertairv with reluctance an opinion, that high birth could 
be united with a sordid mind. He had, however, the satis* 
faction of reflecting, that no extravagant panegyric had 
disgraced his pen*. Contempt certainly came to his aid, 
though not soon i he wished to forget his credulity, and 
never. after conversed on the subject by choice. To con* 
dude, his foibles wer$ but few, and those inoffensive 2 
his virtues were mauy j and his genius was very consider- 
able.. He lived without reproach, and his memory will 
always be cherished by those who were acquainted with 

To this Mr, Ireland adds, " His manners were not of 
that obtrusive kind by which many men of the second or 
third qrder force themselves into notice. A very close ob* 
server might have passed taany hours in Mr. Mtckle's com* 
pany, without suspecting that he had ever written a line of 
poetry. A common physiognomist would have said that 
fee had an unmasked face. Lavater would have said other* 
wise ; but neither bis countenance nor manners were such 
as, attract the multitude. When bis name was announced* 
be has been more than once asked if the translator of 
Camoens was any relation to him. To this be usually 
answered, with a good-natured smile, that tbey were of the 
lame family. Simplicity, unaffected simplicity* was the 
leading feature in his character. The philosophy of Vol* 
tajreatid David Hume was his detestation. He could not 
War their names with temper. For the Bible he had the 
highest reverence* and never sat silent when the doctrines 
or precepts of the Gospel were either ridiculf dor spoke** 
of with contempt." 

Vol. XXII. K 


f ft 1^94, an edition of bis poems was published by sufi** 
ftcription, with an account of his life by Mr, Ireland. A 
more full and correct collection of his poems appeared in 
1807, with a life by the rev. John Sim, who was his inti-t 
mate friend when at Oxford, and has done ample justice 
to his memory ; and his principal poems were added to the 
late continuation of Johnson's collection. 

Although there is «o species of poetry of which he had 
Hot afforded favourable specimens, and many striking images 
and animated descriptions are discoverable in bis original 
pieces, and while we allow that his imagination is con-* 
siderably fertile, his language copious, and his versifica-* 
lion rich and various/ yet it cannot be denied that there 
ire too many marks of imitation in all his lesser poems, 
and that his fame must rest principally, where \t is more 
than probable he intended it should, on his transtatr&i 
of the Lusiad. This work, which is now rising in re- 
pute won, is inferior only to Pope's Iliad, according to 
the general opinion, which perhaps may be contro- 
verted. Pope has given an English poem of un question^ 
able beauty, but, we may say with Bentley, it i» not Homer; 
Mickle has not only transfused the spirit, but has raised 
the character of his original. By. preserving *he energy j 
elegance, and fire of Camoens, he has given an " English 
Lusiad,'* a- work which, although confessedly borrowed 
from the Portuguese, has all the appearance of having 
been invented In the language in- which we find it. In 
executing this, indeed, it must be confessed that Mickle 
lias taken more liberties with his original thap the laws of 
translation will allow; but they are of a kind not usually 
taken by translators, for he has often introduced beautred 
*f bis own equal to any that come'from the pen of Ca± 
moens* In acknowledging that he has taken such free- 
doms, however, he has- not specified the individual pas-* 
sages ; a neglect for which* some have praised his humility, 
and others have blamed bis injuftieg. But with this excep- 
tion, he has successfully executed what he purposed, b6* 
only to ibake Oamdens be understood arid relished, but 
* to give a poem that iAight live in the English language/* 
Nor ought it to be omitted in- this general character of tM 
Lusiad, that in his preliminary dissertations, he has distil- 
gaishgd bim&etf as* a schoferj acrkfc, and a historian* "* * 


Wohnion and ChaJoiers'sPoeti, 1810* . . _ 

*. > 


•*f i C'ft E L I iJ & ,WI 

• IfHCRELIUS (JdH»), prbfessor of dirihity "at Sfetift,- 
ttid a very learned man, vtes born at Cuslin in Pomcfrfemtai 
in 1597. He began his studied ih the college of bis owrl 
country; frncfj id 1614, removed to Stetiri, where he studied 
theology tinder professor Cramfer. In 1616, he main-* 
tlined a disrate ** dte Deo brio & trihb^' which gained hidi 
gtefct reputatibri ; arid tveHt thfc yfcat after to the university 
ef Kdningsbergj where he disputed again "de veritatg 
tratasceridemali." He teceivefd^ in 1621, the degree of 
Mster of philosophy kfe thfe university of Grripswald, ^ftetf 
having maintained a thesis u de meteoris ;" and, somd 
time after, went to Leipsic to finish his studies. He wai 
Made professor of rhetoric ih the toyal college at Stetin iii 
1624, recto** of the senate School in 1627, rind rector o£ 
the royal college, and pfofessdi' of theology, in 1649. Th<$ 
fctobe yetar he received His doctor 6f divlhity's»degree, % itl 
the university df Gripswald, and which he wasj we ard 
t6ld, led to ask; becfcusfc, in a dispute he had with Jdhi* 
fcetfgitis, firist preachfer at the court of the elector 6f Brafr- 
dfettbtirg, tipon the differences betvireeri the Lutherans and 
Calvinists, the latter arrogantly boasted of his being art 
old doctor id divinity ; to which Micfelius cbtild only an- 
swer, " that he had received the degree of master in phi-* 
Ibsophy before Bergiua." He had obtained by his solicita- 
tions in 1642, when he wis made professor df rhetbric, that 
there might be al&o professors of law, physic, and mathe- 
matics, in the royal college ; and that a certain number of 
students might be maintained thefe at the public charge. 
He made i£ jotirrtey to Swedferi ih 1653, and had the horiour 
to pay his respedts to qiieen Christina, who gave him very 
obliging marks of h6r liberality, and who had before defrayed 
fifci ehargfesbf hte do6tor's degree. He died Dec. 3, 165$* 
Thii ptofe&tit 'wrote? several learned works, which werd 
1*&i rfccteived, krid went through several editions : amon^ 
#Bi6fc #ere, 1. " Ethriopbronius contra Gentiles de prihci-i 
$Hs MigiotiU Christian^ ;" to which he afterwards added & 
Wtofitiufctiori, u Contra Jddaicas depravationes." 2. c * Lexi- 
fetftf ^Moso^hiciuttt." 3. *' Syntagma historiarum ecclesiae.'* 
4. « gyntdgtti* hittdfotttim politicarum, &c. &c. r ' r 

Mim)tfirrON (CtWYEife), a celebrated English divine; 
*fti tHte -km 6f William MidcNeton, rector of Hindenvell 
ptoitWhitftj ^'Yorkshire, and born at Yotk Dec. 27, or; 
teHW. C6le' iays, Aug, 2, 1633. His fathef, #ho possessed 

* Gefc. Diftt^MWtH.-^ S£xii Oriomstslidonv • 

K 2 

13$ M'.I.D D LE TON, 

an easy fortune, gave him a liberal education; and; at 
seventeen he was admitted a pensioner of Trinity college* 
Cambridge, and two years after was chosen a scholar upon 
the foundation. After taking bis degree of A. B. in 1702, 
he took orders, and officiated as curate of Trumpington, 
near Cambridge. In 1706 be was elected a fellow of hi* 
college, and next year commenced master of arts. Two 
years after be joined with other fellows of his college in a 
petition to Dr. John More, then bishop of Ely, as their vi- 
sitor, against Dr. Bentley their master. But he had no 
sooner done this, than he withdrew himself from Bentley's 
jurisdiction, by marrying Mrs. Drake, daughter of Mr. 
Morris, of Oak- Morris in Kent, and widow of counsellor 
Drake of Cambridge, a lady of ample fortune. After bis 
marriage, he took a small rectory in the Isle of Ely, which 
was in the gift of bis wife; but resigned it in little more 
than a year, on account of its unhealthy situation. 

In Oct. 1717, when George the First visited the univer- 
sity of Cambridge, Middleton was created, with several 
others, a doctor of divinity by mandate ; and was the per- 
son who gave the first cause of that famous proceeding 
against Dr. Bentley, which so much occupied the atten- 
tion of the nation. Although we have given an ample 
account of this in the life of Bentley, some repetition' 
seems here necessary to explain the part Dr. Middleton 
was pleased to take in the prosecution of that celebrated 
scholar. Bentley, whose office it was to perform the cere- 
mony called Creation, made a new and extraordinary de- 
mand of four guineas from each of the doctors, on pretence 
of a fee due to him as divinity-professor, over and above a 
broad piece, which had by custom been allowed as a pre- 
sent on this occasion. After a warm dispute, many of the 
doctors, and Middleton among the rest, consented to pay 
the fee in question, upon condition that the money should 
be restored if it were not afterwards determined to be his 
right. But although the decision was against Bentley, he 
kept the money, and Middleton commenced an action 
against him for the recovery of his share of it. Bentley 
behaving with contumacy, and with contempt to the au^ 
thority of the university, was at first suspended from his 
degrees, and then degraded. He then petitioned the 
king for relief from that sentence : which induced Middle- 
ton, by the advice of friends, to publish, in the course of 
the year 1719, the four following pieces : l. " A full and 


MID D L E'T O N. 133 

- f ... r r • -^ 

hbpartial Account of all the late Proceedings in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, against Dr. Bentley." 2. " A Se- 
cond Part of the full and impartial Account, &c." 3. 
*' Some Remarks upon a Pamphlet, entitled The Case of 
Dr. Bentley farther stated and vindicated, &c." » The au- 
thor of the piece here remarked, was the well-known Dr. 
Sykes, whom Dr. Middleton treats here with great con- 
tempt, but afterwards changed his opinion of him, and in 
his " Vindication of the Free Enquiry into the Miraculous 
Powers, 99 published after his death, he appeals to Dr. 
Sykes'* s authority, and calls him " a very learned and ju- 
dicious writer." The last tract is entitled, 4. * c A true 
Account of the present State of Trinity -college in Cam- 
bridge, under the oppressive Government of their Master 
Richard Bentley, late D. D." This, which relates only to 
the quarrel betwixt him and his college, is employed in 
exposing his misdemeanors in the administration of college 
affairs, in order to take off a suspicion which many then 
had, that the proceedings of the university against Dr. 
Bentley did not flow so much from any real demerit in the 
man, as from a certain spirit of resentment and opposition 
to the court, the great promoter and manager of whose in- 
terest he was thought to be there : for, it must be remem- 
bered that, in that part of his life, Dr. Middleton was a 
strotog tory; though like other of his contemporaries in 
the university, he afterwards became a very zealous whig. 

Middleton's animosity to Bentley did not end here. The 
latter having in 1720 published "Proposals for a new 
edition of the Greek Testarfient, and Latin Version," Mid- 
dleton, the following year, published, 5; " Remarks, Pa- 
ragraph by Paragraph, upon the Proposals, &c.'* and at 
setting out, " only desires his readers to believe, that' they 
were not drawn from him by personal spleen or envy to 
the author of them, but by a serious convictioti, that he 
had neither talents nor materials 1 proper for the work he had 
undertaken." Middleton might believe himself sincere in 
all this, but no such conclusion can be drawn from the 
pamphlet, which carries every proof of malignant arrogance* 
The very motto which he borrowed from one of Burman's 
orations, "Doctus criticus ( & adsuetus urere, secare, in- 
clementer omnis generis libros tractare, apices, syllabas," 
&c. implies the utmost personal animosity, and could have 
been thought " happily chosen," only at a time when 
Bentley's temper was better known than his learning. 

434 ^I D D L ET O If; 

Berkley defended his "Proposals" aga^qst 4h£s$ « R*~ 
^narks," which, however, be did not ascribe to Middletqn, 
but to Dr. Colbatch; a learned fellow of t)is college, ao4 
casuistical professor of divinity in the upiversity. It ba» 
been said that he very w^li ^w the true author, but wa* 
reso\yed to dissemble it, for tjje double pleasure it would 
give, him, of abusing Colbatct^, and shewing l^s cpntemp* 
of Middle tort. His treatment of Colbatcb, however, being 
fs unjustijEiable a,s tjjat whjch he ha.d received frojn Dr„ 
JVliddlptpu, provoked the vice-cbaoceljor an,d ^eads of thq 
university, at a meeting irj Feb. 17?l r . to pronounce hi* 
boofc a most scandalous aqd malicious libel', and they r$-> 
solved to inflict a pro,per censure upon the author, as spori' 
as he should be discovered: for n,o names had yet a^p^ 
peared in the controversy. < ^JidaMeton ^hen published, 
with his name, an answer tq Bieptley's P-efence, entitled, 

6. " Spm,e farther Jterparks^ Paragraph by Pajagnaphj upon 
proposals lately published for a pew edition, of % Greek, an4 
Latin Testament, by Rich^rc| B^n^ley," 1721. His motto 
was again chosen in the same contemptuous spirit, " Oc* 
cupatus ille eruditione secularium literarum, scripturas pia- 
nino $ancta§ ignoraverit," &e. EUeron. These two piepei 
against Bentley were thought tp be written with gr^%| 
gcutenpss and learning; but if, as averted, they prevented 
the intended publication, whoever can appreciate EfeiMH 
ley's talents v^ill agree that acuteness, and learning w$rf| 
never worse employed. 

. Uppn tl^e great enlargement of th$ public library af 
Cambridge, by the addition of bishop Mop re's hooka, 
which tyad been purchased by the king a^t 6,000/. and pre- 
sented to the university, the erection of a new office there, 
that of principal librarian, was first voted, and then coa~> 
ferred ypoji Dr. Middletpn : who, to sh^w himself worikjy 
of it, published, in 1723, a little piece with this, title, 

7. " Uibliotheca3 Qantabrigiensis ordinandi met bop 1 us quqg-i 
dam, quam, domino procancellarip senatuique academicq 
copsfde^tnda.m & perftcieqdam* oflScii & pietatis ?rgo pro- 
p.onit." The plan is allowed to be judicious, and thq 
whole performance expressed in elegant ^atin. In bis de- 
dication, however, to the vice-chancellor, in which he 
alluded to the contest between the university and Dr. 
Bentley, he made use of some incautious words, against th^ 
jurisdiction of the court of King's-beucb, for which he waft 
prosecuted, but dismissed with an easy fitie< 

n I D I> L E T O K; i|j 

* Soon afeer ' ibis publication, having had Che mrsforttuifc 
to Jose his wife, Dr. Middleton, not then himself in a good 
state of health, owing to some experiments he bad been 
tuakiag to , prevent tus growing fat, travelled .through 
France into Italy, along with lord Coleraine, an able an- 
tiquary, and arrived at Rome early in 1724. Hers, though 
his character and profession were welt known, be was 
treated with particular respect by persons of the firet di$« 
tinction both in church and state* The author of the ac* 
count of his life in the " Biographia Britannic*,'" relates* 
that when Mkldleton first arrived at Rome, he met with an 
accident, which provoked him. not a liule. '* Ur. JMiddle-* 
ton," says be, " made use of bis character of principal 
librarian, to get himself introduced to hi* brother librarian: 
at the Vatican; who received him with great politeness? 
but» upon his Mentioning Cambridge, sfrid he did not know* 
before that there was any university in England of that ^ 

name, and at the. same time took notic.e, that he was no 
stranger to that of Oxford, for which be expressed a, great v 

esteem.. This touched the honour of qvt new litaarrari, 
who took some pains to conviaee his brother not Only of 
the jresd existence, but of the real dignity of his uai-yersity 
of Cambridge* At last the keeper of tbe Vatican ackoov* 
ledged, that, upon recollection, be bad indeed heard of a 
celebrated school in England of that qame, which was a 
kind of nursery, where youth were educated and prepared 
for. their admission at Oxford ; and Dr, Middleton left him 
at present m tha* sentiment. Bat this, unexpected indigo 
ttity put him upon his nettle, and made him .resolve to 
support his residence at Rome in such a manner, as should 
be a, credit, U> his station at Cambridge ; and accordingly 
he agreed to give 4&Q& per annuo* for a hotel, with ail ac- 
commodatipna, fit for tbe reception of, those of the first 
rank ra Rome: whichv joined to his great fogdnes* jfot 
antiques,, occasioned him to trespass a. little upon his for-* 
tune. 9 ' Part of this stony seems not, very probable. . . 
, He returned . through Paris towards the e**d of 1125, 
andaimsved at Cambridge before Christmas,. . He had no) 
been long employed in bis, study, before be. incurred the 
displeasure of the whole medical faculty, by the publina^ 
tion of a tract, entitled, tt. " I)e mediqorum apud. veteret 
Komanos degentium conditione disaertatio ; , qua, contea 
viros celeberrimos Jacobum Sponium & Richardum Mea- 
dium, servilem atque ignobilem. earn Suisse Qs&euditur*?*; 

is* Middle ton: 

> i 

Cant. 1726. Mead had just before published an Httrvefen 
Oration, in which he had defended the dignity of his pro- 
fession : so that this seeming attempt of Middleton to de- 
grade it, was considered by the faculty as an open attack 
upon their order. Much resentment was shewn, and some 
pamphlets were published : one particularly with the title 
of " Responsio," of which the late professor Ward of 
Gresbam-college was the author. Ward was supposed to 
be chosen by Mead himself for this task : for his book was 
published under Mead's inspection, and at bis expence. 
Middleton defended his dissertation in a new publication 
entitled, 9. " Dissertationis, &c. contra anonymos quos~ 
dam notarum brevium, responsionis, atque animadversionis* 
auctores, defensio, Pars prima, 1727." The purpose of 
this tract seems to have been, not to pursue the controversy, 
for he enters little into it, but to extricate himself from* it 
with as good a grace as he- could : for nothing more waa 
published about it, and the two doctors, Mead and Mid- 
dleton, without troubling themselves to decide the ques** 
tion, became afterwards very good friends. A " Pars se~ 
cunda," however, was actually written, and printed for 
private circulation, after his death, by Dr. Heberden, in 
1761, 4to. In 1729 Middleton published, 10. "A Letter 
from Rome, shewing an exact Conformity between Popery 
and Paganism : or, the Religion of the present. Romans 
derived from that of their Heathen Ancestors." This 
letter, though written with great politeness, good sense, 
and learning, yet drew upon the author the displeasure of 
some even of our own church ; because he attacked , in it 
the Popish miracles with that general spirit. of incredulity 
and levity, which seemed, in their opinion, to condemn 
all miracles. In his second edition he endeavoured to ob- 
viate this objection, by an express declaration in favour of 
the Jewish and Christian miracles, to which perhaps more 
Credit was given now than afterwards. A fourth edition 
came out in 1741, 8vo, to which were added, 1. " A pre* 
fatory Discourse, containing an Answer to the Writer of a 
Popish book, entitled, The Catholic Christian instructed, 
&c. with many new facts and testimonies, in farther con- 
firmation of the general Argument of the Letter:" and, 
& " A Postscript, in which Mr. Warburton's opinion con- 
cerning the Paganism of Rome is particularly considered." 
Hitherto certainly the opinion of the world was gene- 
rally in his favour, and many thought that he had done 

MlDDtETON. *37 

great service to Protestantism, by exposing the absurdities 
and impostures of Popery. He bad also several personal 
qualities, which recommended him ; he was an excellent 
scholar, an elegant writer, a very polite man, and a gene* 
sal favourite with the public, as well as with the commu- 
nity in which he lived ; but an affair now happened, which' 
ruined all his- hopes, proved fatal to his views of prefer- 
ment, and disgraced him with his countrymen as long as' 
he lived. 

About the beginning of 1730, was published Tiridal'i 
famous book called " Christianity as old as the Creation :** 
the design of whidh was to destroy revelation, and to esta- 
blish natural religion in its stead. Many writers entered 
into controversy against it, and, anlong the rest, the well- 
known Waterland, who published a " Vindication of Scrip- 
ture," &c. Middleton, not liking his manner of vindicating 
Scripture, addressed, 11. "A letter to him, containing 
tome remarks on it, together with the sketch, or plan, of 
another answer to Tindal's book," 1731. Two things, we- 
are told, contributed to make this performance obnoxious 
to the clergy; first, the popular character of Waterland, 
who was then at the head of the champions for orthodoxy, 
yet whom Middleton, instead of reverencing, had ventured 
to treat with the utmost contempt and severity ; secondly, 
the very free things that himself had asserted, and espe- 
cially his manner of saying them. His name was not put 
to the tract, nor was it known for some time who was 
the author of it While Waterland continued to pub- 
lish more parts of ''Scripture vindicated," &c. Pearce, 
bishop of Rochester, took up the contest in his behalf; 1 
which drew from Middleton* 12. "A Defence of the Let* 
ter to Dr. Waterland against the false and frivolous Cavils 
of the Author of the Reply," 1731. Pearce replied to 
this ?' Defence," and treated him,, as he had done before, 
as an infidel, or enemy to Christianity in disguise ; who, 
under the pretext of defence, meant nothing less than 
subversion. Middleton was now known to be the author 
of the letter ; and he was very near being stripped of bis 
degrees, and of all his connections * with the university. - 
But this was deferred, upon a promise that he would make 
all reasonable satisfaction, and explain himself in such a 
manner, as, if possible, to remove every objection. This 
he attempted to do in, 13. " Some Remarks On Dr. 
Bearce's second Reply, &c. wherein the author's setiti- 

**» M;i p D L E T O N; 

l&ents, as to all the principal points in dispute; are folly 
tad dearly explained in the manner that bad been pro-; 
g^ised," 1732: and be at least effected so mueh, by this* 
piece, that he was suffered to be quiet, and to, remain ut 
statu quo; though hie character as a divine ever after lay 
Wider suspicion, and he was reproached by florae/ of the 
more zealous clergy, by Venn in particular, with down-* 
pgbt apo^taxy. There was also published, in 17:3$, && 
anonymous pamphlet, entitled, " Observations addressed 
\o the author of the Letter tq Dr. Waterland ;" which was 
written by Or. Williams, public orator of the ^university ; 
and to which Middleton replied in, 14. " Soitoe reraoeks," 
ftc* The purpose of Williams was to prove Middletoa an 
infidel i .that bis letter ought to be burnt, and himself 
bani&bed : and he then- presses him to confess and recant 
in form. «.But," say* Middletpn, «I have nothing to 
secant on the occasion ; nothing t9 confess, bat the seme 
fi^ur ax ticks, that I h^ve already confessed : first, that tha 
Jews borrowed sojpe of their customs from Egypt; se* 
Vwdiy, that the Egyptians were pffssested of arts and leant* 
ipg io Moses's titmi thirdly* that the primitive writers* 
ij* vindicating Scripture, fetted it necessary sometines to 
ijecur to allegory ; fourthly, that the Scriptures are not of 
absolute and universal inspiration. These ane the only 
crimes that I have been guilty of against religion : and byt 
seducing the controversy to these foot heads, end declare 
ijig n»y whole me*ai»g to be comprised in them, I did iai 
xqaiity .recent every thing else, that through heat or inad- 
vertency bad dropped from Hie; every thing thai could be> 
construed to a sense hurtful to Christianity." ; 

. Duping this controversy, he was appointed, in Dec 1731,- 
Wwdwaffdiao professor ; a foundation to which he bad in* 
s/Hnje degree contributed, and was, therefore,, appointed; bjr 
Woodwacd's exeoutors to be the first professor* En* July t 
1732, he published his inauguration speedy wish, thia tide,. 
15. " Oratio de novo physiologist explicandce- mitnere, ex. 
celeberrimi Woodward* testaoieete ieatituto ; habita Can- 
t^brigiae, in scholis publicist' It is easy to .suppose, that> 
the readiitg of lectures upon fossils was not an employment; 
suited either to Middlemen's taste, or to the turn ofi his* 
s^ud»Q&-; t ajid therefore we cannot wonder that he should 
resign it in 1734, when made principal librarian. Soon 
after this, be married a second time, Mary, the daughter 
of^the rev, Conysrs Place, of . Dorchester \. and upon hen 

M I D D L E T O N; ||, 


4*3tth, which happened but a few years before hit own, 4 
third, who was Anne, the daughter of John Powell, esq* 
pf Boughroya, Radnorshire, in North Wales* In 1735 be 
published, 16. " A pissertation concerning the Origin of 
Printing in England : shewing, that it was first introduced 
and practU^d by our countryman William Canton, at h 
Westminster, and not, as is commonly believed, by. a fo- 
reign printer at Oxford ;" an hypothesis that has* been 
line? ably controverted i^i Eowyer and Nichols's « Origin 
# Printing," * 7 76. ■ . 

Jrj 1741, .came out his great work, 17. "The History of 
the Life of ]ty. Tulliu* Cicero," in 2 v^ls- 4tP. This is inn 
deed a valuable w^rV, both as tp matter and manner, writ<* 
ten- generally, although not unexceptionably, in a correct 
and elegant style, mid abounds iq instruction .and enter* 
tainqient. Yet his partiality to Cicero forms a cousi<Jera>« 
fcle objee^ipp to his veracity a,s a biographer. He has la-» 
fepured every where to cast a shade over big feilings, tot 
give the strongest; colouring to his virtues *, and out of % 
gQOfl character tp draw a perfect one ; which, though Cieerot 
was i^deubtedly a great, man, could i*otj be applicable sverft 
tQ binp. Peihips,. however, ** ** history of the times, ifci* 
yet more valuable than considered only, as a life of Cicero* 
It was published by subscription, and dedicated to lord He* •» 
V$y, vyhp was much the avuhpr'? friend, and promised lim 
4. great numb?* <rf subscribers, « Hi* subscription," ha 
tells ug, " was like tp be of the charitable kind, and Tully 
tp be the portion of two young nieces" (for he bad na 
ohild Uving by any of his wives) *' who were then in the* 
house with him, left by gn unfortunate brother, who ha£ 
nothing else* to leave*" The subscription must have bee* 
very gteat, which uqV pnly enabled him to portion the*c* 
two nieces, but, as his biographers inform us, to purchase 
Ismail* estate at Hildersbaip, about six miles from Cm>« 
bridge, where he had an opportupity of gratifying bis tasta^ 
by cpn vesting a rude farm into an elegant habitation, and 
where, from that time, be commonly passed the summec 
season. — While engaged on his " Cicero," he was called 
to London to receive the mastership of the Charter- house, 
• • • < 

• Wolfius, in his edition of the four that he is represented more in a polU 

controverted orations of Cicero, Ber- tical than a literary character; and 

tin, 1801, says that Middle ton'* Life thirdly, Ujai too little critical attention 

of Cicero has three great faults : first, is paid to the historical facts. See a 

that the hero is frequently exalted be- learned note by Mr, Go ugh, in ,Ni- 

yond the bounds of truth ; secondly, chois's Botryer, vol* V. p. 412 



their appearance probably much earlier/' To this asserv 
rion, from a man so devoted to study, it is not easy to give 
credit ; especially when it is remembered also that Mid«< 
dleton and Sherlock had been formerly in habits of inti-> 
macy and friendship ; were of the same university, and 
nearly of the same standing ; and that, however severely 
and maliciously Middleton treated his antagonist in the 
present Examination, there certainly was a time when he 
triumphed in him as " the principal champion and Orna- 
ment of church and university." Different principles and 
different interests separated them afterwards: but it is not 
easy to conceive that Middleton, who published his E*a* 
laai nation in 1750, should never have read these very fa-* 
flflous discourses, which were published in 1725*. There 
is too great reason, therefore, to suppose, that this publM 
cation was drawn from him by spleen and personal enmity/ 
Which he now entertained against every writer who ap- 
peared in defence of the belief and doctrines of the chlirchi 
'What other provocation he might have is unknown. Whe-> 
tber the bishop preferred, had not been sufficiently thitid<t 
ful of the doctor unpreferred, or whether the bishop bad 
been an abettor and encourager of those wbo opposed thd 
doctor's principles, cannot be ascertained ; stjfite think thai 
both cause* concurred in creating aft enmity between the 
doctor and tbe bishop f. This "Examination" Was- refuted 
by Dr. Rutherforth* divinity professor at Cambridge : but 
Middleton, having gratified his animosity against Sherlofck* 
pursued the argument no further* tie was, however, iiie** 
ditatinga general answer to all the objections made against 
'ttte ** Free Inquiry ;" when being seized with ilhiess, and 
imagining be might not be able to go through it, he singled 
out Church and Dodwell, as the two most considerable ot 
Iris adversaries, and ehiplojed himself in preparing a par- 
ticular answer to them. This, however, he did not live" 
to fttfish, but died of a slow hectic fever and disorder in. 
bis lively ofr th£ 08th of July, 1750, in his sixty-seventh 
year, at HUdertbam. He was burkd in the parish of St* 

*^ " Sherlock told me that he pre- 
sented' Of. Af . with this boot when first 
pfettKsfed to 17 25, and that fie so6ti 
afterwards- thanked him for it, and ex- 
pressed- hhs pleasure id the perusal." 
M&uotte by Whtetdn tile tiotfkseller, in 
Ws copftf tire first edition of this -Dfc- 
tionare. The same fact occurs in the 
©eUt'Mflrg. m?, 38^,' 3$7, But pro- 

bably from the same authority. 

f It is saM b'y'bishop Newton, that 
when Middletoh applied 1 rbf:thcJ Chatf 
terb^use, Sir Rdbert WaTpqJe. told him 
that Sherlock, with the other bishops, 
wste agamst his* toe'nbg chbse^. "f his tfl 
a Man who, ate Wtfrbiftttm, his frienty 
declared, " never coo Id bear cdntraf 
diction/' was sufficient provocation! 

HI I I) D L £ TON. Ht 

if ithael, Cambridge. As be died without issue, he left 
his widow, who died in 1760* in possession of an estate 
which was not inconsiderable : yet we are told that a little 
before his death, he thooght it prudent to accept of a small 
living from sir John* Frederick, bart *. A few months after 
was published, his 25. " Vindication ef the Free enquiry 
into the Miraculous powers, &e. from the objections of 
Dr. Dodwell and Dr. Church." The piece is unfinished 1 ,, 
as we have observed, but correct, as far as it goes, which 
is about fourscore pages in quarto. 

. In 1752, were collected all the above-mentioned woffes> 
except " The Life of Cicero," and printed in four volumes, 
4to, unddr the title of " Miscellaneous Works ;" among 
which were inserted these following pieces, never before 
published, viz. 26. ** A Preface to An intended Answer 10 
ail the objections made against the Free enquiry." * 2T. 
11 Some cursory reflections on the dispute, or dissgntiony 
Which happened at Antioch, between the Apostles Peter 
and Paul." 28. " Reflections on the variations, or incon*- 
listencies, which are found among the four Evangelists) in 
their different accounts of the same facts.'* ' 29. " Art 
Essay on the gift of Tongues, 'tending to explain the pros- 
per notion and nature of it, as it is described and delivered 
to us in the sacred Scriptures, and it appears also to have 
keen understood by the learned both of ancient and modem 
times/* SO. ** Some short Remarks on a Story told by the 
Ancients concerning St. John the Evangelist, and Gerin* 
thus the Heretic ; and on the use which ie made of it by 
the Moderns, to enforce the duty of sburtriiftg Heretics.** 
*1. " An Essay on the allegorical and literal interpretation 
of the creation and fall of Man. 9 * 32. " De LatmaruM 
literarum pronuneiatione dissertatio." 39. ?• Some Letters 
ef Dr. Middleton to bis Friends." A -second edition of 
these *' Miscellaneous Works" was afterwards published M 

• .!•••■■ 

* The living was Ha9C0tnb, in Surrey; which I wholly dislike, yet Wtyile I ant 

6neof Dr.MiddJeton's biographers, and coin en t to acquiesce in the ill, I should 

foe fnftat furioas in railing at the cleft- be glad to taste a littte of the? good; kuA 

yl kigot* who apposed . his sentiments, to hare . some amends for the: n$lf &$ 

has been so blinded by the doctor's sent and consent which no man of sense 

virtues, as to inform us that his sob- can approve. 7 * tf Dr, Midtffetdn had 

scriptioa to the thirty-nine articles, h'm VtgoUd opponents, aht. pre»M| 

when he accepted of this, liviag, was- anecdote may. aufely. be^qwotcd as a 
purely political : and gives the follpw- proof that he had very impartiat de- 
»£ confirmation of the fact, from a fenders J— British Biography, Bjrtoitt 

M3 tetter of Br, Middteten's : "Though . ers, w>Lt& p»331» 
there are many j things in the church 

r j£ 

14* JH i DDL ETON. 

5 vols: 8vo, but for many years there has been little or n* 
demand for any of bis works, except the " Life of Cicero," 

Dr. Middleton's . reputation as a man of great learning 
and splendid talents may. still be supported by his writings,, 
but in his personal character, little will be found that is 
amiable, dignified, or independent. His- religion was 
justly suspected, and it is certain that his philosophy did 
not teach him candour. He had beep opposed* without 
jrespect, by many of the clergy, and in revenge, he at* 
tacked the church, to which he professed to belong, and 
in which he would have been glad to rise, if be could. 

With respect to his talents as a writer, he tells his pa* 
tron, lord Hervey, in bis dedication of "The Life of Cicero,*' 
that "it was Cicero who instructed him to write; your 
lordship," be goes on, " who rewards me for writing : for 
next to that little reputation with which the public baa 
been pleased to favour me, the benefit of this subscription 
is the chief fruit that I have ever reaped from my studies." 
Of this be often speaks, sometimes in terms of complaint, 
and sometimes, as in the, following passage, in a strain of 
triumph : " I never was. trained/ 9 says he, " to pace in 
the trammels of the church, nor tempted by the sweets of 
its preferments, to sacrifice the philosophic freedom of a 
studious, to the servile restraints of an ambitious life : and 
from this very circumstance, as often as I reflect upon it, I 
feel that comfort in my pwn breast, which no external ho* 
sours can bestow. , I persuade myself, that the life and 
faculties of man, at the beat but short and limited, cannot 
be employed more rationally or laudably, than in the? 
search of knowledge, and especially of that sort which 
relates to our duty,, and conduces to our happiness, &c," 
This, however, was the philosophy- of a disappointed man. 
It is. true, indeed, that he felt the free spirit he describes, 
which was manifest in all his writings,, yet from many of 
them it is no less clear that he felt anger and disappoint* 
tnent also, at not being preferred, according to his owa 
internal consciousness of merit. So inconsistent are evea 
the most able men. He made bis preferment impossible^ 
and then repined at not obtaining it. Some of his late bio- 
graphers have endeavoured to prove what a " good Chris- 
tian" he was ; he had the same opinion of himself, but it 
is not easy to discover what, in his view, entered into the 
character of a good Christian. That he was an apostate^ 
as some of his antagonists have asserted, may be doubtful; 

M:I:DDL E T 0!N. 145 

<ttperh(ap&: easily eofttradicted. From all we have seen of 
his confidential correspondence, he does not appear to have 
oyer had much to apostatize from. As far back as 1 733, he 
saye, in one of his letter* to lord Hervey, " It is my mis* 
fortune- to have bad so early a -taste of Pagan sense, as to' 
make me very squeatosh in mty Christian studies." fn the- 
following year be speaks of one of the most common ob- 
servances o£ religion m a manner that cannot be misunder- 
stood .-: " Suaday is: my only day of rest, bat not of. liberty ; 
for lam. bound to a double attendance at church, to Wipe 2 
off thfc stain of infidelity. When I have recovered my 
credit, in wbieh I mike daily progress, I may use more 
freedom,*' With such contempt for church and church* 
men> it can bet n* wonder, that Dr. Middleton failed both 7 
of preferment and respect 1 

MIDDLETON. (Sir Hugh),? a publk^spirited man, and 1 
a. great benefactor to the city of London, by bringing iff 
thither the- New River, was a-native of Denbigh in North 
Wales* and a citizen and goldsmith of London; This city' 
i¥»t being, sufficiently supplied* with water, three acts of 
parliament were obtained for that purpose ; one in queen 1 
Elisabeth's, and two in king James the First's reign ; 
granting; the citizens of London full power to bring* a river' 
from any part .of Middlesex and Hertfordshire* The pro- 
ject, after much, calculation, was laid aside as impractica- 
ble, till sir Hugh Middleton undertook it : in consideration * 
of which, the city conferred on him and his heirs, April 1, 
1606, the full, right and power of the act of parliament 
granted unto them in that behalf. Having therefore taken 
an exact survey of all springs and rivers in Middlesex and 
Hertfordshire* he made choice* of two springs, one in the 
parish of AmweU near Hertford, the other near Ware, both 
about twenty miles from London ; and,' having united their 
streams, conveyed them to the city with very great labour 
and expence* The work was begun Feb; 20, 1608, and * 
carried on through various soils, some oozy arid muddy, 
others extremely hard and rocky. Many bridges in the 
mean* time* wxere built over his New River; and mapy 
drains uwere made to carry off land-springs and commons 
sewers, .sometimes over* and sometimes under it. Besides " 
these nefcessary 'difficulties, he had, as may easily be ima~ 

gin$dt< maay others ,to struggle with; as the malice^and 

.... * i . -• . 

* Itfog. UrJt — Nichols's Bowyer. — Bowlegs edition of Pope's Works — War- ' 
b*rtD^LeUert:r~Colfj'«.M3 Atbtw* in Brit, Muf -*D3#<'«oli'* Qu*rfr Jt;vrtf I VS 

Vol. XXII. h 


derision of the vulgar and envious, the many hindrance! 
and complaints of persons through whose grounds the 
channel was to be cut, &c. When he had brought the 
water into the neighbourhood of Enfield, almost his whole 
fortune was spent ; upon which he applied to the lord 
mayor, and commonalty of London ; but tbey refusing to 
interest themselves in the affair, he applied next to king 
James. The king, willing to encourage that noble work, 
did, by indenture under the great seal, dated May 2, 1612, 
between him and Mr. Middleton, covenant to pay half the 
expence of the whole work, past and to come ; and thus 
the design was happily effected, and the water brought 
into the cistern at Islington on Michaelmas-day, 1613. 
Like air other projectors, sir Hugh greatly impaired his 
fortune by this stupendous work : for though king James 
had borne so gr^at a part of the expence, and did after* 
wards, in 1619, grant his letters-patent to sir Hugh Mid- 
dleton, and others, incorporating them by the name of 
** The Governors and Company of the New River, brought 
from Chadwell and Amwell to London ;" impowering them 
.to choose a governor, deputy* governor, and treasurer, to 
grant leases, &c. yet the profit it brought in at first was 
very inconsiderable. There was no dividend made among 
the proprietors till the year 1633, when 11/. 195. id. was 
divided upon each share. The second dividend amounted . 
only to 3/. 4s. 2d. and instead of a third dividend, a call 
being expected,! king Charles I. who was in possession of 
the royal moiety aforesaid, re-conveyed it again to sir Hugh, 
by a deed under the great seal, Nov. 18, I636 v in consi- . 
deration of sir Hugh's securing to his majesty aud his sue* 
cessors a fee-farm rent of 500/. per annum, out of the pro- 
fits of the company, clear of all reprises. Sir Hugh charged 
that sum upon the holders of the king's shares. He was at 
last under the necessity of engaging in the business of a 
surveyor, or what is now denominated a civil engineer, and 
iii that capacity rendered essential services to his country, 
by various schemes of mining, draining, &c. In 1622 he 
was created a baronet, and he died in the year 1631 ; since 
which, the value of the shares in this New River, as it is 
still called, advanced so much as to create large fortunes 
to the heirs of the original holders. A hundred pounds 
share, some years since, sold as high as fifteen thousand 
pounds. Of late, however, there have been several acts 
•f parliament passed in favour of other projects, which 


nave reduced' the value of the New River shares full 6n^ 
naif. It is the fashion now to decry the company as extra- 
vagant in their charges for supplies of water ; but it should 
fee remembered, that the shares of this corporation, like, 
those of other commercial companies, are perpetually 
changing their masters; and it is probable that the ma- 
jority of share-holders, when their value was even at the 
highest, had paid their full price, so as to gain only a mo* 
derate interest upon their purchase money. 

MIEL (Jan), a celebrated Flemish painter of history,' 
fiunting and conversation pieces, was born in Flanders in 
1599, and was first a disciple of Gerard Segers, in whose 
school his talents were much distinguished ; but went to 
complete his studies in Italy, where he was distinguished 
by the name of Giovanni delle Vite. He particularly stu- 
died and copied the works of the Caracci and Correggio,' 
and was admitted into the academy of Andrea Sacchi, who 
would have employed him as an assistant to himself in some 
great works, had he not unfortunately preferred the familiar 
style of Bamboccio, to the elevated conceptions of Sacchi. 
His general subjects for his easel pictures, which are the 
finest of his performances, were of the familiar kind j but, 
he also painted history, in a large size, in fresco, and in 
oil. His pictures of huntings are particularly admired ; 
the figures and animals of every species being designed 
with uncommon spirit, nature, and truth. The transpa- 
rence of his colouring, and the clear tints of his skies, en-* 
liven his compositions; nor are bis paintings in any degree 
inferior to those of Bamboccio, either in their force or 
lustre. His large works are not so much to 'be commended 
for the goodness of the design, as for the expression and 
colouring ; but it is in his small pieces that the pencil of 
Miel appears in its greatest delicacy and beauty. His situ 
gular merit recommended him to Charles Emanuel duke of 
Savoy, who appointed him his principal painter, and after- 
wards honoured him with the cross 9f St Mauritius, He 
died in 1664, aged siKty-five.* 

MIERIS (Francis), called Old Francis Mieris, one of 
the most remarkable disciples of Gerard Dow, was born at 
Leyden, in 1635. He imitated his master with great dili- 

1 Biog. Brit. — Gent. Mag. See Index, and vol. LXXIX. p. 795.— For * 
more particular account of the rise aod progress of the> New Hirer, see Lysont'i 
Environs, vol. 111. and IV. 

? Argenvitle, vol.' I II.— Pilkington and Strait. 



gence, and has been thought in some respects to surpass 
him. Minute accuracy, in copying' common objects on a 
small scale, was the excellence of this artist, with the same 
sweetness of colouring, and transparence that marks the 
paintings of Dow. In design he has teen thought more 
comprehensive and delicate than his master, his touch 
more animated, with greater freshness and force in his 
pictures. His manner of painting silks, velvets,' stuffs, or 
carpets/ was sp studiously exact, that the differences of 
their construction are clearly visible in his representations.' 
His pictures' are scarce, and generally bear a very high 
price/ His own valuation of his time was a ducat an hour; 
and for one picture of a lady fainting, with a physician 
attending her, and applying remedies, he was paid at that 
ratio, so large a sum as fifteen hundred florins. The grand* 
duke of Tuscany is said to have offered 3000 for it, but 
was refused. One of the most beautiful of the works of 
Francis Mieris, in this country, where theyare not very 
common, is in the possession of Mr. P. H. Hope, and i& 
known by the appellation of the '* Shrimp Man. ,v Mieris 
died in 1681, at the age of forty-six. He left two sons, 
John and William, whp were both eminent painters, John,, 
however, died young; William is the subject of the en- 
suing article. 

MIERIS (William), called the Young Mieris^ was born; 
at Leyden in l6(>2, and during the life of his father made 
a remarkable progress under his instructions. When he 
lost this aid, which was at the age of nineteen, he turned! 
his attention to nature, and attained still higher excellence 1 
by an exact imitation of his models. He painted history 
occasionally* and sometimes animals, and even landscapes ; 
and modelled in clay and wax with so much skill, as to' 
deserve the name of ah excellent sculptor. In the delicate 
finishing of his works he copied his father, and also in the 
lustre, harmony, and truth of his paintings; altogether, 
however, they are not quite equal to those of the elder 
Mieris^ He died in 1747, at the age of eighty- five! He 
left a son named Francis, who is called the Young Francis' 
Mieris, to distinguish him from his grandfather. He paintec}. 
in the same style, but was inferior to his. father and grand* 
father; yet there is no doubt that his pictures are often 
sold in collections under the name of one of the former. * • 

* Argenville, vol. HI.— Pilkiogton. • Ibty. 

M16NARD. i'49 

' MIGNARD (Peter), an historical and portrait painter, 
was born at Troyes, in Champagne, in 1610. He Was the 
disciple of Vouet, but quitted his school at an early period 
Of his life, and went to Rome, anxious to see and study 
the vyorks of Raphael, Michael Angelo, and the Caracci. 
fie there lived with Du Fresnoy, and they studied together 
the noble works of art which that city presented to them ; 
they also travelled together to Florence and Venice, that 
they fnight leave no source of improvement unsought which 
the extraordinary talents of their great predecessors had 
prepared and left for their study and imitation, Mignard's 
residence at Rome, which he prolonged for twenty-two 
years, and the style he acquired of composition and draw* 
ing by the imitation of the Roman masters, together, ob- 
tained for him the appellation of the Roman ; but to judge 
Candidly, one would imagine that the former was the prin- 
cipal cause of that denomination ; for his style of design 
savours too much of the flutter of the French school, instead 

Jf the chaste simplicity of Raphael and the best of the 
tomans. He enjoyed, however, a full share of favour and 
fortune during his life, fie painted portraits of the popes 
tJrban VIII. and Alexander VII. together with those of 
Aiany of the nobility of Rome. 

Louis XIV. hearing of his fame and abilities, sent for 
Him to Paris, and is said to have sat to him for his portrait 
tien times. Almost all the illustrious nobles of the French 
dourt followed the example of their sovereign, and were 
fainted by Mignard. His style of execution in these por r 
traits is Wrought up with all the false taste and pompous 
parade which distinguished that vicious period of the French 
riatibn ; in his pictures every thing seems in motion ; even 
When tBe scene is laid in a close joom, the draperies are 
flying about as in a high wind. With these and other de- 
fective points in his character as an artist, Mignard must 
be allowed to be the best portrait-painter of the French 
School. The kin? ennobled him ; and, after Le Brun's 
death, appointed him his principal painter, and the direc- 
tor of the manufactories of Seve and the Gobelins. H^ 
lived to the age of eighty-five, dying in 1695. He had 
an elder brother, whose name was Nicholas, a skilful 
painter, but who never rose to equality with him. * 

1 Argenrille, vol. IV. — Perrault Le« Homines lllustres.— Strutt'* Diet.— Wal- 
nele't Anecdotes, for hie nephew*— Reel's Cvdopadia. 

150 M l G N O N. ■ 

MlGNON,or MINION ^Abraham), a painter of Frank- 
fort, was born in 1639, and celebrated for his delicate and, 
accurate touch in painting flowers, insects, fruit, and still 
life. The insects introduced by him are exquisitely painted,, 
and the drops of dew upon' the fruits and flowers, have all. 
the transparency of real water, and he would have been 
esteemed the first painter in this style had not Van Hay- 
sum appeared. Mignon died in 1 679. l 

MIGNOT (Stephen), a learned French canonist, was 
born at Paris, March 17, 1698. In bis younger years he 
tgent through a complete course of education, .and even 
then gave proofs of those talents in theology and general ' 
literature which constituted the reputation of bis future 
life. After studying with care and success the ^Oriental 
languages, the holy Scriptures, the fathers, church his* 
tory, and the canon law, he received his degree of doctor 
of divinity in April 1722. After this, his attention was 

{Particularly directed to the history and antiquities of the. 
aws and customs of his country, which made him often be 
consulted by political and professional men, and procured 
him the esteem and confidence, among others, of the cele- 
brated chancellor D'Aguesseau. Mignot, however, amidst 
these advantages, which opened an easy way to promotion, 
indulged his predilection for a retired life, and was so little 
jdesirous of public notice that he seldom, if ever, put hjs 
name to bis works ; but he was not allowed to remain in 
obscurity, and, although somewhat late in life, he was 
elected a member of the academy of inscriptions, to whose 
memoirs he furnished some excellent papers on topics of 
ancient history. He died July 25, 1771, in the seventy- 
third year of his age, leaving the following works, .which 
were all much esteemed in France: 1. "Trait6 des prets 
de commerce," Paris, 1759, * vols. 12mo. To this be 
pdded a 5th vol. in 1767, that he might answer the abb6 
La Porte, who had opposed his opinions respecting usurious 
interest. 2. " Les Droits de l'etat et du prince sur let 
biens du clerge," 1755, 6 vols. 12mo. v 3. " Histoire des 
demeles de Henry II. avec . St. Thomas de Cantorbery.,". 
1756, 12mo, a work, if well executed, of some importance 
in English history. 4. " Histoire de la reception du Cor>- 
cile de Trente dans les etats catholiques," Amst. 1756, % 

vols. 12uiq. 5. " Paraphrase sur les Psaumes," and some 

t ...» 

Argentine, 'vol. II,— PjlkiDgt<m. 

' MIGNOT. . 151 

paraphrases on other parts of the Bible. He published 
also a few religious works, a Memoir on the liberties of the 
Gallican church, and " La Verit6 de l'Histoire de l'Eglise 
de St. Omer," 1754, 4to, a work improperly attributed 
to the abbl de Bonnaire. There was another abbl Migw 
not, who died in 1790, the nephew of Voltaire, and who, 
fearing that the remains of his uncle would not be allowed 
Christian burial, had him interred in his abbey of Selliere. 
He wrote a history of the Ottoman empire, and a transla- 
tion of Quintus Curtius. l 

MILBOURNE (Luke), a poetical writer of no very 
honourable reputation, was the son of a nonconformist 
minister, of both his names, a native of Loughborough in 
Leicestershire, who was ejected from the living of Wrox- 
hal in Warwickshire. He died in 1667. Of his son, little 
seems to be known unless that he was educated at Pem- 
broke hall, Cambridge, where he is said to have taken his 
master's degree, but we do not find him in the list of gra- 
duates of either university. Mr. Malone thinks he was 
beneficed at Yarmouth, from whence he dates his corre- 
spondence about 1690. We are more certain that he was 
instituted to the living of St. Ethelburga within Bishops- 
gate, London, in 1704, and long before that, in 1688, was 
chosen lecturer of Shoreditch. Dryden, whom he was 
weak enough to think he rivalled, says in the preface to 
his " Fables," that Melbourne was turned out of his bene- 
fice for writing libels on his parishioners. This must have 
been his Yarmouth benefice, if be had one, for he retained 
the rectory of St. Ethelburga, and the lectureship of Shore- 
ditch, to his death, which happened April 15, 1720. As 
an author he was known by a " Poetical Translation of 
Psalms," 1698, of a volume called " Notes on Dry (Jen's 
Virgil," 1698 ; of " Tom of Bedlam's Answer to Hoadly," 
&c> He is frequently coupled with Blackmore, by Dry- 
den, in his poems, and by Pope in " The Art of Criticism ;" 
and is mentioned in " The Dunciad." He published thirty- 
one single " Sermons," between 1692 and 1720; a book 
against the Socinians, 1692, 12mo; and " A Vindication 
of the Church of England," 1726, 2 vols. Svo. A whim- 
sical copy of Latin verses, by Luke Milbourne, B. A. is in 
the " Lacrym® Cantabrigienses, 1 670," on the death of 
Henrietta duchess of Orleans. Dr. Johnson, in the Life of 

l Necrologie des Hommet Ccltbres poor airaee 1772.— Diet. Hut. 

jU2 M ri/B OUIRN E. 


Dry den > speaking of that poet's transition »f Virgil, wy*, 
"MUbouvne, indeed, a clergyman, /attacked it(Dryden*s 
Virgil), .but bis outrages seem to be the ebullitions ef to 
mind agitated, by stronger resentnientlhan bad poetry can 
jexcite, and previously resolved not to be -pleased. His 
.criticism extends only to the preface, pastorals, and geo*- 
igieks ; and, as be professes to give this antagonist an op- 
portunity of reprisal, he has added bis own version of the 
iifst and fourth pastorals, and the first georgic" Mafooe 
conjectures that Milbourne's enmity to Dryden originally 
arose from Dry den's having taken his work out of his 
Jbande; as he once projected a translation of Virgil, and 
published a version of the first JEneid. As he had Dryden 
-and his friends, and Pope and his friends against fahtf, We 
cannot expect a very favourable account either of *hfe 
-talents or morals. Once only we find him fespectfttHy 
•mentioned, by Dr. Walker, who thanks htm for sevcffal 
valuable communications relative to the sequestered di*- 
«ines. * 

MILDMAY (Sir Walter), an eminent statesman of 
the sixteenth century, and founder of Emmanuel college, 
•Cambridge, was the fourth eon of Thomas Mjldmay, esq. 

by Agnes, his wife, daughter of *• Read. He was ted*** 

cated at Christ's college, Cambridge, where be made great 
jMraficiency in learning, and to which college he afterward* 
became a benefactor. In the reign of Henry VIII. be 
succeeded to the office which had been held by his fatter, 
that of surveyor of the court of augmentation* ereoted by 
statute 27 Henry VIII. for determining suits and control 
versies relating to monasteries and abbey-lands. It took 
its name from the great augmentation that was made tothte 
revenues of the crown by the suppression of the religious 
houses* In 1547, immediately after the coronation of 
Edward VI. he was made one of the knights of ; the carpet. 
He had also in this reign the chief direction of the mint, 
and the management, under several special commissions, 
of the king's revenues, particularly of those which atose 
from the crown lands, the aaturb and value of w hick he 
bad made bis chief study. In 1552 he represented 'the 
town of Maidon, Essex* in parliament, and was a- burgess 
in the first parliament of Mary fot the* city of Peterborough j 

1 Ellis's Hist, of Shoreditch. — Nichols's Poems. — Malone*s Dryden, vol. I. 
314; IV. 63V645.— Caiawp. 

*M I L D M A Y. V& 

arid rstt*<afeer*a*d0 as 6tfe of the knights fdr the c6tfri!y 
'Northampton. ■ How he carte to escape during- this'dfetes- 
ftabl© reign we are not told, tmltss, as some thirifc, that 
•Hte cdnceated his affection to the protesfatft teKgftm ;" 
4>ot that' was probably well known, and he was lift ef war A 
tmrt only* zealous protestant, tmta friend, 6r> many 6dca>- 
sions, to the puritans. tiaeeo Elizabeth, on the death of 
•sir Richard Saekville in 1566, gave him the office <>f tfhan- 
weltar of the exchequer, and he beanie a rmfet useful, hut 
•not -a favoured servant, for his integrity was too Miff tb 
4>end to the {politics of that reign, and his consequent po-- 
•pularity 'ettcited the continual jealousy of his mistress : fete 
*was therefore never advanced to any' higher post, though 
*not*e of the fetters published by Mr. Lodge, he is men*- 
iioto&d as a candidate for the seals, Honest Falter, in his 
<q**iftt w&y, thus Expresses sir Walter's conduct and it* 
<ec*i«equences : «< Bteing employed by virtue of his place, to 
advance' the <ju^nV treasure, he did it industriously, faith* 
firiiy, and consciofraMy, without wronging the subject^ 
fefeiftg very, tender of their privileges, insomuch that he 
otKfe cbnpkLitied in parliament, that rhahy subsidies were 
g**nfed 4 arid no gfiteVaticefc redressed; which wordS be rn£ 
represented with disadvantage to the queen, made her to 
cfeafiFect htm) setting in a court^clottd, but in thte Sun- 
ahttte of his country, and a dear conscience." hi 158£ 
be was employed in a trfeaty with the unfortiinatfe queen 
Of Scots, accompanied hy sir Witliafn Cecil. 

After retaining bis post of chancellor bf the efcchequer 
for.UWettty-thrge years, be died May 31, 1589, arid was 
buried in the chancel of the church of St. Bartholomew the 
Great, in West Smithfield, where a handbome monunlent 
Was ^refeted to his memory. Sir Walter married Maryj 
sister to sir Fntncis Walsirtgham, by Whom he had two 
460*4 Artthrjny anid Humphrey, and three daughters, Wi- 
wftedt trittrried tb Willtom Fitzwilliam, of Griin*p&rk, ih 
<£sf*e*, an ancestor of the! 'present earl Fitzfrilliarn ; Chris- 
tian, to Charles ©arret, of Avely, in the same cddHty; arid 
Martha, to William Broohker. 

* .He was a very learned man, &nd an eminent encouraged 
iff literature, as appears by his founding Emrriariuel cot- 
teg^- €athbrldge^ Which, by 'the additional Assistance of 
other benefactors, arose gradually to its present flourish- 
ing state. Fuller tells us that the founder " coming to 
court, the queen told him, * Sir Walter, I hear you have 

*54 MILD MAY. 


erected a puritan fbutidfetion.' < No madam/ saytfa he> 
1 far be it from me to countenance any thing contrary to 
your established laws ;. but I have set an . acorn, which 
when it becomes an oak 9 God alone knows what will be 
the fruit thereof. 9 " He had so much of the puritan about 
him, however, as to make the chapel stand north and 
south, instead of east and west l 

MILL (Henry), many years principal engineer to the 
New river company, a man to whom the city of London 
and its environs have had many and great obligations, was 
the son of a gentleman* and nearly related to a baronet 
of that name. He was born in London, in or near Red 
Lion square, Holborn, soon after 1680. He had a liberal 
education, was for some time at one of the universities, 
and at a very early period of life displayed his skill in 
mechanics. Though we are unable to fix either his age, 
or the time, yet it is certain that he was very young when 
the New-river company engaged him as their principal 
engineer ; in which station he continued, with the highest 
esteem, till his death. During this period they placed 
implicit confidence in him, and with the utmost reason ; 
for through his skill and labours, their credit, their power, 
.and their capital, were continually increasing. Mr. Mill 
also, among other undertakings of the kind, supplied the 
town of Northampton with water, for which he was pre- 
sented with the freedom of that corporation ; and provided 
an ample supply of water to the noble seat of sir Robert 
Walpole, at Houghton, in Norfolk, which was before so 
deficient in that respect, that Cibber one day, being in 
the gardens, exclaimed, " Sir Robert, sir Robert, here is 
a crow will drink up all your canal !" Mr. Mill, through 
age, becoming infirm, particularly from a paralytic stroke, 
an assistant was taken into the company's service (Mr. 
Mylne, the late engineer), but without derogation to him; 
on the contrary, though he ceased to take an active part, 
he constantly attended on the board-days, his advice was 
asked, and his salary continued to his death. Mr. Mill 
was of a pleasing, amiable disposition ; his manners were 
mild and gentle, and bis temper cheerful. He was a man 
of great simplicity of life and manners: in a word, it 
seemed to be bis care to " have a conscience void of 

1 Biog. Brit. — Fuller's Hift* of Cambridge.— Lodge's Illustrations, vol. II.— 
Lloyd's State Worthies. 

MILL, 155 

Atfisnce." He was suddenly seized with a fit, Dec. 25, 1 770, 
and died before the next morning. His surviving sister, 
Mrs. Hubert, erected a monument to his memory in the 
parish-church of Breemoore, near Salisbury. 1 
. MILL (John), the learned editor of the Greek Testa- 
ment, was the son of Thomas Mill, of Banton or Battipton, 
near the town of Shap in Westmoreland, and was born at 
Shap about 1645. Of his early history our accounts are 
very scanty; and as his reputation chiefly rests on his Greek 
Testament, which occupied the greater part of his life, 
and as he meddled little in affairs unconnected with his 
studies, we are restricted to a very few particulars. His 
father being in indifferent circumstances, he was, in 1661, 
entered as a servitor of Queen's college, Oxford, where w? 
piay suppose bis application soon procured him respect. 
Bishop Ken net tells us, that in his opinion, he " talked 
and wrote the best Latin of any man in the university, and 
was the most airy and facetious in conversation — in all 
respects a bright man." At this college he took the de- 
gree of B. A. in May 1666, and while bachelor, was se- 
lected to pronounce an " Oratio panegyiica" at the open- 
ing of the Sheldon theatre in 1669. In November of the 
same year he took his master's degree, was chosen fellow, 
and became an eminent tutor. He then entered into holy 
orders, and was, according to Kennet, a " ready extern- 
/ pore preacher." In 1676 his countryman and fellow- 
collegian, Dr. Thomas Lamplugb, being made bishop of 
Exeter, he appointed Mr. Mill to be one of his chaplains, 
and gave him a minor prebend in the church of Exeter. 
In July 1680 he took his degree of B. D. ; in August 1681 
he was presented by his college to the rectory of Bleching* 
don, in Oxfordshire ; and in December of that year he 
proceeded D. D. about which time he became chaplain in> 
ordinary to Charles II. by the interest of the father of one 
of his pupils. On May 5, 1685, he was elected and ad- 
mitted principal of St. Edmund's Hall, a station particu- 
larly convenient for his studies. By succeeding Dr. Cross* 
thwaite in this office, bishop Kennet says he had the ad- 
. vantage of shining the brighter; but " he was so much 
taken up with the one thing, ' his Testament,' that he had 
not leisure to attend to the discipline of the house, which 
rose and fell ^according, to bis different vice-principals." 

i G«nt. Mag. XLIX. and I<. 

*V6 * 1 L '£. 

lb 1 1&4> archbishop Sharp obtained for htm ftoin queefe 
Atine, * prebend of Canterbury, in Which he Succeeded 
Dr. Bevteridge, then promoted to the see of St. Asaph. 
He had completed his great undertaking, the new edition 
xif the Gteek Testament, whfe'n he died of to kpopieetie 
At, Jtffce 23, 1707, and was buried in the chancel of Blecft- 
iftgdon chutch, where, in a short inscription on his rhonti- 
tnent, he is celebrated for what critics have thought this 
tnost valuable pan of his labours oh the New Testatriefit', 
his *« prolegomena rtarmore perenniofa." 

Of this edition of the Greek Testament, Michaefis re* 
tafarks, that " the infancy of criticism ends with the editiori 
df Gregory, aftd the age of manhood commences with that 
of Mill." This work is undoubtedly one of the most mag- 
nificent publications tbatgver appeared, and ranks rtexttd 
that of Wetstein, in importance and utility. It was pub- 
lished only fourteen days before his death, and had been 
the labour of thirty years. He undertook it By the advicfe 
of Dr. John Fell, bishop of Oxford ; and the impression was 
be£un at bis lordship's charge,* in his printing-house near the 
theatre. But after the 'bishop's death his executors were 
hot wHlitig to -proceed; and therefore Dr. Mill, perhaps hurt 
at this refusal, and willing to shew his superior liberality; 
Feftttided the sums which the bishop had paid, and finished 
the impression at his own expence. The expectations 
of the learned; foreigners' as well as English, #ere raised 
very High in consequence <rf Dr. Mill's character, and were 
not disappointed. It Was, however, atacked at length by 
the learned Dr. Datiiel Whitby, in his " ; Exartieh varian-i 
iSutti fectibriutu Johannis Milli, S. T. P. &c. in 1710, orj 
an examination of the various readings of Dr. John Mill 
ttpon the New Testament ; ih which it is shewn, I. That 
the foundations of these Varibus readings are altogether 
uncertain, and unfit to subvert the present reading of the 
terft. II. That those various readings, which are of any 
niomeht, arid alter the sense of the text, are very few* 
arid that in all these cases' the reading of the text may be 
defended. III. That the viaribus readings of lesser moment; 
Vvhich afe considered at large, are such as will not warrant 
tils to recede frbrfi the vulgarly received reading. IV. That 
Dr. Mill, in collecting these various readings, hath ofteh 
acted disingenuously ; that he abounds ih false citations; 
and frequently contradicts himself.' 9 The various read- 
ings which Mill had collected, amounted, as it was sup- 

miku mi 

ppsed, to, abfvft 3$,qQft;, a,ud tUis alajnped Jhr, Whitby* 
who thought that the textwa? tb^us, made presar^ws, and 
a handle given to t^e free-t^in^ers ; and it iscertai/i that 
Collins, in hjs " Disfpunie opop Free- thinking," urges a 
passage opt of this book of Whitby's, to shew, that Mill's 
various reading? of the N$qr Testajgeitt . must render the 
text itself doubtful^ But to tbi% objeptipu Bentley, in hi* 
Phijeleutherus Lipsjf npis, has given, a. full and decisive 
answer, the substanpe of which wjjl bear transcription :, 
" The^30,000 various l^fitipps thep*" s*y§ Bentley, ". ax«t 
aUowe^ and confessed ; apd if n^r^e cppies yet are col-: 
latfclj, the ,su pi will still mounjt; higher. And what iatho 
mfcrjervfp r frpm this, ? why one Gregpry, here quot$d #; in* 
fers, t^ajno profyneautfapr what^yer has suffered so; ouiqU 
by the hand of tip^e, a*, the, New.. Testament, has dona* 
Now, if this shall, be found utterly false, and if the, sqr*p- 
tyraj text has no m^ variatipns than wbat mu*t n££esr. 
sarily havq happened fi»nfctbe nature of things* ajutwhafe 
are como^on,, and in equal proportion, in all class, ips, what*) 
ever^ I hope this panic wijl be removed* and the tex* be* 
thought ast firm, as before If/' says, he, " there had, bean; 
but,one^MS,.o£ tlji<? , Qr$fck Testament at the restoration ofc 
IjJFWgc a bopfc t*Q ceptviriss ago*, then, we had had no* 
vappus readings, af, all. And would, the text be in a better 
condition, then, than now we haye 30,000 ? So far from; 
tl)at, that iij. tbfi. best single copy extant we should, have; 
haa hundreds, of faults, and. sQnie omissions irceparable i' 
u^des-^at ttye suspicions of fraijd apd foul play would have 

1){£P increased 'W^Wfily* II * s 8°°d> therefore, to have* 
nxore ap^hqrs thai) one ; and another MS* t& join, with the; 
%st, wguld give mpre.aqtbpjri.ty,! as wel] as security.. Now; 
chusetl)atsecoucJ where ypu will, there^haH be.a thousand, 
vacations fr#in a infinity a,pd yet half or mors of the. faults, 
shall atilj reo^ain in, thqu^ both, A third, therefore, and; 
so a fqur^ aqji, f still jon,,, are desirable; that, by a joint* 
and mmpaJ h^jp, al) the faults o#y be. mended ; some, 
copy preserving the true reading iq pn$ place* and some \ 
in. another*, And yet ; tfte more copies, ypu call to assist- 
ance, th£jpore/dq th^yariogs readings multiply upon you:;, 
ej^ry copy halving its.p$£uljar slips,; though in a principal* 
P9¥ a fi e iP r tw 9 i^ do siQgujar service, And .this is, a fact, 
not .ouiyjn the New Tegument, but in. all .ancient books- 
whatever. It is a,, good providence, and a great blessing, 1 ' 
cQ^inja^li^ .."jtafcpfe matty JV^Sf.;Qf«the,New Testaqwait . 

4$) MI;Lt A R. 

ele^o, $9 th$ university of Glasgow. He ^ design^ 
/qx the cfaurcb, but having early, conceived a, plislike to tb$i 
profession* and tinned his attention- tathje,. study of th$ 
law, he was iqvited by lo*d Kaunas to reside in his famUy* 
apd to superintje^d, in, the quality of j pjecsptor,, 
cation of his son* Mt» George. Dr unamend Hpme. Lord 
K;u$es foqnd in young Millar a f coqgenia^ ardour of jnteW 
lest, a niiod turned, to philosophical sp^^uiation # a consi- 
derable fund of reading, k and w,bat :a&ove all tljiogp he de- 
lighted in* a t^t for supporting a mqta^pbysicaJL argu- 
ment in conversation, with .much ingt#u*ty . and vi vacky. 
The tutor of the son, therefore, became the< companion, of 
the father : . arid , the two, years before IVf Ular was,, called to 
the bar, were, spent, witfe great, ifppregepettf on his. part* 
ip, .acquiring those enJargepV views pf tb^^ with, 
ptylpsaphy, which, he ; afterwards displayed witb uncon^ 
nftpn a,bf lity in hi^ a^adeu^cal lectujqes^on jurisprudence.. At; 
ti^is , period he, contrasted aa acquittance with; David 
H-urnej t to, wfrQ*e, metaphyseal opinions be became aconr 
vert, thoqgh he n^tqrially, differed fppr^hiu^upop political 
topics. In 1760 Mr. IVJ;ll^r began to, practise at the bar* 
apd was regarded a$ a rising young lawyer, when he tbpugbfc 
proper to bf3cprne ; a candidate foi- the vacant professorship; 
of latitat Glasgow* and. supppried by the rccpcuiiiendatkw 
of, lord Karnes and Dr. Adam. Sniit^, he wa? appointed in. 
176 1, and immediately began to execute, its duties. The 
r^atation, of the* university* as a,;scliqpl of jurisprudence, 
ro*e fronj that acquisition, and although,, .says lord Wood-? 
hqnaelee, the republican -prejudices rof Mr^ Millar gave hi$. 
lecture? on politic* j^nd; government a character justly con*, 
sidered-as repugnant to the. well-aUer^pered .frame, and 
eqpal balance of our improved constitution ; there were, 
fqwwbo amended thosQ lectures without at. least an increase, 
of knowjedge, . He lectured in English,, and spoke fluently' 
with^be^ssisjtanfce .of mere nates only.. By, this mot hod. 
hjjs lectqre&were rendered full of variety and animations, 
and at the conclusion of each he was accustomed to ^e^ 
plain the difficulties and, objections that had., presented 
themselves to hjs pupils, in a free and, familiar cpn versa- > 
tioq. In mu he published a treatise, on *'The Origin pf, 
th^ Distinction of R&nks," in wbich.he shew^ himself a^. 
disciple of the school of Montesquieu, and deals much in 
that sort of speculation which Mr. Dugald Stewart, in his. 
Life of Smith, called theoretical or conjectural history. This. 

MILLAR. 161 

work however was well received by the public, and haa gont) 
through several editions* His inquiries into the, English 
government, which made an important part of bis lee* 
lures, together with a zealous attachment to what he 
thought the geuuine principles of liberty, produced in 
1787 the first volume of ao " Historical View of the Eng- 
lish Government,' 9 in which he traces the progressive 
changes in the property, the state of the people, and the 
government of England, from the settlement of the Sax- 
ons to the accession of the house of Stuart. In this work 
we observe the same spirit of system, and the same par- 
tiality to hypothetical reasoning, as in the former : though 
resting, as may be supposed, on a more solid foundation 
of facts : and the less dangerous in its tendency, as being 
every where capable of scrutiny from actual history. It ia 
impossible, however, to peruse this, or his. other works, 
without meeting with much valuable information, and facts 
placed in those new lights, which excite inquiry, and ulti- 
mately promote truth. Mr. Millar's researches were by, no 
means confined to politics, Uvv, or metaphysics. His ac- 
quaintance with the works of imagination, both ancient 
and modern, was also very extensive, and his criticisms 
were at once ingenious and solid, resulting from an acute 
understanding and a correct taste. He died May 30, 1801, 
at the age of sixty- nine, leaving behind him several manu- 
scripts, from which, in 1803, were printed, in two volumes, 
his posthumous works, . consisting or an historical view of 
the English government from the accession of the house of 
Stuart, and some separate dissertations connected with the 
subject. 1 

MILLER (James), a political and dramatic writer, the 
son of a clergyman who possessed two livings of consider- 
able value in Dorsetshire, was born in 1703, and received 
bis education at Wad ham college, in Oxford. His natu- 
ral genius and turn for satire led him, by way of relax- 
ation from his more serious studies, to apply some por- 
tion of his time to the Muses ; and, during his residence 
at the university, he composed great part of a comedy, 
called the " Humours of Oxford ;" some of the characters 
ia which being either designed for, or bearing a strong re- 
semblance to, persons resident in Oxford, gave consider- 
able umbrage, created the author many enemies, and pro- 

4 . 

1 Life, pre6xed to the fourth edition of his "Origin sod Distinction of 
taiks.»~-Lord Woojjltieiumtee** Life of Karnes. 

Vojl XXIL M 

. i 

162 MILLE R. 

bably laid the foundation of the greatest part of bid misfor- 
tunes through life. On quitting the university, he entered 
into holy orders, and obtained immediately the lectureship 
of Trinity Chapel' in Conduit-street, and was appointed 
preacher at the private chapel at Roehampton in Surrey. 

The emoluments of his preferment, however, being not 
very considerable, be was encouraged, by the success of 
his first play, above mentioned, to have recourse to dra- 
matic writing. This step being thought inconsistent with 
his profession, produced some warm remonstrances from 
a prelate on whom he relied for preferment, and who, find- 
ing him resolute, withdrew his patVonage. Our author 
greatly aggravated his offence afterwards by publishing a, 
ridiculous character, in a poem, which was universally con- 
sidered as intended for the bishop. He then proceeded 
with his dramatic productions, and was very successful, 
until he happened to offend certain play-house critics, who 
from that time regularly attended the theatre to oppose any 
production known to be his, and finally drove him from 
the stage. About this time he had strong temptations tp 
employ his pen in the whig interest; but, being in principle 
a high church-man* he withstood these, although the calls 
of a family were particularly urgent, and all hopes of ad- 
vancement in the church at an end. At length, however, 
the valuable living of Upcerne was given him by Mr. Car- 
rey of Dorsetshire, and his prospects otherwise begari -to 
brighten, when he died April 23, 1744, at his lodgings if* 
Cheyne*walk, Chelsea, before he had received a twelve* 
month's revenue from his new benefice, or had it in his 
power to make any provision for his family. As a dramatic 
writer, Baker thinks he has a right to stand in a very esti- 
mable light ; yet the plays he enumerates are now entirely- 
forgotten . Besides these, he wrote several political 
pamphlets, particularly one called " Are these things 
so ?" which was much noticed. He was author also of a 
poem called " Harlequin Horace," a satire, occasioned 
by some ill treatment he had received from Mr. Rich, 
the manager of Covent-Garden theatre; and was like* 
wise concerned, together with Mr. Henry Baker, F. R. S* 
in a complete translation of the comedies of Moliere* 
printed together with the original French, and published; 
by Mr. Watts. After his death was published by sub*, 
scription a volume of his " Sermons," the profits of which 
his widow applied to the satisfaction pf his creditors* 

/ • 

MILLER. 163 

and the payment of his debts ; an act of juctice by which 
she left herself and family almost destitute of the common 
necessaries of life. 

. As a man, says Baker, Mr. Miller's character may partly 
be deduced from the foregoing relation of his life. He was 
firqi and stedfast in his principles, ardent in his friend- 
ships, and somewhat precipitate in his resentments. In his 
conversation he was sprightly, chearful, and a great mas* 
ter of ready repartee, till towards the latter part of his 
life, when a depression of circumstances threw a gloom 
and hypochondria over his temper, which got the better of 
his natural gaiety and disposition. r 

MILLER (Philip), a celebrated gardener and botanist, 
was born in 1691. His father was gardener to the com- 
pany of apothecaries at Chelsea, and the son succeeded 
him in that office in 1 722. His great skill in cultivation 
was soon evinced in a paper, communicated by himself to 
the Royal Society in 1728, and printed in the 35th vo- 
lume of the Philosophical Transactions, on " a method of 
raising some exotic seeds,' 9 which had been judged almost 
impossible to be raised in England ; and two years after- 
wards, he made known, for the first time, the present po- 
pular mode of causing bulbous plants to flower in water, 
in 1730 he published anonymously, a thin folio, accom- 
panied with twenty-one coloured plates, after the drawings 
of Van Huysum, entitled " A Catalogue of trees, shrubs, 
plants, and flowers, both exotic and domestic, which are 
, prepared for sale in the gardens near London." The pre- 
face is signed by a society of gardeners, amongst whom 
the name of Miller appears. The work is much more than 
a mere catalogue, the generic characters being given in 
English, and many horticultural and (Economical remarks 

In 1731 appeared the first edition of the "Gardener's 
Dictionary," in folio, the most celebrated work of its kind, 
which has been often translated, copied, and abridged, and 
may be said to have laid the foundation of all the horticul- 
tural taste and knowledge in Europe. It went through 
eight editions in England, during the life of the author* the 
last being dated 1768. This last, which forms a very thick 
folio volume, follows the nomenclature and style of Lin- 
nseus; the earlier ones having been written onTonrne* 

1 Biog. Dram. — Cibber'i Lives. 
M 2 

164 MILLER. 

Jordan principles. A much more ample editkfrn has begft 
published within a few years, making four large volumes, 
under the care of the rev. Prof. Martyn. In this all the 
modern botanical discoveries are incorporated with the 
substance of the eighth edition. Linnaeus justly predicted 
" Non erit Lexicon hortulanbrum, sed botanicoruiii," and 
it has certainly been the means of extending the taste for 
scientific botany, as well as horticulture. This work had 
been preceded, in 1724, by "The Gardener's and Florists 
Dictionary," 2 vols. 8vo, and was soon followed by "The 
Gardener's Kalender," a single 8vo volume, which has gone 
through numerous editions. One of these, in 1761,. was 
first accompanied by "A short introduction to a knowledge 
of the science of Botany," with five plates, illustrative of 
the Linnaean system. Miller had been trained in the schools 
of Tournefort and of Ray, and had been personalty ac- 
quainted with the great English naturalist, of which he 
was always very proud. No wonder, therefore, if he proved 
ttow in submitting to the Linnaean reformation and revolu- 
tion, especially as sir Hans Sloane, the Mecsenas of Chel- 
sea, had not given them the sanction of his approbation. 
At length more intelligent advisers, Dr. Watson and Mr. 
Hudson, overcame his reluctance, and, his eyes being 
ence opened, he soon derived advantage from so rich a 
source. He became a correspondent of Linnaeus, and one 
of his warmest admirers. Although it does not appear that 
he had any direct communication with Micheli, he was 
chosen a member of the botanical society of Florence, 
which seems to indicate that they were known to each 
other, and probably communicated through Sloane and 
Sherard, as neither was acquainted with the other's lan- 
guage. Miller maintained an extensive communication of 
seeds with all parts of the world. His friend Houston sent 
him many rarities from the West Indies, and Miller but 
too soon inherited the papers of this ingenious man, amongst 
which were some botanical engravings on copper. Of these 
he sent an impression to Linnseus ; and such of them as 
escaped accidents, afterwards composed the "Reliquiae 

In 1755 our author began to publish, in folio numbers; 
his «' Figures of Plants," adapted to his dictionary. These 
extended to three hundred coloured plates, making, whh 
descriptions and remarks, two folio volumes, and were 
completed in 1760. They comprehend many rare and 

MILLER. 165 

beautiful species, there exhibited for the first time. The 
commendable design of the writer was to give one or more 
of the species of eaeh known genus, all from living plants; 
which as far as possible he accomplished. His plates have 
more botanical dissections than any that had previously ap- 
peared in this country. 'Miller was a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and enriched its Transactions with several papers. 
The most numerous of these were catalogues of the annual 
collections of fifty plants, which were required to be sent 
fcp that learned body, from Chelsea garden, by the rules of 
its foundation. These collections are preserved in the 
British Museum, and are occasionally resorted to for cri- 
tical inquiries in botany. He wrote also on the poison ash, 
or Taxtcodcndrum, of America, which he believed to be 
the Japanese varnish tree of Ksempfer ; a position contro- 
verted by Mr. Ellis, who appears to have been in tbe right, 
and this may account for a certain degree of ill humour 
betrayed by Mr. Miller in the course of the dispute. 

Miller continued to attend to his duties and his favourite 
pursuits to an advanced age, but was obliged at length, by 
his infirmities, to resign tbe charge of the garden. He 
died soon after, at Chelsea, December 18, 1771, in his 
eighty-first year, and was interred in tbe burying-ground 
iir the King's road, with his wife, by whom he had, if we 
mistake not, several children. One of them, Mr. Charles 
Miller, who spent some time in the East Indies, where he 
acquired a handsome fortune, made some experiments on 
the cultivation of wheat, an account of which was given by 
Dr. Watson to the Royal Society, They were intended to 
shew the wonderful produce to be obtained by division and 
transplantation, and have often been repeated. An ac- 
count of the island of Sumatra, by Mr. C. Miller, is print- 
ed in vol. LXV1II. of the Philosophical Transactions. The 
sister <©f Philip Miller married. Ebret, and left on? son. 
In the course of his residence -at Chelsea, Miller collected, 
principally from <the garden, an ample herbarium, which 
was purchased by sir Joseph Banks. 1 

MILLER (Tbomas), a. very worthy and intelligent 
bookseller, and well known to men of literary curiosity for 
upwards of half a century, at his residence at Bungay in 
Suffolk, was born at Norwich, Aug. 14, 1752.. He was 
apprenticed 'to a grocer, but his fondness for reading in- 


> Pultenejr'sBoL. Sketches. — Kees's Cyclopaedia by Sir J. E. Smith. 

166 MILLER. 

duced him, on commencing business for himself, to appoiv 
tion part of bis shop for the bookselling business, which at 
length engrossed the whole of. his attention, time, and ca- 
pital ; and for many years he enlarged his stock so .as to 
make it an object of importance with collectors in all parts 
of the kingdom, who were not more pleased with, his judi- 
cious selection of copies, than tbe integrity with which he 
transacted business* About 1782 he published a catalogue 
of his collection of books, engrav.ed portraits, and coins, 
which for. interest and value exceeded at that time any 
other country collection, except, perhaps, that of tbe late 
Mr. Edwards of Halifax. Mr. Miller was a great reader, 
and, possessing an excellent memory, he acquired that fund 
of general knowledge, particularly of literary history,' 
which not only rendered him an instructive and entertain- 
ing companion, but gave a considerable value to his opi- 
nions of books, when consulted by his learned customers.' 
At a period of life, when unfortunately he was too far ad- 
vanced for such an undertaking, he projected a history. of 
his native county, Suffolk, and circulated' a well-written: 
prospectus of his plan. His habits of industrious research, 
and natural fondness for investigating topographical anti- 
quities, would have enabled him to render this a valuable 
contribution to our stock of county histories.; but, inde- 
pendent of bis age, his eye-sight failed him soon after he 
had made his design known, and be was obliged to relin- 
quish it. In 1799 he became quite blind, but continued 
in business until his death, July 25, 1804. There is a very 
fine private .portrait of Mr. Miller, engraved at the expence 
of his affectionate son, tbe very eminent bookseller, in Al- 
bemarle- street, who lately retired from business, carrying? 
with him the high esteem and respect' of his numerous 
friends and brethren. In 1795, when it became a fashion 
among tradesmen in tbe country to circulate provincial 
half-pennies, Mr. Miller sen. had a die cast ; but an acci- 
dent happening to one of the blocks, when only twenty- 
three pieces were struck off, he, like a true antiquary, de-. 
clined having a fresh one made. This coin (which is very 
finely engraved, and bears a strong profile. likeness of him* 
self) is known to collectors by the name of " The Miller 
half- penny." He was extremely careful into whose hands 
the impressions went ; and they are now become so rare a%» 
to produce at sales from three to five guineas. 1 

1 Nichols's Bowyer. — Private information. 

MILLER. 167 

MILLER (Edward), Mus. D. younger brother of the 
preceding, was apprenticed to his father's business, that 
of a pariour, in Norwich, but his dislike of the occupation 
became so great, that he absconded, and came to London. 
Soon afterwards he placed himself under the tuition of the 
celebrated Dr. Burney, with whom be continued in habits 
of intimacy and correspondence throughout bis life. In 
.1756 he went to reside at Doncaster in Yorkshire, where 
lie followed his profession with great reputation, and was 
organist of the church fifty -one years. He took his de- 
gree of doctor of music at Cambridge in 1786. Dr. Mil- 
ler's company was much sought after, as he was an agree- 
able, well-bred man, and his conversation abounded in 
anecdote and apt quotation* His only failing was an occa- 
sional absence of mind, which led him into several ludi- 
crous mistakes that will long be renlembered in the neigh- 
bourhood of Doncaster., 

The latter years of his life were clouded by domestic 
calamities. He had a promising family of three daughters, 
wboall died of consumptive complaints when they attained 
the age of maturity ; of his two sons, one was lost by ship- 
wreck on- board the Halsewell Indiaman. His only sur- 
viving son is a popular preacher among the methodists, 
with whom his talents, zeal, piety, and charity, have made 
him deservedly beloved. Dr. Miller died at Doncaster, 
Sept. 12, 1807. / 

I>r. Miller's professional knowledge was very extensive, 
particularly in the theory of music ; and his publications 
have been much valued. Among these are "The Insti- 
tutes of Mdsic," intended to teach the ground-work of the 
science ; and "The Elements of Thorough Bass and Com- 
position.* 9 But the most popular of his works was the * 
"Psalms of David," set to music and arranged for every 
Sunday throughout the year. This, which was expressly 
intended for the use of churches and chapels, met with very 
.great encouragement from ail ranks of the clergy, and the 
subscription, ' before publication, amounted to near five 
thousand copies. It is now regularly used in a great pro- 
portion of places of public worship* Dr. Miller also was 
somewhat of a poet, and ' somewhat of an antiquary. His 
iirct attempt in the former character was entitled "The 
Tears of Yorkshire,' on the death of the most noble tha 
Marquis of Rockingham." He informs us himself, that so 
much was the marquis beloved, that 600 copies of this lite- 

16* MILLER. 

rary trifle were sold in the course of a few hours, on the 
jday of his interment in York minster. As an antiquary fee 
•published, two years before his death, " The History and 
Antiquities of Doncaster," 4to, in which he was assisted 
•by many learned friends in that neighbourhood ; but even 
with their help it bears many marks of advanced years attd 
infirmities. 1 

MILLES (Jeremiah), an English divine and antiquary, 
-was the grandson of the rev. Isaac Milles, rector of High 
-Clear in Hampshire, probably by his second son Jeremiah. 
His eldest sou was Dr. Thomas Milles, bishop of Waterford 
and Liamore, of whom it may be necessary (to give some 
account, as Mr. Harris the editor and oontinuator of Wave- 
has admitted a few mistakes, calling trim Mills, and stag- 
ing that he was the son of Joseph Mills. He was educated 
at Wadham college, Oxford, where be took the degree of 
B. A. in. 1692, and that of M. A. in 1695. He was ordaiiftedl 
-by bishop Hough. In 1704 he took the degree .of B. D. 
and in 1706 was appointed Greek professor of Oxford. In 
1707 he attended the earl of Pembroke, lord l«ewteoant uf 
Ireland, into that kingdom, and by him was promoted to 
the see of Waterford and Lismore. He died at Waterfowl 
May 13, 1740. He published a few controversial traets, 
enumerated by Harris, but is best known* by bis valuable 
edition of the works of St. Cyril, published at Oxford ia 
1703, folio. 

Bishop Milles left his fortune to his nephew, Jeremiah, 
who was born in 17 14, and educated at Eton school, 
he entered of Queen's college, Oxford, as a fventh 
-commoner, and took his degrees of M. A. in 1735, mad B. 
and D. D. in 1 747, on which occasion he went out grand 
.compounder. He was collated by his uncle to a prebend 
in the cathedral of Waterford, and to a living near that 
city, which he held but a short time, choosing to reside in 
England- Here be married Edith, a daughter of archbishop 
Potter, by whose interest he obtained the naked flectoaet 
of St. Edmund the King and St. Nicholas Aeon in Loo** 
hard-street, with that of Merstham, Surrey, and the sme~ 
cure rectory of West Terring, in Susses. To Mervthan* 
he was inducted in 1745. From, the chaatorship of Exeter 
he was promoted to the deanery of that cathedral, in 17-62, 
pn the advancement of Dr. Ly t&ekon to the see of Carlisle, 

1 Gent. Mag. vol. LXXVII. — Private information. 

MILLE S. 16» 

mikom he also succeeded as president of the society of 
antiquaries in 1765. He had been chosen a fellow of this 
society m 1741, aad of the Royal Society in 1742. His * 
Speech, on taking upon him the. office of president of the 
Society of Antiquaries, was prefixed to the first volume of 
tbe Arcbaeologia. In other volumes of that work are some 
papers communicated by him, one of which, " Observa- 
tions on. the Wardrobe Account for the year 1483, where- 
in are contained the deliveries made for the coronation of 
king .Richard ML and some other particulars relative to the 
bistjory*" was answered by Mr. Walpole, afterwards lord 
Orlbrd, in a paper or e»say, very characteristic of his lord* 
ship's ingenuity and haughty petulance. In the early part 
of 4a*9 lite, Dr. Milles had made ample collections for a 
history of Devonshire, which are noticed by Mr. Gough in 
bis Typography. He was also engaged iu illustrating the 
Itaftfrsb eoioage, and the Domesday Survey, on both which 
subjects, it is thought, he left much valuable matter. His 
wars* attempt was to vindicate the authenticity of Rowley's 
poems, in an edition which he printed jn 1782, 4to« After 
3*bat Tyrwhitt and Wartoh had advanced on this subject, a 
grave answer to this was not necessary ; but it was the 
writer's naisforttme to draw upon himself the wicked wit 
of the author of " An Archaeological Epistle," and the more 
wicked irony of George Steevens in the St James's Chro* 
niele* The dean died Feb. 13, 1784, and was buried in 
the church of St. Edmund, which, as well as his other pre* 
ferments, he retained until his death,, with the exception 
of the rectory of West Terring, which he resigned to his 
son Richard. His character is; very justly recorded on his 
monument, as one conspicuous for the variety and extent 
of Ms knowledge, and for unremitted zeal and activity in 
those stations to which his merit had raised him; nor was 
he in private life less distinguished for sweetness of dispo- 
sition, piety, and integrity. 1 

. MILLOT (Clauo£ Francis Xavier), a late French his* 
toi&an, was born at fiesanc/ui, in March 1726, and belong- 
ed,: for some time, .to the order of Jesuits. He was one of 
those who were appointed to preach, and oontinued so to 
4o after ibe had quitted that. society. But the weakness of 
his vojce, . his timidity, and the embarrassed manner of his 

J Nichols's Bowyer. — Lord Oi ford's Works, vol. II. — Life of the Rev. Isaat 
Milles, by bishop Milles, 1721, 8vo.— Ware's Irelaud by Harris. 

17* MIL N E R. 

tio," &c. Lond. 1673, 4to. Dr. Castel, the Arabian pro- 
fessor, called this " a most excellent essay, wherein the 
author shewed incredible reading and diligence, in perusing 
so many copies, versions, and various lections, with tb« 
best interpreters of sacred writ" 2. " A collection .of the 
Church Hi&iiory of Palestine, from the birth of Christ, te 
the beginning of the empire of Diocletian," Lond. 16&8* 
4to. 3. " A short Dissertation .concerning the foar last 
Kings, of Judah," Lond. 1689, 4to. This was occasioned 
by Joseph Scaliger'a " Judicium de Thesi Chronologtca," 
&c. 4. " De Nethinim sive Netbinaeis, &c. et de iis qui 
se Corban -Deo nominabant, disputatiuncula, adversu* 
Steuch. Eugubinum, Card. Baronium," &c. Cambi 1690, 
4to. 5. " An Answer to the vindication of a Letter frona 
a person of quality in the North, concerning the profcs~ 
sion of John, late bishop of Chichester," Lond. 1690, 4to* 
$•" A Defence of the Profession of John (Lake) lord hishop 
0f Chichester, made upon his death-bed, concerning paa- 
aive obedience, and the new. oaths ; with some passages of 
his lordship's life, Load. 1690, 4to. 7. " A Defence of 
archbishop Usher against Dr. Cary and Dr. Is. Vossius, 
with an Introduction concerning the uncertainty of Chro- 
nology, and an Appendix touching the signification of -the 
words, &c. as ako the men of the great Synagogue," iGamb. 
1694, £vo. 8. « A Discourse of Conscience, &c. with *e- 
flexions upon the author of Christianity jnot mysterious*? &c« 
Lond. 16$7, 8vo. 9, tf A View of the Dissertation upon 
the epistles of Fhalaris, Themistocles, &c. lately ^published 
by the rev. Dr. Bentley. Also, of the (examination of that 
Dissertation by the hon. Mr. Boyle," Aid. 14>93, 8vp. IO. 
li A brief Examination of some .passages in the Chronoilo- 
gical part of a Letter written to Dr. BherJock, in his viudi- 
cation. la a letter to a friend." 11. "A further Exatm-* 

, aation of the Chronological part of that Letter. In a se** 
eond letter to a friend." 1 2. " An Account of Mr. Locke'* 

. religion, out of bis own writings, and in his own words 2 
together wtth observations, and a two-fold . appendix*" 
Lond. 1700, 8vo. li. " Animadversiorn* upon Jdons. Le 
Clerc'* Reflections upon our Saviour and 4ms* Apostles, Ac 
primitive fathers, &c." Camb. 1702; He leftaleo saadral 
manuscript? .enumerated in our principal authoiiky, t on 
subjects x>f chronology, biblical criticism, .fiLC. 1 ^•■- ■>■.■> 

1 Watson's Halifax.— Tboresby'B iVicam Ileodensis, p. 114, &c— Wilford's 

U I L N £ B. m 

MILNER (Joseph), a pious and learned divine and ec- 
clesiastical historian, was born ki the neighbourhood of 
Leeds in Yorkshire, Jan. 2, 1744, and was educated at the 
grammar school of his native place, where he made great 
proficiency in Greek and Latin, in which be was assisted 
bj & memory of such uncommon powers, that his triogr** 
piher, the present dean of Carlisle, says that he never saw 
bis equal, among the numerous persons of science and lite* 
future with whom he has been acquainted. This faculty 
which Mr. Milner possessed, without any visible decay, 
during the whole of his life, gained him no little reputa- 
tion at school, where his master, the rev. Mr. Moore, often 
availed himself of his memory in cases of history and my- 
thology, and- used to say, " Milner is more easily con- 
sulted than the Dictionaries or the Pantheon* and he is 
quite as much to be relied on." Moore, indeed, told so 
many and almost incredible stories of his memory, that the 
rev* Mr. Murgatroyd, a very respectable clergyman, a* 
that time minister of St. John's cburch in Leeds, express- 
ed some suspicion of exaggeration. Mr. Moore was a man 
of the strictest veracity, but of a warm temper. He in- 
stantly offered to give satisfactory proof of Us assertions 
" Milner," said he, " shall go to church next Sunday, and 
without taking a single note at the time, shall write down 
your sermon afterward. Will you permit us to compare 
what he writes with what you preach ?'* Mr. Murgatroyd 
accepted - the proposal with pleasure, and was often beard 
to express his astonishment at the event of this trial of 
memory. " The lad," said he, " has not omitted a single 
thought or sentiment in the whole sermon ; and frequently 
he has got the very words for a long way together." 

About she age of thirteen, there were few of young Mil* 
ner's years equally skilled in Latin and Greek, and none 
who were to be compared to him in the accurate and ex- 
tensive knowledge of ancient history. His love of tbtf 
study of history shewed itself as soon as ever he could read, 
and he employed his leisure hours in reading, as a weakly 
constitution, and early disposition to asthma, rendered him 
utterly ificapabte of mixing with his schoolfellows in theift 
plays and diversions. This passion for the study of history 
continued strong for many years, and was his favourite 
amusement and relaxation to the last With such acquire- 
ments, at so early an age, it cannot be thought wonderful 
if while among bis poorer and more ignorant neighbours. 


he went by the name of the " learned lad," his school- 
master should feel some degree of vanity in producing 
such a scholar; but his regard. for him was more sincere, 
than mere vanity could have produced, and Mr. Moore 
now meditated in what way he could be able to send his 
pupil to the university, where talents like his might have ft 
wider range, and lead to the honours he merited. In this 
benevolent plan be seemed at first to be obstructed by the 
death of Mr. Milner' s father, who had been unsuccessful 
\n business, and had little to spare from -the necessary de- 
mands of his family*; but this event seemed rather to 
quicken Mr. Moore's zeal in favour of bis pupil, and us the 
latter. bad begun to teach grown-up children of both sexes, 
in some opulent families in Leeds, &c. there seemed a ge- 
neral disposition to forward the plan of sending him to the 
university* At the moment when the purses of the wealthy 
were ready to be opened in favour of this scheme, the tutor 
of Catherine hall, Cambridge, an old acquaintance of Mr. 
Moore, wrote to him to the following effect : "The office 
of Chapel-clerk w.ith us will soon be vacant ; and if you 
have any clever lad, who. is not very rich, and whom y on 
would wish to assist, send him to us." Mr. Moore instantly 
communicated this proposal to several of the liberal gen-* 
tlemen above alluded to,, who all cheerfully concurred in 
it, and young Milner was thus enabled to go to Catherine* 
hall in 1762,. in his eighteenth year. 

Here his biographerexpresses his surprise that Mr. Mil* 
ner should have obtained so high a situation as he did in 
the mathematical and philosophical list of honours; and the 
more so, as he most certainly had no peculiar relish for 
those studies. He was the third senior optime ; but, per- 
haps be applied to these studies in order to be qualified for 
the honours bestowed on classical learning, in which he 
was more familiar. The chancellor's two gold medals for 
the best proficients in classical learning, were aunounced, 
and none but senior optimes could be candidates. He be- 
came, therefore, ii> 1766, in which year be took his bache- 
lor's degree, one of a list of candidates uncommonly nu- 
merous and able, and the two prizes were adjudged to Dn 

* Old Mr. Milner used to tell the seph, instead of a joint of meat for the 
tallowing anecdote with a good deal succeeding Sunday's dinner. It 

ef humour: << Once on a Saturday too true/ 1 added be, " that 1 could no* 
evening, I surprised my wife, by send- . send both '."—.Life bj pr. Milner. 
ing home a Greek book for my son Jo- 


Law, tbe late bishop, of Elphin, and to Joseph Milner. 
Several members of tbe university are still alive, who well 
remember the. general surprise caused by the success of the 
latter; and how his humorous and spirited translations of 
Terence and Plutarch, shown by tbe examiners to their 
friends, were handed about through the colleges, and ex- 
cited general admiration. 

. He would have now gladly remained at the university, 
and increased bis literary reputation, so happily begun, 
but there was no opportunity of electing him fellow, at Ca- 
therine-hall, and he was already somewhat in debt. Du- 
ring bis first year's residence at Cambridge, he had lost 
by a premature death, his affectionate schoolmaster, Mr. 
Moore; and the management of his slender, finances was 
transferred from the hands of Mr. Moore to those of a care- 
less and dissipated person. Mr. Milner was not old enough 
for deacon's orders, and it became absolutely necessary 
that he should look out for some employment. He accord- 
ingly became assistant in a school, and afterwards in the 
cure of his church, to the rev. Mr. Atkinson of Thorp-Arch, 
near Tad caster. Here, we are told, he completed an 
epic poem, begun at Catherine- hall, entitled " Davideis," 
or Satan's various attempts to defeat the purpose of the 
Almighty, who had promised that a Saviour of the world 
should spring from king David. The MS. is still in exist- 
ence. His biographer pronounces it " a fine monument 
of the author's learning, taste, genius, and exuberant ima- 
gination." He submitted it to Dr. Hurd, who sent him a 
very complimentary letter; but he laid the poem aside, 
and it has not been thought proper to publish it. 

When he had obtained deacon's orders, he applied for 
the place of head-master of the grammar-school at Hull, 
aud having obtained it, was soon after chosen afternoon 
lecturer in the principal church in that town. Under his 
auspices, the school, which .had decayed through the neg- 
ligence of his .immediate predecessors, soon acquired ami 
retained very considerable celebrity, and as the master's 
salary rose in proportion to the increase of scholars, hit 
income now, on the whole, amounted to upwards of 200/. 
a year. . The first use he made of this great change of cir- 
cumstances was to discharge those duties that arose from 
the situation of his father's family. His pious affection in- 
stantly led him to invite his mother (then living at Leeds 
in poverty) to Hull, where she became the manager of hit 

176 M1LNEH 

boose. He also sent for two indigent orphans, the children 
of his eldest brother, and took effectual care of their edu- 
cation. At this time his youngest brother, Isaac, whose 
prospects of advancement in learning were ruined by his. 
father's death, was now humbly employed in the wool led 
manufactory at Leeds. From this situation his brother Jo* 
seph instantly removed him, and employed him aa his as- 
sistant in teaching the lower boys of his crowded school at 
Hull. By bis brother's means also, he was sent to Queer*'* 
college, Cambridge, in 1770, of which be is now master, 
professor of mathematics, and dean of Carlisle. Of the 
affection between those brothers, the survivor thus speaks, 
" Perhaps no two brothers were ever more closely bound 
to each other. Isaac, in particular, remembers no earthly 
thing without being able to connect it, in some way, ten- 
derly with his brother Joseph. During all his life be has 
constantly aimed at enjoying his company as orach as cir- 
cumstances permitted. The dissolution of such a connec- 
tion could not take place without being severely feh by 
the survivor. No separation was ever more bitter and 
afflicting ; with a constitution long shattered by disease, he 
never expects to recover from that wound." 

Mr. Milner's labours as a preacher were not confined to 
the town of Hull. He was curate for upwards of seventeen 
years, of North Ferriby, about nine miles from Hull, and 
afterwards vicar of the place. At both he became a highly 
popular and successful preacher, but for some yeats, met 
with considerable opposition from the upper classes, for 
his supposed tendency towards method ism. His sentiments 
and mode of preaching had in fact undergone a change, 
which produced this suspicion, for the causes and conse- 
quences of which we must refer to his biographer. It may 
be sufficient here to notice, that he at length regained his. 
credit by a steady, upright, presevering, and disinterested 
conduct, and just before his death, the mayor and corpo- 
ration of Hull, almost unanimously, chose him vicar of the 
Holy Trinity church, on the decease of the rev. T. Clarke*' 
Mr. Milner died Nov. 15, 1797, in the fifty- fourth year of 
his age, and perhaps the loss of no man in that place taut 
ever been lamented with more general or unfeigned regret*? 
His scholars, almost without exception, loved and revered 
him. Several gentlemen, who had been his pupils many* 
years before, shewed a sincere regard for their instructor, by 
erecting at their oivn expence, an elegant monument (by 
Bacon) to his memory in the high church of Hull. 


Mr. Milner's principal publications are, 1. u Some pas- 
sages in the Life of William Howard, 9 ' which has gonfe 
through several editions ; 2. An Answer to Gibbon's At- 
tack op Christianity ; 3. " Essays on the Influence of the 
Holy Spirit." But his principal work is his ecclesiastical 
history, under the title of a " History of the Church of 
. Christ/* of which he lived to complete three volumes, 
which reach to the thirteenth century. A fourth volume, 
in two parts, has since been edited from his MSS. by his 
brother Dr. Isaac Milner, reaching to the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and a farther continuation may be expected from the 
same pen. Since his death also, two volumes of his prac- 
tical sermons have been published, with a life of the au- 
thor by his brother, from which we have selected the above 
particulars. To his " History of the Church," we have 
often referred in these volumes, as it appears to us of more 
authority in many respects than that of Mosheim ; and 
whatever difference of opinion there may be as to the view 
Mr. Milner takes of the progress of religion, he appears to 
have read more and penetrated deeper into the history, 
principles, and writings of the fathers and reformers, than 
any preceding English historian. ' 

MILTON (John), the most illustrious of English poets, 
was by birth a gentleman, descended from the proprietors 
of Milton, near Thame in Oxfordshire, one of whom for- 
feited bia estate in the contests between the houses of 
York and Lancaster. His grand-father was under-ranger 
off the forest of Shotover in Oxfordshire, and being a zea- 
lous Roman catholic, disinherited his son, of the same 
name, for becoming a protestant. This son, when thus 
deprived of the family property, was a student at Christ- 
church, Oxford, but was now obliged to quit his studies, 
and going to London became a scrivener. That he retained 
bis classical knowledge appears from his son addressing 
him in one of his most elaborate Latin poems ; he was also 
a great proficient in mtfsic,; a voluminous composer, and, 
in the opinion of Dr. Burney, " equal in science, if not 
genius, to the best musicians of his age." He married a 
lady of the name of Custon, of a Welsh family. By her 
he had two sons, John the poet, Christopher, and Anne. 
Anne became the wife of Mr. Edward Phillips, a native of 
Shrewsbury, who was secondary to the crown office in 

1 Life, as above. 

Vol. XXII. N 

it* Mi IT O.^: 

chancery. Christopher, applying himself tQ the study of 
the law, became a, bencher of the Inner Teqaple, wfflfr 
knighted at a very advanced period, of life, apd raised by. 
James II. first to be a baron of the; Exchequer, and after- 
wards one of the judges of the Common-pleas. . During 
the rebellion he adhered to the rpyal cause, and effected 
his composition with the republicans by the interest of Jti& 
brother* In his old age he retired from the fatigues of 
business, and closed, in the country., a life of study ar>4 

* * * 

John Milton was bom at bis father's, house in Pread-^ 
street, Cheapside, Dec. 9, 1608. From bis earl^st ye#r% 
has. father appears to have discerned and with great anxiejy 
cultivated bis talents. He tells, us bipiself that his father 
destined him when he was yet a child to th$ study of polite 
literature, and so eagerly did be apply, that frofq bi§ 
twelfth year, he seldom quitted bis studies tjll .the paiddJ% 
of the night; this, however, be adds, proved jibe @rs£ 
cause of the ruin of his eyes, in addition to the fl^tu^J 
weakness of which, he was afflicted with frpqijept head- 
acb*. Some part of his early education wad cptp%>ute4 U* 
the care of Mr. Thomas Young, ft puritap miniver, ^uf^ 
he was also placed for soma Iwe at jSu Paul's schepl* . tfeer* 
under the direction of Mr. Ale*apder GUI, with whofa s^r 
Alexander, Milton seeps to have contract * WW» WG? 
lasting friendship. In February 16?5, when ip big s§vf& T 
teentb year, he was entered a pepsipuer at Chrisf'^^Hag^^ 
Cambridge, where be bad for his. tijtor Mr. WlUvRR CfeWr. 
pel, afterwards bishop of Corfc and Ross. Qf b$ cqncjupt 
and the treatment which he experience*! in {m college r 
much has been made tbe «u*bjert <*f dispgfe- Th^Jftttt 
serious charge brought against Uisp its was expftyed* 
for which there seetps. no, ceaspnable foundation wh^tev^y. 
The register of tbe college peeves, that kfl F e g u Uriy k$R£ 
his terms, and as regularly tppfc bqtb bis, degfpf a. , 4dnflgff , 
of le$s consequence, thai he lw* °Mfc received c^rpora^ 
punishraent, seems scarcely wojtfo the paifls that have beqxf 
bestowed in refuting it, if, according tp fjie }ajt*st pf hi?, 
zealous apologists, no injury to his F^pot%tion W04I4 h? ' 
the necessary result of its admission. It is ajlp^dj, b *^ 
ever, to be probable that be might offend the&^rngfg 9& 
his college by tbe dislike, ea/4y instilled ittfo bis qu^l by 
his tutor Young, of the discipline of the church, or the 
plan of education then observed. Whatever may be i^ 


tfeis» bfe passed seven y$ars at the university, *nd after 
taking his master's degree, retired to bis father's house, at 
Horfcon in Buckinghamshire. 

During these seven years of college residence, his genius, 
4ppeai$d jft various attempts, not unworthy of the future. 
^utbor of '< Gomoa" and " Paradise Lost*" He was a poet 
#i>ei) he was only ten years old, and his translation of the. 
136th psahn evinces his progress in poetic expression at 
the early age of fifteen. He renounced his original pur* 
pose of entering the church* for which he assigns ?s a 
reason* " that cooling to some maturity of years, be had. 
perceived what, tyranny bad pervaded it, and that he who 
would take orders* must subscribe slave, and take an oath, 
withal, which, unless he took with a conscience that could 
fetch, he must either strain, perforce, or split bis faith;; 
I thought it better to prefer a blameless silence before the. 
office of speaking, bought and begun with servitude and, 
forswearing." These expressions have been supposed to 
allude to the articles of the church; but, as far as we know' 
of Milton's theology, there was none of those articles to 
vvhicfr he* had any objection. It seems more reasonable- 
therefore to conclude, that he considered subscription as 
involving an approbation of the form of church govern* 
ijnent, which, we know, was his abhorrence. 

He spent five years at his father's house at Hgrton, and 
during this time exhibited some of the finest specimens of 
hk genius. The " Com us," in 1634, and the " Lycidas," 
ifr 1637, were written at Horton; and there is strong in ^ 
ternal proof that the " L* Allegro" and " II Penseroso'*, 
wfcfe'also composed here, The Mask of Comus was apted 
befqre the earl .of Bridgwater, the president of Wales, in 
1.634, $t Ludlow-castle: and the characters of the lady- 
and her two brothers were represented by the lady Alice 
JBgertofi, then about thirteen years of age, and her two 
brothers, lprd $rackley and Thomas Egerton, who were 
still younger. The story of this piece is said to have been 
suggested by the circumstance of the lady Alice having 
been separated from her company in the night, and having 
u&Qdgred for spme time by herself in the forest of Hay* 
wo^d, as she was returning from a distant visit tp meet her 
father. This admirable drama was set to music by Lawes* 
amd fifst published by him in 1637, and, in the dedication 
t? lord Brackley, he speaks of the work as not openly 
acknowledged by the author. The author surely had little. 

1*0 M r L T o ri. 

to fear ; it would be difficult to discover an age barfranoo* 
enough to refuse the highest honours to the author of at 
work so truly poetical. The " Lycidas" was written, a» 
there is reason to believe, at the solicitation of the author's 
Old college, to commemorate the death of Mr. Edward 
King, one of its fellows, a man of great learning, piety, 
and talents, who was shipwrecked in his passage from 
Chester to Ireland. It formed part of a collection of 
poems, published on this melancholy occasion, in 1638, at 
the university press ; and its being thus printed in a coUec~ 
fion, may perhaps diminish, the wonder expressed by one 
of Milton's biographers, that a poem, breathing suck 
hostility to the clergy of the Church of England, and me- 
nacing their leader with the axe, should be permitted to 
issue from the university press. There is no other way oi f 
accounting for this than by supposing that it had not been 
read before it went to press. "' Lycidas" has been severely' 
Criticised by Dr. Johnson, and but feebly supported by 
Milton's other biographers. 

Of the "L'Allegro," and "II Penseroso," the precise, 
time of writing cannot be positively ascertained. They 
made their first appearance in a collection of our author V 
poems, published by himself in 1645 ; but there is reason 
from internal evidence to infer, that they were written ii> 
the interval between the composition of " Comus" and 
that of " Lycidas," consequently while he lived at Horton. 
Of these two noble efforts of the imagination, tbe opinion 
of the public is uniform ; every man that reads them, reads 
them with pleasure. 

In 1638, on the death of his mother, he obtained his 
father's leave to travel, and about the same time a letter of 
instructions from sir Henry Wottoh, then provost of Eton, 
but who had resided at Venice as ambassador from James I. 
He went first to Paris, wherie, by the favour of lord S'cuda- 
more, he had an opportunity of visiting Grotius, at that 
time residing at the French court as ambassador from 
Christina of Sweden. From Paris he passed into Italy, of 
which he had with particular diligence studied the lan- 
guage and literature; and, though he seems to have inn 
tended, a vfery quick perambulation of the country, h^ 
staid two months at Florence, where he was introduced to 
the academies, and received with every mark of esteeiov 
Among' other testimonies may be mentioned the ver&ej* 
addressed to him by Carlo Dati, Francipi, and others, whitk 

M I L T. O IS. 1*1 

prove that they considered a visit from Milton as no com*> 
sbod honour. From Florence he went to Sienna, and from 
^Sienna to Rome, where he was again received with kind- 
ness by the learned and the great. Holstenius, the keeper 
erf the Vatican library, who had resided three years at Ox- 
-ford, introduced him to cardinal Barberini; and he, on 
orte occasion, at a musical entertainment, waited for. him 
-at the door, and led him by the hand into the assembly. 
Here it is conjectured that Milton heard the accomplished 
-and enchanting Leonora Baroni sing, • a lady whom be has 
•honoured with three excellent Latin epigrams. She is also 
supposed to have been celebrated by Milton in her own 
language, and to have been the object of his love in his 
Italian sonnets. While at R6me, Selvaggl praised Milton 
m a distich, and Satsiili in a tetrastic, on which he put 
some vahie by printing thetn before his poems. The 
Italians, says Dr. Johnson, were gainers by thw literary 
cothtnerce ; for the encomiums with which Milton repaid 
Salsilli, though pot secure against a stern grammarian, 
turn the balance indisputably in Milton's favour. 

From Rome, after a residence of two months, he went 
to (Naples, 'in company with a hermit, who introduced him 
to Menso, marquis > of Villa, who had been, before the 
patron of Tasso, and who showed every mark of Attention 
-to Milton, until the latter displeased, him by certain senti- 
ments on. the subject of religion. In return, however, for 
.a few verses addressed to him by. the marquis,' in which he 
commends him for every 1 t^tng but his religion, Milton 
sent: him a , Latin poem, which must have raised a Jiigh 
opinion of Engbish elegance and- literature. It ought in- 
deed never tpi be fdrgot,} that' ii the whole course of this 
-tour, Milton- pitteurdd uespeotufor the English, wherever 
he went ; nor does it appear to be less memorable that he 
.rarely found hiai superior among- the learned men of the 
-continent,, who considered his- doom try as only just emerg- 
ing from baAairism; • ? : •• 

He wasiriow<to have visited- Sicily and Greece* but in- 
telligence; frota. En glarfd changed his. purpose.' "■ As I was 
-desirous^" he says, M te pass: into. Sicily siid Greefce, the 
melancholy ibtelligfence of the' civil- war recalled me-; for 
I esteemed/it dishonourable for me to be . lingering abroad, 
even for the improvement. o£ my mind, when my fellow- 
citizens were contending for their liberty at home." He 
.therefore- came back to Rbole, though the merchants in- 

183 M I L T O H. 

formed him of plots laid against bkn by tbe English Jesttrt% 
for bis free sentiments on religion;' but he fad sens* 
enough to judge that tbeve was no. danger, and theeeforte 
kept on bis way, and acted as. before, neither obtruding 
nor shunning conversation. He now *taiid two month* 
more at Rome, and went on to Ftorende without molesta- 
tion. From Florence be visited Lucca, a ad aiterwnrak 
went to Venice, whence be travelled to Geneva, and these 
became acquainted with John Diodati and Frederic Sffitt- 
heina, two learned professors of divinity. From <****%* 
he passed through France, and came home after a* ahe 
sence of a year and three months* 

For some time after hi&arrival, he employed tohjwetf ib 

the business of education, a circumstance at* which sonde 

have dilated with unnecessary prolixity, as if tbetoe had 

been any thing degrading in tile character or <employsactot 

of a schoolmaster. Dtj Johnson has obseBved that ^ this Is 

the period of his life fwmt winch alL his "biographer* seem 

inclined to shrink; Milton himself says, that lie hastened 

home (and. hia haste, after alt, was not gfleaij) beoause 4ne 

■ esteenied it dishonourable to be lingering abroad white his 

j«fellQw-»chiaeos were contending for tbeic liberty. This 

- seem to. imply h promise of joining) tbetp its their estdtife- 

• yours,; but as* instead df this, be seta up a school imaiee 
diately on bis, arrival, bis biographers are puazled U* ao- 
comK for hi^; conduct, and yet destroys of defending it. 
What can he said in his favour' has been better said by 
Johnson than by any of hja apologists, urid /in. fewer wwrda; 
*' Hia father was alive ; his allowance waa not ample ; aftd 
be supplied its. deficiencies by an honest and useful ew>- 

* plojtmanfc.'' And we shall findi that >fa v*ny anon, joined 
bisyfeUowficitiaens, and contribfttHed his share to ttte cm*- 
trenjejsies of the times. 

As the mode* oil education which he iatitoAneed in iris 
school bas.bgen given up by all his biographers, it may be 
sufficient here only to notice briefly that his i purpose was 
t0 teafcb things more than Words* Not content with the 
common school authors, he placed in the hands of bays 
,frjor/i ten to fifteen years of age,; soch writers as wave oa- 
. ppfyle of giving' information in some of the departments of 
science. J&yenJn the selection of these be was unfortu- 
nate* as his. most zealous advocates ace willing to aHow>: 
the only part of his method which desetwes general ktiSlsj- 
tion, was. the care -with which he instructed bis sobohnrs'M* 


Every Sunday was spent upota theology, of 
*pfeich he dictated a system; to them founded on the prio- 
otptes of the Genevan divines. He also read and probably 
commented on a chapter in the Gredc Testament. Hhr 
first tebool' war at his lodgings, hi St Bride's church-yard, 
hot as the. number of his scholars, increased, he removed 
to a house in Aldersgate*streec 

. The time, however, was now come when, as Johnson 
4ayt, he was to lend " his breath to blow the flames of 
contention." In 1641 he published a treatise of " Refor- 
mation?" is* tvfa books, against the established church; 
and soon after one, " Of Prelatical Episcopacy," against 
the learned Usher, who had writtth a confutation of 
-{* SmeetymtMMis*" which was intended as an answer to 
bishop Hall's " Humble Remonstrance, 7 ' in defence of 
Episcopacy. His next work was " The' Reason of Church 
: Gojenulent urged against Prelafcy," 1 64Z. In this book, 
sagps Jbbnson, be discovers, not with ostentatious exuha- 
tion^ but with calm confidence, hi* high opinion of his 
Qwd powers i and promises to undertake something, he 
j^baow* not what, that qmy be of .ufee and honour to bia 
country. "This," says Milton, "is not to be obtained 
but bjfr devout player to the eternal Spirit that can enrich 
with ail utterance and knowledge, and sends out his Sera* 
pbktt with the hallowed fire of his, altar* to touch and purify 
the lips of whom be please*. To this- must be added, in- 
dustrious .and select reading, steady observation, and hi- 
9tghfc into all seemly and generous arts and .affairs ; till 
.whipb'iiir some measure be compost, I rtefuse not to sustain 
tkis eitpectation." From a promise Kkd tbi&i add? Jobn- 
tmv at once fervid^ pious, and rational,, might be expected 
the " Paradise Lost;" He published the same year tiro 
mere pamphlets on the same qufestion, with which the 
eontntaeiay appears to have ended, and episcopacy was 
loon afteawards overwhelmed by the violent means, for 
which the press bad long prepared. 

. About thfe time that the town of Reading was taken by 
tbfe earl of Essex,, Milton's father came to reside in his 
houses and his school increased. In 1643, his domestie 
oemfeot mm disturbed by an incident which he had hoped 
neieid bfcve rather promoted it* This wa* his marriage to 
Mary,- the dkughfaer of: Richard Powell, esq. a magistrate 
in Osfordahire^ and a loyalist The lady was brought to 
Let*de% hut did not remain above a month with her bus-* 

184 MILTON. 

batkl, when under pretence of a visit to her .relations* a&e 
wholly absented <herself, and resisted bis utmost and re- 
. peated importunities to return. His biographers inform 
us that the lady had been accustomed to the jovial hospi- 
tality of the loyalists at her father's house, and that after a 
month's experience of her new life, she began to sigh for 
the gaieties she had left, &c. Whether this will suffi- 
ciently account for her conduct, our readers may consider. 
Milton, however, appears to have felt the indignity, and 
determined to repudiate her for disobedience; and finding 
no court of law able to assist him, published some treatises 
to justify his intentions ; such as " The Doctrine and Dis- 
cipline of Divorce;" "The Judgment of Martin Bucer, 
concerning Divorce," &c. In these he argued the point 
with great ingenuity, but made few converts, and the 
principal notice taken of these writings came in a very 
unfortunate shape. The Westminster assembly of divines 
procured that the author should be called before the Hoitye 
of Lords, who did not, however, institute any process on 
the matter ; but in consequence of this attack, the presby- 
terian party forfeited his favour, and he ever after treated, 
them with contempt. .... 

As in these writings on divorce, he had convinoed him- 
self of the rectitude of his principles, his next step was to 
carry them into practice, by courting a young woman of 
great accomplishments, the daughter of one Dr. Davis, or 
Davies, This alarmed the parents of his wife, who bad 
now another reason for wishing a reconciliation, namely, 
the interest of Milton with the predominant powers, to 
whom they had become obnoxious by their loyalty. It 
was contrived, therefore, that his wife should be at a house 
where he was expected to visit, and should surprize him 
with her presence and her penitence. All this was suc- 
cessfully arranged : the lady played her part to admira- 
tion, and Milton not only received her with his wonted 
affection, but extended his protection to her family in the 
most generous manner. He was now obliged to. take a 
larger mansion, and removed -to Barbican. In 16*44, he 
published his "Tractate on Education," explaining the 
plan already mentioned, which he had attempted to 
carry into execution in his school. His next publication 
was his " Areopagitica, or a speech for the liberty of un- 
licensed printing ;" a treatise which at least' served -to ex- 
posg the hypocrisy of the usurping powers, during whose 

MILTON. 48* 

tetgn the liberty of the press was as much restrained .as in 
«iy period of the monarchy, nor perhaps at any time was 
Milton's unbounded liberty less relished. - 

Though his controversial, and other engagements, had 
for some time suspended fthe exertion of Ms poetical ta* 
lents, yet he did not suffer his character as a poet to sink 
into oblivion, and in 1645, he published his juvenile poeris 
in Latin and English, including, for the first .time, the 
"Allegro" and " Penseroso." In 1646, Milton's wife pro* 
doced her first child, and in the following year, in which 
bis father died, the family of the Powells returned to their 
own mansion, and his house was resigned once more to 
literature. ln>this house, in which his second daughter 
Mary was borrt, he did not continue long, but exchanged 
it for one of smaller dimensions in High Holborn. He is 
not known. to have published any thing afterwards till the 
king's death, when finding that measure condemned by the 
Presbyterians, he wrote a treatise to justify it. Of all 
Milton's political works this reflects least credit on his ta- 
lents, or his principles. . Even those who have been most 
disposed to vindicate him against all censure, and to re- 
present him invulnerable both as a politician and a poet, 
seem to shrink from the task of defending him in this in- 
stance, and candidly tell us, that they meet with an in- 
superable difficulty in the very title of the book; "The 
Tenure of Kings and Magistrates ; proving, that it is law- 
ful, and hath been held so through all ages, for any 
who have the power, to call to account a tyrant or wicked 
king : and after due conviction, to depose and put him to 
death, if the ordinary magistrate have neglected or denied 
to do it." Here, therefore, the right to punish, kings be- 
longs to any who have the power, and their having the power 
makes it lawful, a doctrine so monstrous as to be given up 
.by his most zealous advocates, as " a fearful opening for 
mischief:" but it was, in truth, at that time, what Mil- 
ton intended it to be, a justification, not of the people of 
England, for they had no hand in the king's murder, but 
of. the army under foretop and Cromwell. That Milton was 
also - at this .time under the strong in flueoce - of party-spi- 
rit,* appears from his attack ^n' the Presbyteriane in this 
work, the avowed grounki of which is their inconsistency. 
When, however, we examine their inconsistency, as be 
baa been pleased tp state it, it amctants toonly this* ttatt 
they contributed in common with, the Independents and 

156 M I L TO N. 

other aeefcurasi and parties, to dethrone die king j bwt 
ssisfaed to stop short of bis murder. Eye* y spetic* of ©p- 
position to what they considered as tyranny in the king) they 
could exert, but they thought it sufficient to deprire Mm of 
ptfwer, without depriving him of life 

His next publication was, " Observations upon the ami* 
cfes of Peace, which the earV of Ormond had concluded at 
Kilkenny, on Jam 17, 1648^, in the king's name* and by 
bis authority, with the popish Irish rebels," &c. The pur- 
p©rt ot this also was to fender the royal cause more odicras 
by connecting it with the Irish massacre *, and that the sen- 
titnents of the nation might become yet more completely 
republican, he now employed* himself in ^composing. € * A 
History of England." Of this, however, he wrote only 
six books, which bring it no lower down than to the bottle 
of Hastings. It presents a perspicuous arrangement of the 
fabulous, and less interesting part of our history; but, as 
he neter resumed the task, it is impossible to say in what 
way be could have rendered the events of more recent 
times subserrient to his purpose; His regicide perfor- 
mance evidently shews that bis ideas of our constipation 
me totally at variance with the opinions of the most en* 
lightened of our present writers; and he probably farad 
that even in the favourite republic now established, there 
was but little that suited with the order of things he bad 

The immediate cause, how even, of tbeinterntptioniigiuen 
to his " History," was his being appointed Latin secretary 
to die new council of state, which was to supply, all the 
i&ftces of royalty. He had scarcely aoeepted this appoint* 
ment, when his employers called upon him to answer the 
famous book entitled a Icon Basil ike\ ec the portraiture of 
'bis'sacrcd majesty in his solitudes and sufferings.'* This 
sv*s then? understood to be the production of CharlesrJL 
-jind was published. unquestionably with tfte'vietf to* exhibit 
Jhm to the people ma more ferourable light than he had 
Keen represented by those who brought him to the btoeM. 
It probably -too was beginning to produce tha* effect, asctfae 
-jroVernmen* thought it necessary to employ the taiantsri»f 
'Milton to answer it* which he did in a work. entitled "Ipe*- 
Docbstes^ or"Imtfge-breabei% In this hefoHawetheaosjs*- 
mon opinion, thatr the king was the writer* although be 
sometimes seems to admit of doubtsv audi makes; his answer 
•a>soitt otpenri^w and vmdidavio»<rf ail the proceedings; a j 

at ILTO K 1ST 

the cooru This bin been praiaed as one of the ablest of 
ail Milton's political tracts* white it is at the same time 
confessed that it did. not in the least diminish the popularity 
of the " lean," of which 46,500 are said to have been said, 
and whether h was the production of th& king oc of bishop 
€audea r it must have kmrmomzed with the feelings and 
sebtiaaewts of a great .proportion of the public. The story 
*f Mitten's insertaug a prayer taken from Sidney's u Arca- 
dia/* and imputing the use of it to the king as* a crime* 
appeals to have no foundation ; but we know not how 00 
vindicate, this and other petty objections to tfce king's 
eharacter, froiathe charge of personal animosity. 
. Milton's nest employment was to answer the celebrated 
Selmasius, who, at the instigation of the exiled Charles II. 
Jiad written a defiance of his father and of monarchy; 
Sklmasius w&oaa antagonist worthy of Milton, as a general 
scholar, but scarcely his equal in that species of political 
talent which rendered Mittoirfs services so important to the 
new. 1 government. Salmaaius's work was entitled "Defew~ 
sio Bggia,'' and MUton?s." Defeoiio pro populo- Anglic 
cjtnoy" which greatly increased Milton's' reputation abroad, 
-aadk at home we may be certain would procure him- no 
small share of additional faaour. That bis work includes 
awry- great portion of controrensal bitterness, may be at- 
tributed either to the temper of the times, or of the wrioer, 
as the reader pleases \ but the former was entirely in- hjs 
faoury and his triumph waa therefore complete. Of Sal- 
jBasiuVs work, the highest .praise has been reserved to our 
own: times, in which the last biographer of Milton has com* 
pared it. to Mr. Burke V celebrated book on the French 

Mutator's eye-sight, wkieb had been some time declining; 
<wa* now totally gone ; but,, greatly fek as this privation* 
mnsto have been to a man of studious habits, bis intellectual 
powers? suffered no dinrinutixmj About- this time (1658), 
k4 jwaa^ involved in another controversy respecting tbef 
f^JJefeasi©, pro popnlo Angltcano," in oonbequence o£ « 
work published at the Hague, entitled " Regii sanguinis 
'abator* ad cerium adversas parricidas AnglicanosV' written) 
ky Peter dp Moulin, but published by, and under tb^ 
ttame<af, Alexander? Mosus, onMbre. This prodo^ed'frot* 
Jtitkon, hi* *f. Defensio seettnda pro populo Apglieane*** 
and<a few-replies to the answers erf fads antagonists. Ib this 
soc^iwL " Befeusio," written in the .same spirit an tfr# 

N < 




preceding, is introduced a high panegyric upon CnxAweft* 
who bad now usurped the supreme power with the title. of 
Protector. It seems, acknowledged that his biographers 
have found it very difficult to justify this part of his con* 
duct. Tbey have, therefore, had recourse to those conjee* 
tural reasons which shew their own ingenuity, but perhaps 
never existed in the mind of Milton. Their soundest de- 
fence would have been to suppose Milton placed in a 
choice of evils, a situation which always admits of apolpgy. 
It is evident, however, that he had now reconciled himself 
to the protector- king, and went on with bis business as 
secretary, and, among other things, is supposed to have 
written the declaration of the reasons for a war with Spain. 
About this time (1652) his first wife died in childbed, leav- 
ing him three daughters. He married again, mot long after, 
Catherine, tbe daughter of a captain Woodcock, - of Hack* 
Dey, who died within a year in child-birth, and ( was la- 
mented by him in a sonnet, which Johnson terms " poor,'.' 
but others "pleasing and pathetic." To divert his grief 
he is said now; to have resumed bis " History of England,'? 
?nd to have made some progress in a Latin dictionary. 
This last -appears to, have engaged his attention occasion* 
aUyfor many years after, for he. left three folios of eollec- 
tion** that were probably used by subsequent lexicographers, 
^ut .could not. of themselves have formed a. publication. 
; He had praised Cromwell as the 1 only person who could 
allay the contentions of parties, and ^he time was. now 
come When the nation was to lose this protecting genius. 
Another Cromwell was not to be found, and general anarchy 
seemed approaching. Milton, somewhat alarmed, but not 
wholly dispirited with this state of things, took up his pen 
to, give advice on certain urgent topics, and having as ra&ch 
dread of presbyterianism as of royalty, he published two 
treatises, one, *! Of the civil pewenin ecclesiastical .causes," 
^nd the other, " Considerations touching, the likeliest mean? 
tp remove hirelings out of the church." In both these he 
shewed bis sentiments to be unaltered on the subjects of iiivil 
aftd ecclesiastical government ; and he urged them yetifav* 
the*: in "The present means and brief delineation of aifiree 
C$f»H>onweidtb,7 and " The ready and easy way to establish 
9. \frefc Cctemon wealth." In this last his inconsistencies 
haee.btffen justly exposed by one of his recent biographers. 
'A .With tbe strongest prepossession of a party-zealot, he 
defterte bis general principle for the attainment of his parr * 

MILTON, *9st 

tteular object : and thinks that his own opinions ought ti> 
be enforced in opposition to those of the majority of thfe 
nation. Aware also that a frequetit change of the 'govern- 
ing body might be attended with inconvenience and pos- 
sible danger, he decides against frequent parliaments, and 
in favour of a permanent council.* Into such inconsistencies 
was he betrayed by bis animosity to monarchy, and his 
bigoted attachment to whatever carried the name of a re- 
public." These pamphlets were answered both in a spor- 
tive and serious way, but neither probably gave him much 
uneasiness. His last effort in the cause of republicanism 
was entitled " Brief notes" on a loyal sermon preached by 
Dr. Matthew Griffith, one of the late king's chaplains : and 
with this terminated his political controversies. 

Charles II. was now advancing, with the acclamations 
of the people, to the throne, and Milton, it was natural 
to suppose, might expect his resentment: for some time, 
therefore, he secreted himself, but on the issuing of the 
act of oblivion, his name was not found among the except 
tions, and he appeared again in public. Various reasons 
have been assigned for this lenity, but the most probable 
was the interest of his friends Andrew Marvel I, sir Tho- 
mas Clarges, and especially sir William Davenant, whom 
Milton had once rescued from a similar danger. The only 
notice taken of him was by the House of Commons, who 
ordered his " Iconoclastes" and " Defence of the people 
of England" to be burnt by the hands of the hangman ; and 
it appears that he was once, and for a short time, in cus- 
tody, but on what pretext is not known. 

In 1662 he resided in Jewin-street, and from this he 
removed to a small house in the Artillery-walk, adjoining 
Bunhill-fields, where he continued during the remaining 
parfcof his life. While living in Jewin-street, he married 
his third wife, Elizabeth Minshull, the daughter of a gen- 
tleman of Cheshire. He was now employed on " Paradise 
Lost," to which alone, of" all his works* be owes his fame* 
Whence he drew the original design has been variously 
Conjectured, but nothing very satisfactory has been pro- 
duced. It was at a very early period that he meditated an 
epic poem, but then thought of taking his subject from the 
heroic part of English history. At length " after long' 
choosing, and beginning late," he fixed upon " Paradise 
Lost:" a design so comprehensive, that it could, says Dr. 
Johnson, be justified only by success. We may refer to 


1$0 MILTO N. 

tha£ eminent critic, and bis other biographers, for a regular 
examinatioa of the 'beauties aac^ defect* of this immortal 
poem, as well aus for many particuhn* relative to the time* 
and mode in which be composed. These it would have 
been delightful to trace, bad our information beeo as ac- 
curate as it i* various ; but, unhappily* every step in MiUoa> 
progress has been made the subject, of.aagry controversy* 
and they who cao take any pleasure in the effusions of cri- 
tical irritation, may be amply gratified in the more recent 
Jives of Milton. 

The " Paradise Lost" was first published in 1667; and 
much surprize and concert* have been discovered at the 
small pecuniary benefit which the author derived from this 
proud display of bis genius. It must, in our view of the 
matter, and considering only the merit and popularity of 
the poem, s$em deplorable that the copyright of such a 
composition should be sold for the sum of five pounds, and 
a contingent payment, on th$ sale of 2600 copies, of twe 
other equal sums, making in all fifteen pounds, as the 
whole pecuniary reward of a poem which has never beet* 
equalled. It will not greatly diminish our wonder at thi# 
paltry sua) if we add, upon the authority of his biographers* 
that this fifteen pounds purchased the bookseller'* right 
only to tjie several editions for which they were paid, and 
that Milton's widow sold (be irreverubte copyright to the 
sfune bookseller, Samuel Simmons, for eight pounds. Here 
is still oply a sum pf twenty-three pounds derived from the 
work, to the author and bis family. In defease of the 
bookseller, however, we are referred to the risk be ran? 
from the. publication of a work in all respects new, and 
written by a wao under peculiar circumstances : and to the 
state of literary curiosity and liberality so different from 
what; prevail in our own days. This is specious, and ipust 
be satisfactory for want pf information respecting the usqak 
prices of literary labour, which we cannot now easily ac*» 
quire. We have seen a manuscript computation by the 
\ate John Whiston the bookseller, whteh would be value* 
tie, as coming from a good judge pf the article, if, unfor*. 
{unately, he had been correct in the outset : but as he re+, 
presents Jacob Tonson giving the author 30/. for the. first 
edition, apd 10/, more when it should come toa second,, 
we know all this to be erroneous, and that the author's fa*, 
mily bad disposed pf the whole before the work became 
Tonson'* property. This, hc-wever, b$ call* '? ft genewmf 


price, as copies then sold ;" and if this be trutt ** oartnot 
juppose for a moment, that * scholar could it) that age in-* 
dplge any hopes of being rewarded by the public. In MiK» 
totfp c#ae we hope be had no dependapce on it, for the 
\rqe w*y to ascertain bow very paltry the sum was which 
he received* i* by comparing it with bis property, which, 
at bis death 9 amounted, to 3QQ0/, 

In 1671, Mil ton published his " Paradise Regained, 1 * 
written on the suggestion of $lwood, the quaker* who had 
heen one of his amanuenses* Elwood, after reading the 
" Paradise Lost," happened to say, " Thou hast said much 
here on, Paradise Lost, but what bast thou to say of Para* 
fkise Found ?" This poem was probably regarded by the 
anther «9 the theplogical completion of the plan com* 
ipepced ip ** Paradise Lost, 9 ' and he i& said to have viewed 
It with strong preference; but in this last opinion few have 
been fcwad to coincide. Its inferiority in point of grandeur 
and invention is very generally acknowledged, although it 
j*0K>t: by any means unworthy of hi* genius. About the 
saiqe tipe appeared bis " Samson Agonistes," a drama, 
Oftippofed upon thespcient model* and abounding in moral 
apd descriptive beauties, bet never intended or calculated 
for the stage- 
To that multiplicity of attainments, and extent of cam- 
jMFpben?iop, that entitle this great author to our veneration, 
may be added, says Johnson, a kind of bumble dignity, 
which did not disdain the meanest services to literature. 
The epic poet, the cpntrqvertiist, and politician, having 
already descended te aceommedate qbiWren with a book 
of elements* now, in the last years of his Sfe, composed a 
book ef Lqgic, for the initiation of students in philosophy t 
Sfflfd published, in 1672, " Artis L,egiccp plenior institutt* 
aM ftttri Haaji me&odiwn concinnata." In the following 
yea/ie ventured, once more to meddle with the controvert 
flip* of the times, and wrote " A Treatise of true Religion^ 
$p* and the t>e?t means to prevent the Growth of Popery." 
The latter wan became the dread of the nation, and Milton 
was amgr^g the *¥pst zealous of its opponents. The ptrinci* 
pie of toleraUpn which be Uy* down is, agreement ie the 
spftcieacy of the scripture*, whieh be denies to the Pa* 
pists, be$aq*e they appeal to another authority. }n thf 
jftipne jeax MjUqu pqhlishtid a *ee<3ftd edition of his youth* 
^paepPft wth bU ^ Tractate on : Edue*tio\i, u in one wo* 
\mst ift *ift& fe» i*&ki!k& Vime pieces not oampreben^ei 

19* MILTON. 

in the edition of 1 645. In 1 674 be gatve the world- Ms fa* 
miliar letters, and some college exercises, the former with 
the title of " Epistolarum Familiarum Liber unus," and the 
latter with that of " Prolusiones "qusedam oratories in Col-< 
legio Christi habitoe." He is also said, but upon doubtful 
authority, to have translated into English the declaration 
of the Poles, on their elevating John Sobieskt to their 
elective throne. With more probability he bas» been rec- 
koned the author of " A brief History of Muscovy,** which 
was published about eight years after his death. With this 
. work terminated his literary labours ; for the gout, which 
had for many years afflicted him, was now hastening his 
end. He sunk tranquilly under an exhaustion of the vital 
powers on the 8th of November, 1674, when he had nearly 
completed his sixty-sixth year. His remains were carried 
from his house in Bunhtll-fields to the church of St. Giles, 
Cripplegate, with a numerous and splendid attendance, ahd 
deposited in the chancel near those of his father. No mo* 
nument marked the tomb of this great man, but one was 
erected to his memory in Westminster Abbey, in 1737, at 
the expence of Mr. Benson, one of the auditors of the im- 
prest. His bust has since been placed in the church where 
h^ Was interred, by the late Samuel Whitbread, esq. 

In the July preceding his death, Milton had requested 
the attendance of his brother Christopher, and in his pre* 
fence made a disposition of his property by a formal de- 
claration of his will. This mode of testament, which is 
called nuncupative, was set aside, on a suit instituted by 
his daughters. By this nuncupative will he had given all 
his property to his widow, assigning nothing to his daugh- 
ters but their mother's portion, which had not yet been 
paid. On this account, and from exacting from his chil- 
dren some irksome services, such as reading to him in lan- 
guages which they did not understand, a necessity result- 
ing from his blindness and his indigence, he has been 
branded as an unkind father. But the nuncupative will, 
discovered some years since, shews him to have been amia- 
ble, and injured in that private scene, in which alone be 
has generally been considered as liable to censure, or ra- 
ther, perhaps, as not entitled to affection. In this will, 
published by Mr. Wart on, and in the papers connected 
with it, we find the venerable parent complaining of " un- 
kind children,** as he calls them, 'for leaving and neglect- 
ing him because he was blind ; and we see him compelled* 

MILTON. 135 

by .their injurious conduct, t6 appeal against thjeqa even to 
his servants. By the deposition of one of those. servants, 
it is certain, that his complaint* were not extorted by slight • 
wrongs, or uttered by capricious passion on trivial provo- 
cations : that his children, with the exception of the 
youngest,, would occasionally sell his books to the dunghill 
women, as the witness calls them. That these daughters 
were capable of. combining with the maid-servant, and of 
advising her to cheat ber master, and their father, in her 
marketings; and that one of them, Mary, on being told 
that her father was married, replied, " that was no news; 
but if she could bear of his death, that would be something." 

Of the three daughters of MiltQn, Anne, the eldest, 
married a master-builder, and died with her first child in 
her lying-in; Mary, the. second, died in a single state: 
and Deborah, the youngest, married Abraham Clarke, a 
weaver in Spitalfields. She had seven sons and. three 
daughters; but of these she left, a^t her decease, only Caleb, 
who, marrying ir> the East Indies, had two sons,, whose his* 
tory cannot be traced ; and Elizabeth, who married Tho*> 
mas Foster, of the same business with her -father, and had 
by him three sons and four daughters, who all died young 
and without .issue. Mrs. Foster died in poverty and distress, 
on the ninth of May, 1754. This was the lady for whose 
benefit " Corn us" was played in 1750, and she had so lit- 
tle acquaintance with diversion or gaiety, that she did not 
know what was intended when a benefit was ottered hen < 
The profits of the night were only 13Q/. ; yet this, as Dr# 
Johnson remarks, was the greatest benefaction that " Pa- 
radise Lost" : ever procured the author's descendants, 

Milton was in youth so eminently beautiful that he was 
called the lady of his college. His hair, which was of a 
light brown, parted at the foretop, and hung down upon 
his shoulders, according to the picture which he. has given 
of Adam. He was rather below the middle size, but vi- 
gorous and active, fond of manly sports, and even skilful 
in the. exercise of the sword. His domestic habits,, as far 
as they are known, were those of a severe student. He 
was remarkably temperate both in eating and drinking. In 
his youth, as we have noticed, he studied late at night ; 
but afterwards changed his hours, and became a very early 
riser. The course of his day was best known after he lost 
his sight. When he first rose, he heard a chapter in the 
Hebrew Bible, and then studied till twelve; then took 

Vol. XXII. O 

194 MILTON; 

some exercise for an hour ; then dined, then played on 
the organ, and sung or heard another sing ; studied to the 
hour of six, and entertained his visitors till eight ; then 
supped, and after a pipe of tobacco and a glass of water 
went to bed. To his personal character there seems to 
have been little to object. He was unfortunate in his 
family, but no part of the blame rested with him. His 
temper, conduct, morals, benevolence, were all such as 
ought to have procured him respect His religion has 
been a fertile subject of contest among his biographers. 
He is said to have been in early life a Calvinist, and when 
be began to hate the presbyterians, to have leaned towards 
Arminianism. Whatever were bis opinions, no sect could 
boast of his countenance ; for after leaving the church he 
never joined in public worship with any of them. l 

MIMNERMUS, an ancient Greek poet, was born either 
at Colophon, according to Strabo, or according to others 
at Smyrna, some time in the sixth century B. C. Strabo 
informs us that he was a musician, as well as a writer of 
elegies, which was bis chief pursuit': and Nanno, the lady 
who passes for his mistress, is recorded to have got her 
livelihood by the same profession.. There are but few frag- 
ments of his poems remaining, yet enough to shew him an 
accomplished master in his own style. His temper seerrts 
to have been as truly poetical as his writings, wholly 
bent on love and . pleasure, and averse to the cares of 
common business. He appears to have valued life only 
as it could afford the means of pleasure. By some he is 
said to have been the inventor of the pentameter, but va- 
rious specimens of that verse of older date are still extant 
Mimnermus's fragments are printed by Brunck, in his 
" Analecta," and in the " Gnomici Poetae." f 

MINDERER (Raymond), a physician of Augsburg, of 
the chemical sect, lived in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. He was eminent as a military physician, 
in which capacity he. served several campaigns, and also 
rose to high reputation and practice in the courts of Vienna 
and Munich, where he was consulted by the principal no- 
bility. He published the result of his experience relative 
to the diseases of armies, in the German language; and this 
work was translated into Latin, with the title of u Medicina 

1 Life of Milton by Dr. Johnson,— and Dr. Symmons, &c. &c. &c. 
* Strabo. — Fabric. Bibl. Grace- Athenecum, vol. II. — Burney's IJist of 
Music— Saxii Onomast. 

M I N D E R E R. 19* 

Militaris, seu, Liber Castrensis, euporista et facile para* 
bilia Medicamenta continens," Vienna, 1620, 8vo. This 
work was several times reprinted, and was also translated 
into English in 1674. He was likewise author of the fol- 
lowing works: " De Pestilenti& Liber unus," ibid. 1608; 
*' Aloedarium Marocostinum," ibid. 1616, and afterwards 
republished ; €€ De Calcantho, seu Vitriolo, ejusque qua* 
litate, virtute, et viribus," 1617.; " Threnodia Medica, 
seu, Planctus Medicinse lugentis," 1619. His chemical 
reputation is evinced by the connection of his name ia the 
shops, even at this day, with the neutral salt, the acetate 
of ammonia, which is called Mindererus' spirit. 1 

MINELLIUS (John), a Dutch grammarian, born at 
Rotterdam about 1625, was occupied for the chief part of 
bis life in teaching the learned languages, and died about 
1683. He published editions of Terence, Sallust, Virgil, 
Horace, Florus, Valerius Maximus, and most of the clas- 
sics, with short notes, rather for the aid of mere school- 
boys, than of any kind of utility to the learned. Most of 
these editions are also printed in a very incorrect manner, 
at least the republications of them, in this and other 
countries. * 

MINOT (Laurence), an ancient English poet, who 
flourished in the fourteenth century, but appears to have 
been unknown to Leland, Bale, Pits, and Tanner, was 
lately discovered by Tyrwhitt, and edited by Mr. Ritsoa ia 
1794, 8vo. The discovery was owing to a remarkable cir- 
cumstance. Some former possessor of the manuscript in 
which his poems are contained had written his name, Ri- 
chard Cbawser, on one of the supernumerary leaves. The 
compiler df the Cotton catalogue, printed at Oxford in 
1696, converted this signature into Geoffrey Chaucer, and 
therefore described the volume in these words, " Chaucer. 
Exemplar emendate scriptum.". Mr. Tyrwhitt, whilst he 
was preparing his edition of the Canterbury Tales, con- 
sulted this manuscript, and thus discovered the poems of 
Laurence Minot The versification of this poet is uncom- 
monly easy and harmonious for the period in which he 
lived, and an alliteration, as studied as that of Pierce Plow- 
man, runs through all his varieties of metre. He has not 
tbe dull prolixity of many early authors ; nor do we find 

1 Eloy Diet. Hiit de Medicine. — Rees** Cyclopaedia. 
• Moreri. — Heumanni Via ad Hilt. Lit.— Saxii Onomait, 


196 MINOT. 

in his remains those pictures of ancient tirae^ and manners, 
from which early writers derive their greatest value: In 
the easy flow of his language he certainly equals Chaucer; 
but here the merit of .Laurence M mot ends, although Mr. 
Ritson endeavours to carry it much farther. l 

MINUCIUS FELIX (Marcus), a father of the primitive 
church, flourished in the third century. He is said to have 
been an African. by birth, but little is known of his history, 
except that he was a proselyte to Christianity, resided at 
Rome, and followed the profession of a lawyer. He is now 
known by bis excellent dialogue, entitled " Octavius." At 
what time he wrote it is a contested point, but as he ap- 
pears to have imitated Tertullian, and to have been copied 
by Cyprian in bis treatise " De idolorum vanitate," it 
may probably be referred to the reign of the emperor Ca- 
racalla. The speakers in this dialogue are Ca?cilius, a 
heathen, and Octavius, a Christian ; and Minucius,.as. their 
common friend, is chosen to moderate between the two 
disputants. Octavius is made to encounter the arguments 
of Csecilius, and maintains the unity of God, asserts his 
providence, vindicates the manners of Christians, and 
partly attempts to explain their tenets, and partly refers a 
more ample consideration of them to some future oppor- 
tunity of discourse. It is a learned, elegant, and ingenious 
performance, although critical objections may be made to 
the form of the dialogue, and to some of the sentiments. 
This work was, for a considerable time, attributed to Ar- 
nobius; but in L 5 6Q, Francis Baldwin* a learned lawyer, 
published it at Heidelberg, in 8vo, and made the disco* 
very in a preliminary dissertation, that Minucius wa$ its 
true author. It has, since that time, gone through many 
editions, of which the best is that printed at Cambridge 
in 1712, with the dissertation of Baldwin prefixed, a#d 
" Commodiani Instructiones adversus Gentium Deos," 
added in the .way of appendix. We have likewise an 
excellent translation of it, with notes and illustrations, 
published by sir D. Dalrymple, lord Hailes, in 1781, from 
the preface to which part of the above account is taken. * 

MIRABAUD (John Baptist), a learned man, who held 
the place of perpetual secretary to the French academy, 
was born in Provence in 1674, and lived to the age of 

» Ritson's edit— Crit. Rev. and Brit. Grit for 1797. , 

* Cave, vol. I.— -Lord Hailes's preface,— Larduer's Works.— Saxii Onoomit 

M I R A B A U D. 


eighty-six. He is chiefly known, as an author, by 1. «A 
translation of Tasso's Jerusalem delivered/' which has 
gone through several editions, but has since been super- 
seded by a better, written by M. le Brun. Mirabaud took 
upon him, rather too boldly, to retrench or alter what he 
thought unpleasing in his author. 2. " A translation of 
the Orlando Furioso," which has the same faults. He 
wrote also a little tract entitled " Alphabet de la Fge Gra- 
de use," 1734, 12ibo. His eulogiurn at the academy was 
drawn up by M. de BufFon, and is full of high encomiums. 1 
MIRABEAU (Honore' Gabriel, comte de), well 
known both by his writings, and the active part he took in 
bringing about the French revolution, was born in 1749, 
of a noble family. Throughout life he displayed a spirit 
averse to every restraint, and was one of those unhappy 
geniuses in whom the most brilliant talents serve only as a 
scourge to themselves and alt around them. It is told by 
his democratical panegyrists, as a wonderful proof of fa- 
mily tyranny, under the old government, that not less thai* 
sixty- seven lettres de cachet had been obtained by Mira- 
beau the father* against this son, and others of his rela- 
tives'. It proves at least as much, what many anecdotes 
confirm, that, for his share of them, the son was not less 
indebted to his own ungovernable disposition, than to the 
s&evhy of Ms parent. The, whole course of his youth was 
passed in this manner. Extravagance kept him always 
poor ; and this species of paternal interference placed him 
very frequently in prison. It may be supposed also, that 
the part taken by the government in these unpleasant ad- 
monitions, did not tend to attach young Mirabeau to that 
system. The talents of Mirabeau led him frequently to 
employ his pen, and his publications form the chief epochas 
of his life. His first publication was, 1. " Essai sur le 
Despotisme," " An Essay on Despotism," in 8vo. ' Next, 

* Diet. Hist. 

* His father, Victor Biquetti, mar- 
quis of Mirabeau, was a political wri- 
ter, and one of the sect of the oeco- 
nomistt. His first literary work, en- 
titled " JL'Ami des Homines," pub- 
fiahed in 1755, In three volumes, con- 
tains many* useful ideas on rural and 
political, economy /and atone time was 
such a favourite in France as to pro- 
cure him the epithet of " Mirabeau 
I'ami'des homines." . He afterwards 
wrote in favour of provincial admini- 

strations, and published " Tbeorie da 
l'lmpdt:" but many of the principles 
advanced here were thought so dan- 
gerous that be was for a short time im* 
prisoned in the Bastille. He died in 
1790, at the commencement of the re- 
volution. His writings were published 
collectively in eight volumes lgmo* 
with the exception of one, entkle<| 
" Hommes acelebrer," in two vol antes 
8vo, which his friend Father BoSQovtek 
printed at Bassano. 


in one of his confinements, he wrote, 2. a work ? r On 
Lettres de Carfiet," 2 vols. 8vo. 3. " Considerations sur 
l'ordre de Cincinnatus," 8vo ; a remonstrance against the 
order of Cincinnatus, proposed atone time to be established 
in America. The public opinion in America favoured this 
remonstrance, and it proved effectual. 4. His next work 
was in favour of the Dutcb t when Joseph II, demanded the 
opening of the Scheld, in behalf of the Braban^ons. . It is. 
entitled, " Doutes sur la liberty de PEscaut," 8vo. 5. 
" Lettre a Pempereur Joseph II. sur son r£glement con- 
cernant 1' Emigration,' 1 a pamphlet of forty pages, in 8vo. 
6. " Be la Caisse d'Escompte," a volume in 8vo, written 
against that establishment. 7. " De la Banque d'Espagne," 
8vo ; a remonstrance against establishing a French bank in 
Spain. A controversy arising on this subject, he wrote 
again upon it. 8. Two pamphlets on the monopoly of the 
water company in Paris. Soon after writing these he 
went to Berlin, which was in 1786, and was there when 
Frederic II. died. On this occasion also he took up his 
pen, and addressed to his successor a tract entitled, 9. 
" Lettre remise a Frederic Guillaume II. roi regnant de 
Prusse, le jour de son avenement au trine." This con* 
tained, says his panegyrist, "non pas des £loges de lui, 
uiais des £loges du peuple; non pas des vceux pour lui, 
mais des vceux pour le peuple ; non pas des conseils pour 
lui, mais des conseils pour le bonheur du peuple." 

Mirabeau was still at Berlin when he heard of the assem- 
bly of notables convened in France, and then foretold that 
it would soon be followed by a meeting of the states. At 
this period he published a volume against the stockjobbing, 
then carried to a great height, entitled, 10. " Denoncia- 
tion de Pagiotage au roi, et a 1' assemble des notables," 
8vo. A lettre de cachet was issued against him in conse* 
quence of this publication, but he eluded pursuit, and 
published a pamphlet as a sequel to the book. His next 
work was against M. Necker. 11." Lettre a M. de Cre- 
telle, sur ('administration de M. Necker," a pamphlet in 
8 vo. 12. A volume, in 8vo, against the Stadthoidership ; 
^ Ajux Bataves, sur le Stadthouderat." 13. " Observations 
sur la maison de force app£ll£e BicStre," an 8vo pamphlet. 
14. Another tract, entitled " Conseils a un jeune prince 
qui sent la n£cessite de refaire son education." 15. He 
now proceeded to a larger and more arduous work than any 
h% had yet published, on the Prussian monarchy uuder 


Frederic the Great, "De la Monarchic Prussienne sous 
Fr&teric le Grand/' 4 vols. 4to, or eight in Svo. In this 
work he undertakes to define precisely how a monarchy 
should be constituted. When the orders were issued for 
convening the states-general, Mirabeau returned into Pro- 
vence, and at the same time published, 16. " Histoire se- 
crette de la cour defterlin," two volumes of letters on the 
secret history of the court of Berlin. This work was con- 
demned by the parliament ■' of Paris, for the unreserved 
manner in which it delivered the characters of many foreign 
princes. As the elections proceeded, he was chosen at 
once for Marseilles, and for Aix ; but the former being a 
commercial town, which seemed to require a representative 
particularly conversant in such business, Mirabeau made 
his choice for Aix. 

In consequence of this appointment he went to Paris. 
The part he took there was active, and such as tended in 
general to accelerate all the violences of the revolution. 
He now published periodically, 171 his " Lettres a ses 
commettans," Letters to his constituents, which form, 
when collected, 5 vols. Svo. It is supposed that the fatal 
measure of the junction of the three orders into one na- 
tional assembly, was greatly promoted by these letters. 
The public events of these times, and the part taken in 
them by Mirabeau, are the subject of general history. He 
lived to see the constitution of 1789 established, but not 
to see its consequences, the destruction of the monarchy, 
the death of the king, and the ruin of all property. He 
was accused, as well as the duke of Orleans, of hiring the 
mob which attacked Versailles on the 5th and 6 th of Octo- 
ber, 1789 ; but with him was also acquitted by the tribunal 
of the Chatelet. The dominion of his eloquence in the 
national assembly had long been absolute, and on the 29th 
of January 1791, he was elected president. At the latter 
end of March, in the same year, he was seized by a 
fever, and died on the second of April. The talents of 
Mirabeau will not be doubted ; the use he made of them 
will be long lamented, and would probably have been re- 
gretted by himself, had be lived only a few months longer ; 
unless we may believe that with a secret attachment to 
monarchical government, he would have been able to exert 
an influence sufficient to prevent the excesses which fol- 
lowed h\$ death. * 

} Discours preliminaire, prefixed tq hit Worki. 

300 M I R JE U S. 



MIR2EUS (Aubertus), a learned German, was born at 
Brussels in 1573; and was first almoner and librarian of 
Albert, archduke of Austria. He was an ecclesiastic, and 
laboured all his life for the good of the church and of bis 
country. He died in 1640. His works are, 1." Efogiaillus- 
trium Belgii scriptorum," 1609, 4to. 2. " Opera Historica 
et Dipiomatica." This is a collection of charters and diplo- 
mas, relating to the Low Countries. The best edition is 
that of 1724, 4 vols, in folio, by Foppens, who has made 
notes, corrections, and additions to it 5. *' Rerum BeU 
gjcarum Chronicon ;" useful for the history of the Low 
Countries. 4'. " De rebus Bohemicis," 12mo. 5. " Bib- 
liotheca Ecclesiastica." 6. " Vita Justi Lipsii," &c. Pe- 
netration, and exactness in facts and citations, are usually 
esteemed the characteristics of this writer. * 

MISSON (Francis Maximilian), a distinguished law- 
yer, whose pleadings before the parliament of Paris in 
favour of the reformers, bear genuine marks of eloquence 
and ability, retired into England after the repeal of the 
edict of Nantes, where he became a strenuous assertor of 
the protestant religion. In 1687 and 1688, he went on 
his travels into Italy, in quality of governor to an English 
nobleman. An account of the country, and of the occur- 
rences of the time in which he remained in it, was pub- 
lished* at the Hague, in 3 vols. 12mo, under the title of 
" A New Voyage to Italy." L'abbe du Fresnoy, speaking 
of this performance, observes, " that it is well written ; 
but that the author has shewn himself too credulous, and 
as ready to Relieve every insinuation to the disadvantage 
of the Roman catholics, as they generally are to adopt 
whatever can reflect disgrace upon the protestants." The 
translation of this work into the English language has been 
enlarged with many additions: the original has /been se- 
veral times reprinted. Addison, in his preface to his re- 
marks on the different parts of Italy, says, that "Mons. 
Misson has written a more correct account of it, in general, 
than any before him, as he particularly excelled in the 
plan of the country, which he has given us in true and 
lively colours.' 9 He published, after his arrival in Eng- 
land, " The Sacred Theatre >at Cevennes, or an account 
of Prophecies and Miracles performed in that, part of Lan- 

1 Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 

M I S S O N. SOf 

guedoc :*' this was printed at London in 1707 ; and, accord- 
ing 4o the Roman catholic writers, is full of fanaticism and 
ridiculous stories. He also left behind him "The Obser- 
vations and Remarks, of a Traveller, *' in 12mo, published 
at the Hague, by Vanderburen. He died at London, Jan* 


MITCHELL (Sir Andrew), knight of the bath, and a' 
distinguished ambassador at the court of- Berlin, was the 
only child of the rev. William Mitchell, formerly of Aber^ 
deen, but then one of the ministers of St. Giles*'*, com- 
monly called the high church of Edinburgh. The time of 
his birth is not specified, but he is said to have been mar* 
ried in 1715, when very young, to a lady who died foui* 
years after in child-birth, and whose loss he felt with so 
much acuteness, as to be obliged to discontinue the study 
of the law, for which his father bad designed him, ana- 
divert his grief by travelling, amusements, &c. This mode 
of life is said to have been the original cause of an exten- 
sive acquaintance with the principal noblemen and gentle*' 
men in North Britain, by whom he was esteemed for sense, 
spirit, and intelligent conversation. Though his progress 
in the sciences was but small, yet no person had a greater 
regard for men of learning, and be particularly cultivated: 
the acquaintance of the clergy, and professors of the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. About 1736 he appears to Jiave 
paid considerable attention to mathematics under the di- 
rection of the celebrated Maclaurin ; and soon after began 
bis political career, as secretary to the marquis of Twee- 
dale, who was appointed minister for the affairs of Scotland 
in 1741. He became also acquainted with the earl of Stair, 
and it was owing to his application to that nobleman that 
Br. (afterwards, sir John) Pringle, was in 1742 kppointed 
physician to the British ambassador at the Hague. 

Though the marquis of Tweedale resigned the place of 
secretary of state, in consequence of the rebellion in 1745, 
yet Mr. Mitchell still kept in favour. He had taken care, 
during that memorable period, to keep up a correspond- 1 
ence with some eminent clergymen in Scotland, and from 
time to time communicated the intelligence he received y 
which assiduity was rewarded with a seat in the House of 
Commons in 1747, as representative for the burghs of: 

1 Moreri.-— Diet. Hist. . % 


Bamff, Elgio, Cullen, Inverurie, and Kintore* In 1751 
be was appointed his majesty's resident at Brussels, where, 
continuing two years, he in 1753 came to London, was 
created a knight of the bath, and appointed ambassador 
extraordinary and plenipotentiary at the court of Berlin. 
There, by his polite behaviour, and a previous acquaint- 
ance with marshal Keith, he acquired sufficient, influence 
with his Prussian majesty to detach him from the French 
interest. This event involved the court of France in the 
greatest losses, arising not only from vast subsidies to the 
courts of Vienna, Petersburgh, and Stockholm, but also 
from the loss of numerous armies. Sir Andrew generally, 
accompanied the great Frederick through the course of his 
several campaigns, and when, on the memorable 12th of 
August, 1759, the Prussian army was totally routed by 
count Soltikoff, the Russian general, it was with difficulty 
that he could be prevailed upon to quit the king's tent, 
even while all was in confusion. 

. From a very recent writer, we have some account of his 
mode of living and general conduct while at Berlin, which 
was highly honourable to his sense and spirit. 'When he 
first arrived at Berlin, he had occasioned some perplexity to 
those who invited him to their houses, for he played no 
game of chance, so that his hosts constantly said to each 
other, " What shall we do with this Englishman, who 
never plays at cards? 9 ' In a short time, however, the 
contest was, who should leave the card -table to enjoy the 
conversation of sir Andrew Mitchell, whose understanding, 
they discovered, was no less admirable than the virtues of 
his character. His bon-mots came, into circulation, and 
were long retailed. Thiebault has recorded a few whicb^ 
as he says, explain rather his principles than his under- 
standing. On one occasion that three English mails were 
due, the king said to him, at the levee, " Have you not 
the spleen, Mr. Mitchell, when the mail is thus delayed ?" — 
" No, Sire, not when it is delayed, but often enough when 
it arrives duly. 9 / This alludes to bis being frequently dis- 
satisfied with his own court. During the seven years' war, 
in which, as we have already noticed, he constantly served 
immediately under Frederic, the English government bad 
promised Frederic to send a fleet to the Baltic, for' the 
protection of commerce, and to keep off the Swedes and 
Russians \ but as this fleet never made its appearance, the 
Swedes were enabled to trausport their army without in- 


terruption to Pomerania, together with all the necessaries 
for its support, and the Russians conveyed provisions for 
their troops by sea, and laid siege to Colberg, &c. All 
this could to give umbrage to Frederic, and he in- 
cessantly complained to sir Andrew, who found himself 
embarrassed what reply to make. At length the ambassa- 
dor, who had before been daily invited to dine with the 
king, received no longer this mark of attention ; the gene- 
rals, meeting him about the king's hour of dinner, said to 
him, "It is dinner-time, M. * Mitchell.' ' — "Ah! gentle- 
men,", replied, he, "no fleet, no dinner!" This was re- 
peated to Frederic, and the invitations were renewed. 
Frederic in his fits of ill-humour was known to exercise his 
wit even at the expence of his allies; and the English 
minister at home expressed to sir Andrew Mitchell a wish 
that he would include some of these splenetic effusions in 
his official dispatches. Sir Andrew, however, in reply, 
stated the distinction between such kind of intelligence, 
and that which properly belonged to his office; and the 
application was not repeated, by which he was saved from 
the disgrace, for such be considered it, of descending to 
the littlenesses of a mere gossip and tale-bearer. We ijiall 
only, add one more repartee of sir Andrew Mitchell, be- 
cause, if we mistake not, it has been repeated as the pro- 
perty qf other wits. After the affair of Port Mahon, the 
king of Prussia said to him,. " You have made a bad be- 
ginning, M. Mitchell. What! your fleet beaten, and Port 
Mahon taken in your first campaign ! The trial in which 
you are proceeding against your admiral Byng is a bad 
plaister for the malady. You have made a pitiful cam- 
paign of it; this is certain." — " Sire, we hope, with God's 
assistance, to make a. better next year."—" With God?* 
assistance, say you, Sir ? I did not know you had such an 
ally." — " We rely much upon him, though he costs us. less 
than our other allies." 

. In 1765, sir Andrew came over to England for the re-, 
covery of bis health, which was considerably impaired, 
and after spending some time atTuubridge Wells, returned 
in March 1766 to Berlin, where he died Jan. 28, 1771. 
The court of Prussia* honoured his funeral with their pre- 
sence, and the king himself, from a balcony, is said to 
have beheld the procession with tears. 1 

i St Jaipes'* Chronicle, Feb. 1771.— Thieliauli's Original Auecd©tti>f Fre- 
deric II. vol. II. p. V, &c» 


MITCHELL (Joseph), was the son of a stone-cutter ift 
North- Britain, and was born about 1684. Gibber tells us 
that he received an university education while he remained 
in that kingdom, but does not specify where. He quitted 
his own country, however, and repaired to London, with 
a view of improving his. fortune! Here he got into favout 
with the earl of Stair and sir Robert Walpole ; on the laty 
ter of whom he was for great pari of his life almost entirely 
dependent. He received, indeed, so many obligations 
froih that open-handed statesman, and from a sense of 
gratitude which seems to 'haw been strongly characteristic 
of his disposition, was so zealous in his interest, that he 
Was distinguished by the title of " Sir Robert Walpole's 
poet.** Notwithstanding this valuable patronage, his natu- 
ral dissipation t>f temper, his fondness for pleasure, and 
eagerness in the gratification of every irregular appetite, 
threw him into perpetual distresses, and all those uneasy 
situations which are the inevitable consequences of extra- 
vagance. Nor does it appear that, after having experi- 
enced, more than once, the fatal effects of those dangerous 
follies, he thought of correcting his conduct at a time he 
had it in his power: for when, by the death of his wife's 
uncle, several thousand pounds devolved to him, instead 
of discharging those debts which he had already contracted,' 
he lavished the whole away, in the repetition of his former 
follies. As to the particulars of his history, there are not 
many on record, for his eminence in public character not 
rising to such an height as to make the transactions of his 
life important to strangers, and the follies of his private 
behaviour inducing those who were intimate with him, 
rather to conceal than publish his actions, there is a cloud 
of obscurity hanging over them, which is neither easy, 
nor indeed much worth while, to withdraw from them.' 
His genius was of the third or fourth rate, yet he lived in 
good correspondence with most of the eminent wits of his* 
time*, particularly with Aaron Hill, who on a particular 
occasion finding himself unable to relieve him by pecu- 
niary assistance, presented him with the profits arid repu- 
tation also of a successful dramatic piece, in one act, 

* His oorespondence with Thomson . " Beauties and fault* so thick lie 
most be excepted. Gibber informs us ■ scatter'd here, 

that as soon as " Winter" was pub* Those I could read, if these were* 
lished, Thomson presented a copy to not so near." 

Mitchell, who gave him his opinion of 
it in the following couplet : To this Thomson answered, * 


entitled " The Fatal Extravagance." It was pcted and 
printed in Mitchell's name ; but he was ingenuous enpugh 
to undeceive the worl.d with regard to its true author, .and 
on every occasion acknowledged the obligations be lay 
under to Hill. The dramatic pieces, which appear under 
this gentleman's name* are, 1/ " The Fatal Extravagance, 
a tragedy," 1721, 8vo. 2. "The Fatal Extravagance, a 
tragedy, enlarged," 1725, 12 mo. . 3. " The Highland Fair, 
ballad opera, " 1731, 8vo. The latter of these is really 
Mitchell's, and is not without merit. This author died 
Feb. 6, 1738; and Cibber gives the following character of 
him : " He seems to have been a poet of the third rate; 
he has seldom reached the sublime ; bis humour, in which 
lie more succeeded, is not strong enough to last ; his ver- 
sification holds a state of mediocrity; he possessed but 
little, invention ; and if he was not a bad rhimester, h$ 
cannot be denominated a fine poet, for there ar§ byt few 
marks of genius in his writings." His poems were, printed 
1729, in 2 vols. 8V0. 1 

MITTARELLI (John Benedict), a learned monk and 
historian of the order of the Camaldoli, was born at Venice 
Sept 10, 1708, and after a course of study, during which 
he distinguished himself by arduous application, and ao 
quired the fame of great learning, he became? in .1732, 
professor of philosophy and theology in the monastery pf 
St Michael at Venice. Being also appointed master of 
the novices, be remained in that office until .1747, when 
he removed to Faenza, as chancellor of his order. Here 
he first began to form the plan and cpllect materials fpc 
his celebrated work, the " Annates Camaldulenses," in 
which he had the assistance of father Auselm Costadoni. 
In 1756 he wafr chosen abb6 of his order in the state of 
Venice, and became, of, course, head of the. monastery of 
St. Michael. In 1764 h$ was appointed genera} of his 
order, and went to Rome, where he was received with 
every mark of respect by pope Clemept XIII. He died at 
St. Michael's Aug, 14, 1777, His annals were published 

*« Why all not faults, injurious Mit- Upon a friend's remonstrating to Mr. 

cfaell? why Thomson, that the expression of 

Appears one beauty to thy blasted •• blasted eye" would look like a per^ 

eye ? sonal reflection, as Mitchell really had 

Damnation worse than thine, if worse that misfortune, he changed the epi- 

can be, thet, perhaps not much for the better* 

Is all I ask and all I want from thee." iuto blasting. w .^ ^^ 

Cnm'i Ufc of Thomson. 

* Biofr, Dram.— Cibber's Lives. 



in 1773, under the title of " Annates Camaldulenses or* 
dinis S. : Benedict! ab anno 907 ad annum 1764, &c." 
Venice, 9 vols. fol. His other works were, 1. " Memorie 
del montstero della santissima Trinita in Faenza," Faenza, 
1749. 2. " Ad scriptores rerum Italicarum CI. Muratorrt 
accessiones histories FaventinaD," dec. Venice, 1771. 5. 
u De litteratura Faventinorum, sive de viris doctis, et 
tcriptoribus urbis Faventinse (Faenza), appendix ad acces- 
siones hist. Faventinas," Venice, 1775. 6. " Bibliotheca 
codicum manuscriptorum monasterit 8. Michaelis Vene- 
tiarum, cum appendice librorum impressorum seculi XV." 
ibid. 1779, fol. 1 

MOINE (Francis le), an ingenious French painter, 
born at Paris about 1688, was the pupil of Galloche. 
Though born without the least traces of a genius for paint- 
ing, it is incredible what lengths his perseverance, and 
continual reflections on the theory and practice of his art, 
carried him. His manner of designing was never correct* 
but it was pleasing ; and the heads of his women remark- 
ably graceful. His best pictures are, the nativity at S. 
Roche ; a transfiguration ; the flight into Egypt ; a St; 
John in the desert at St. Eustace's; the assumption of the 
virgin, in fresco, at St. Sulpice; the conversion of St 
Paul at St Germain- des-Pres ; the apotheosis of Hercules 
at Versailles, the saloon of which he was four years in 
painting, and, for reward, the king granted him a pension 
of 3000 livres. The end of his days was tarnished by the 
crime of suicide, which he committed in a melancholy fit 
June 4, 1787, aged 49 years. 8 

MOINE {Stephen le), a very learned French minister 
of the Protestant religion, was born at Caen in 1624. He 
became extremely skilled in the Greek, Latin, and Orieh- 
tal tongues, and professed divinity with high reputation at 
Leyden, in which city be died in 16&B, Several disserta* 
tions of his are printed together, and entitled " Varia sacra,'* 
in 2 vols. 4to ; besides which, he wrote other works. 3 

MOINE (Peter le), a French poet, born at Chaumoit 
in Bassigny in 1602, was admitted into the society and 
confidence of the Jesuits, and is said to have been the first 
Jesuit of France who acquired any fame by writing poetry 
in his native language. He was not, however, a poet of 
the first order j he was rather a college student, possessed 

* Fabroni Vitas Italor. vo!. V.— Diet Hist. 

* -ArgenvMe, vol. IV. * Morm.^Dict. Hitt, 


MOINE. 207 

of an ardent imagination, but devoid of taste ; who, instead 
of restraining the hyperbolical flights of his genius, in- 
dulged them to the utmost. His greatest work was " Saint 
Louis, ou la Couronne reconquise sur les Infidelles," an 
epic poem, in eighteen books. Bdileau being asked his 
opinion of him, answered, "that he was too wrong-headed 
lo be much commended, and too much of a poet to be 
strongly condemned. 9 ' He wrote many other poems of a 
smaller kind, and several works in prose, on divinity, and 
other subjects. He died at Paris, the22dofAug. 1672. 1 


MOKET (Richard), warden of All Souls college, Ox- 
ford, was born in 1578 in Dorsetshire, and educated first 
at Brasenose college, whence in , 1599 he was elected a 
fellow of All Souls, being then four years standing yi the 
degree of B. A. Afterwards he took his master's degree, 
and entered into holy orders. He became domestic chap- 
lain to archbishop Abbot, and in Dec. 1610 was instituted 
to the rectory of St. Clement's, Eastcheap, which he re- 
signed in December following. In 1611 be was made rec- 
tor of St. Michael, Crooked-lane, but resigned it in June 
1614* in consequence of having been in April preceding, 
elected warden of All Souls, on which occasion he took his 
degree of D. D. He held afterwards the rectory of Monks 
Risborow, in the county of Buckingham, and of Newing- 
ton, near Dorchester, in Oxfordshire. He was one of the 
king' commissioners in ecclesiastical affairs, and died July 
5 9 1618, in the fortieth year of his age. Wood seems to 
insinuate that his death was hastened by the treatment his 
work received. This was a folio published at London in 
1616, containing a Latin translation of the Liturgy, Cate- 
chisms, 39 articles, ordination book, and doctrinal points 
extracted from the homilies, to which he added, also in 
Latin, a treatise " de politia ecclesiae Anglicans." The de- 
sign of this publication was to recommend the formularies 
and doctrines of the Church of England to foreign nations; 
but, according to Wood, there was such a leaning towards 
* c Calvin's Platform," that the work was not only called in, 
bttt ordered to be publicly burnt. Heylin, who speaks 
highly of the author's character and good intentions, thinks 
that the true cause of this work being so disgraced was, 
that in translating the 20th article, he omitted the first 

» Mareri.— Diet Hilt 

20S M O K E T. 

clause concerning the power of the church to decree rites 
and ceremonies, &c. His treatise u De Politia" was re- 
printed at London in 1683, 8vo, but the former edition we 
conceive is of rare occurrence, as we do not 6nd it in the 
Bodleian or Museum catalogues. 1 

MO LA (Peter Francis), an eminent painter, was, ac- 
cording to some, born at Coldra, and to others, at Lu- 
gano, 1609. He was at first the disciple of Cesari d'Ar- 
pino, but formed a style of his own, selected from, the 
principles of Albani and Guercino. He never indeed ar- 
rived at the grace of the former, but he excelled him in 
vigour of tint, in variety of invention, in spirited and reso- 
lute execution. He bad studied colour with intense ap- 
plication at Venice, and excelled in fresco and in oil. Of 
the many pictures with which he enriched the churches and 
palaces of Rome, that of Joseph recognised by his bro- 
thers, on the Quirinal, is considered as the roost, eminent. 
If Mola possessed a considerable talent for history, he was 
a genius in landscape : his landscape every where exhibits 
in the most varied combination, and with the most vigorous 
touch, the sublime scenery of the territory in which he 
was born. His predilection for landscape was such, that 
in his historic subjects it may often be doubted which is 
the principal, the actors or the scene ; a fault which may 
be sometimes imputed to Titian himself. In many of 
Mola's gallery-pictures, the figures have been ascribed to 
Albano. He reared three disciples, Antonio Gherardi of 
Rieti, who after his death entered the school of Cortona, 
and distinguished himself more by facility than elegance of 
execution ; Gia. Batista Boncuore of Rome, a painter at 
all times of great effect, though often somewhat heavy ; 
and Giovanni Bonati of Ferrara, called Giovannino del Pio, 
from the protection of that cardinal, who painted three 
altar-pieces of consideration at Rome, but died young* 
Mola died in 1665, aged fifty-six. He had a brother, John 
Baptist, who was born in 1620, and also learned the 
art of painting in the school of Albani. He proved a very 
good painter in history, as well as in landscape; but was 
far inferior to his brother, in style, dignity, taste, and co- 
louring. In his manner he had more resemblance to the 
style of Albani, than to that of his brother ; yet his figures 
are rather, hard and dry, and want the mellowness of the 

I Heylift's Life of Land, p. 70— Ath. Ox. rol. I.-^Wood's Colleges and Halls. 

M O L A. 209 

master. However, there are four of his pictures in the 
Palazzo Salviati, at Rome, which are universally taken 
for the hand of Albani. 1 

MOLESWORTH (Robert), viscount Molesworth of 
Swordes in Ireland, an eminent statesman and polite wri- 
ter, was descended from a family, anciently seated in the 
counties of Northampton and Bedford in England ; but his 
father having served in the civil wars in Ireland, settled 
afterwards in Dublin, where he became an eminent mer- 
chant, and died in 1656, leaving his wife pregnant with 
this only child, who raised his family to the honours they 
now .enjoy. He was bom in Dec. at Dublin, and bred in 
the college there ; and engaged early in a marriage with a 
sister of Richard earl of Bellamoht, who brought him a 
daughter in 1677. When the prince of Orange entered 
England in 1688, he distinguished himself by an early and 
zealous appearance for the revolution, which rendered him 
so obnoxious to king James, that he was attainted, and his 
estate sequestered by that king's parliament, May 2, 1689. 
But when king William was settled on the throne, he called 
this sufferer, for whom he had « particular esteem, into 
his privy council ; and, in 1692, sent him envoy extraor- 
dinary to the court of Denmark. Here he resided above 
three years, till, some particulars in his conduct dis- 
obliging his Danish majesty, he was forbidden the court. 
Pretending business in Flanders, he retired thither with- 
out any audience of leave, and came from thence borne ; 
where he was no sooner, arrived, than he drew up "An 
Account of Denmark; 99 in which he represented the go- 
vernment of that country as arbitrary and tyrannical. This 
piece was greatly resented by prince George of Denmark, 
eonsort to the princess, afterwards queen Anne ; and 
Scheel, the Danish envoy, first presented a memorial to 
king William, complaining of it, and then furnished mate- 
rials for an answer, which was executed by Dr. William 
King. From King's account it appears, that Molesworth's , 
offence in Denmark was, his boldly pretending to some 
privileges, which, by the custom of the country, are de- 
nied to every body but the king; as, travelling the king's 
road, and hunting the king's game : which being done, as 
is represented, in defiance of opposition,^ occasioned the- 


1 Pilkington, by Faseli.—fStratt's Diet.— Argenville, vols. II. and IV.-— Diet. 
Hist, in which it is denied that John Baptist was the brother of Peter Francis. 



rupture between the envoy and that court. If this allega~ 
tion bave any truth, the fault lay certainly altogether oq 
the side of Molesworth ; whose disregard of the custom^ 
of the country to which he was sent, cannot be defended. 

In the mean time his book was well received by the 
public, reprinted thrice (and as lately as 1758), and trans- 
lated into several languages. The spirit of it was particu- 
larly approved by the earl of Shaftesbury, author: of the 
" Characteristics ;" who from thence conceited a great e$«s 
teem for him, which afterwards ripened into a close friend-, 
ship, Molesworth' s view in writing the " Account of Den-j 
naarit," is clearly, intimated in the preface, where he plainly 
give us his political, a* well as his religious creed. He 
censures very severely the clergy in general, for defending 
the revolution upon any other principles than those of re* 
distance, and the. original contract, which he maintains to 
be the true and natural basis of the constitution ; and that 
all other foundations are false, nonsensical, rotten, dero^ 
gatory to the then present government, and absolutely, de- 
structive to the legal liberties of the English nation. As 
the preservation of these depends so much upon the. right 
education of youth in the universities*, he urges, also, ha 
the strongest terms, the absolute necessity of purging and 
reforming those, by a royal visitation : so that the youth 
may not be trained up there, as he say* they were, in the 
slavish principles of passive obedience and jus <&»*wnm, 
but may be instituted after the manner of the Greeks and 
Romans, who in their academies recommended the duty to 
their country, the preservation of the law and pubhft 
liberty : subservient to which they preached up moral vis* 
tues,. aneb as fortitude, temperance*, justice, a contempt 
of death, &c. sometimes, making use of pious cheats, a* 
Elysian fields, add an assurance of future happiness, if they 
died in the cause of their country ; whereby they even de<n 
cetved their hearers into greatness. This insinuation, that 
religion is nothing more than a pious cheat, and an useful 
state-engine, together with his pressing morality as the one 
thing necessary, without once mentioning the Christian 
religion-, could not but be very agreeable to the. author. of 
the. " Characteristics." In reality, it made a remarkably 
strong impression on him, as we find him many yeas 
after declaring, in a letter to our author, in these terms : 
* You have long had my heart, even before I knew you 
personally. For the holy and truly pious man, who re- 


Vfealtd f h6 greatest of mysteries : he who, with a truly ge- 
nerous love, to mankind and his country, pointed out the 
state of Denmark to other states, and prophesied of things 
highly important to the growing age : he, I say* had al- 
ready gained me as his sworn friend, before he was to 
kind as to m^ke friendship reciprocal, by his acquaintance 
aod expressed esteem. So that you may believe it no ex- 
traordinary transition in me, from making you in truth my 
orltde in public affairs, to make you a thorough confident 
in my private." This private affair was a treaty of marriage 
with a relation of our author ; and though the design mis- 
carried, yet the whole tenor of the letters testifies the most 
intimate friendship between the writers. 
* Molesworth served his country in the House of Com- 
mons in both kingdoms, being chosen for the borough of 
Swordes in Ireland, and for those of Bodmyn, St. Michael, 
and East Retford in England ; his conduct in the senate 
being always firm and steady to the principles he embraced. 
He was a member of th4 privy-council to queen Anne, till 
the latter end of her reign ; when, party running high, he 
was removed froto the board in Jan. 1713. This was upon 
a complaint against him from the lower house of convoca- 
tion, presented Dee. 2, by the prolocutor, to the House of 
Peers, charging him with speaking these words, in the 
hearing of many persons: "They that have turned the 
world upside down, are come hither also ;" and for affront- 
ing the clergy in convocation, when they presented their 
address to lord chancellor Phipps. Steele's " Crisis" was 
written partly in vindication of Molesworth, and severely 
animadverted upon by Swift in his " Public Spirit of the 
Whigs.' 9 But as Molesworth constantly asserted, and stre- 
nuously maintained the right of succession in the house of 
Hanover, George I. on the forming of his privy-council in 
Ireland, made him a member of it, Oct. 9, 1714, and the 
next month a commissioner of trade and plantations. His 
majesty also advanced him to the peerage of Ireland in 
1716, by the title of Baron of Philipstown, and viscount 
Molesworth of Swordes. He was fellow of the Royal So^ 
cietyj and continued to serve his country with indefati- 
gable industry, till the two last years of his life : when, 
perceiving himself worn out with constant application to 
public affairs, he passed these in a studious and learned 
retirement. His death happened on May 22, 1725, at his 
seat at Breedeostown, in the county of Dublin. He had 

p 2 


a seat also in England, at Edlington, near Tickill, in York- 
shire. By his will he devised 50/. towards building a 
church at Philipstown. He bad by his wife seven sons and 
four daughters ; one of whom, Mary, married to Mr. Monk, 
an Irish gentleman, acquired some reputation as the au- 
thoress of poems published after her death, in 1715, by 
her father, under the title of " Marinda, Poems and Trans- 
lations upon several occasions." See Monk hereafter. 

Besides bis " History of Denmark," he wrote ah " Ad- 
dress to the House of Commons*," for the encouragement 
of agriculture ; " Considerations for promoting Agricul- 
ture," Dublin, 1723 ; and " A Letter relating to the Bill 
of Peerage," 1719. He translated " Frahco-Gallia," a La- 
tin treatise of the civilian Hottomari, giving an account of 
'the free state of France, and other parts of Europe, before 
the loss of their liberties. The second edition of this work, 
with additions, and a new preface by the translator, came 
out in 1721, 8vo. He is likewise reputed the author of 
several tracts, written with great force of reason and mas- 
culine eloquence, in defence of his ideas of the constitu- 
tion of his country, and the common rights of mankind : 
and it is certain, that few men of his fortune and quality 
were more learned, or more highly esteemed by men' of 
learning. In the printed correspondence between Locke 
•and Molyneux, there are letters which shew the high re- 
gard those gentlemen bad for him. 1 

MO LI ERE (John Baptist, Pocquelin de), the cele- 
brated comic writer of France, whose original name was 
Pocquelin, was born at Paris about 1620, He was both 
son and grandson to valets de chambres on one side, and 
tajrimcrs on the other, to Louis XIII. and was designed for 
the latter business, that of a domestic upholsterer, whose 
duty was to take care of the furniture of the royal apart- 
ments. But; the grandfather being very fond of the boy, 
and at the same time a great lover of plays, used to take 
him often with him to the h6tel de Bourgogne ; which pre- 
sently roused up Moliere's natural genius and taste for dra- 
matic representations, and crested in him such a disgust to 

• See some remarks on tbis in the Drapier's Letter V. to lord Moles- 
Swift's " Arguments against enlarging worth. See vol. IX. But Swift's opi- 
tbe power of bishops in letting leases." nion of him was Out uniform. See vol. 
—Works, vol. V. edit, by Mr. Ni- XVI; p. «S7. . J 
chols, 1801, p. *87. Swift addressed 

* Biog. Brit.— Lodge's Peerage.— Park's edition of the Royal and Noble An 
thori, vol. V. where are notices of the two succeeding peerv of the t ame family. 

M O L I E R E. 213 

his intended employment, that at last his father consented 
to let htm study under the Jesuits, at the college of Cler- 
N raont. Daring the five years that he resided here, he made 
a rapid progress in the study of philosophy and polite lite- 
rature, and, if we mistake not, acquired even now much 
insight into the varieties of human character. He had 
here also an opportunity of contracting an intimate friend- 
ship with Chapelle, Bernier, and Cyrano. Chapelle, with 
whom Bernier was. an associate in his studies, had the fa- 
mous Gassendi for his tutor, who willingly admitted Mo- 
Here to his lectures, as he afterwards also admitted Cyrano. 
When Louis XIII. went to Narbonne, in 1641, his studies 
were interrupted : for his infirm father, not being able to 
attend the court, Moliere was obliged to go there to sup- 
ply his place. This, however, he quitted on his father's 
death ;. and his passion for the stage, which had induced 
him first to study, revived more strongly than ever. Some 
have said, that he for a time studied the law, and was ad- 
mitted an advocate. This seems doubtful, but, if true, he 
soon .yielded to those more lively pursuits which made him ' 
the restorer of comedy in France, and the coadjutor of 
Corneille, who had rescued the tragic Muse from bar- 
barism. The taste, indeed, for the drama, was much im- 
proved in France, after cardinal de Richelieu granted a 
peculiar protection to dramatic poets. Many little socie- 
ties now made it a diversion to act plays in their own 
houses ; in one of which, known by the name of " The 
illustrious Theatre," Moliere entered himself; and it was 
then, in conformity to the example of the actors of that 
time, that he changed bis name of Pocquelin for that of 
Moliere, which he retained ever after. What became of 
him. from 1648 to 1652 we know not, this interval being 
the time of the civil wars, which caused disturbances in 
Paris ; but it is probable, that he was employed in com- 
posing some of those pieces which were afterwards, exhi- 
bited to the public. La Bejart, an actress of Champagne, 
waiting, as well as he, for a favourable time to display her 
talents,.. Moliere was particularly kind to her ; and as their 
interests became mutual, they formed a company toge- 
ther, and went to Lyons in 1653, where Moliere produced 
his first play, called " L'Etourdi," or the Blunderer, and 
appeared in the double character of author and actor. 
This drew almost all the spectators from the other com- 
pany of comedians, which was settled in that town; some 

214 M O L I E R E. 

of which company joined with, Moliere, and followed him 
to Beziers in Languedoc, where he offered his service* to 
the prince of Conti, who gladly accepted them, as he had 
known him at college, and was among the first to predict 
his brilliant career on the stage. He now received him as 
a friend ; and not satisfied with confjding to him the ma* 
iiagement of the entertainments which he gave, be offered 
to make him his secretary, which the. latter declined, say* 
ing, "I am a tolerable author, but I should make a very 
bad secretary. 9 ' About the latter end of 1657, Moliere 
departed with bis company for Grepoble, and continued 
there during the carnival of 1658. After this he went and 
settled at Rouen, where he staid all the summer; and hav- 
ing made some journeys to Paris privately, he had the ygood 
fortune to please the king's brother, who, granting him 
his protection, and making bis company his own, intro» 
duced him in that quality to the king and queen-mothen 
That company began to appear before their majesties and 
the whole court, in Oct. 1658, upon a stage erected, on 
purpose, in the hall of the guards of the Old Louvre ; and 
were so well approved, that his majesty gave orders foi 
their settlement at Paris. The hall of the Petit Bourbon 
was granted them, to act by turns, with the Italian players. 
In 1663, Moliere obtained a pension of a thousand livres; 
and, in 1665, his company was altogether in his majesty's 
service. He continued all the remaining pajrt of his life 
to give new plays, which were very much and very justly 
applauded : and if we consider the number of works which 
he composed in about the space of twenty years, while he 
waa himself all the while an actor, and interrupted, as he 
must be, by perpetual avocations of one kind or other, 
we cannot fail to admire the quickness, as well as fertility 
of his genius ; and we shall rather be apt to think with 
Boileauj> " that rhime came to him," than give credit to 
some others, who say be " wrote very slowly." 

His last comedy was " Le malade imaginaire," or The 
Hypochondriac ; and it was acted for the fourth time, Feb. 
17, 1673. Upon this very, day Moliere died; and the 
manner of his death, as it was first reported, must have 
been extraordinary, if true. The chief person represented 
in " Le malade imaginaire," is a sick man, who, upon a 
certain occasion, pretends to be dead. Moliere repre- 
sented that person, and consequently was obliged, in one 
of his scenes, to act the part of a dead man. The report* 


therefore, was that he expired in that part of the play* and 
the poets took hold of this incident to show their pit, in a 
variety of jeux d'esprit, as if it had been a legitimate sub- 
ject for jesting. The only decent lines on this occasion 
were the following, evidently written by some person of a , 
graver character : 

" Roscius hie situs est tristi Moliems in uroa, 
Cui genus humanum ludere, hidus etat. 
Bum ludit mortem, mors indigaata jocantem 
Corripit, & mimum fingere saeva negat." 

But, according to the best accounts, Moliere was indis- 
posed before the performance of the play. His wife, and 
Baron the actor, urged him to take some care of himself, 
and oat to perform that day. * And what then," said be, 
u is to become of my poor performers ? I should reproach 
myself if I neglected them a single day. 9 * — The exertions 
which he made to go through bis part, produced a convul- 
sion, followed by a vomiting of blood, which suffocated 
him some hours after, in the fifty-third year of his age. 
The king was so extremely affected with the lass of him, 
that, as a new mark of his favour, he prevailed with the 
archbishop of Paris not to deny his being interred in con- 
secrated ground. As Moliere had gained himself many 
enemies, by ridiculing the folly and knavery of all orders 
of men, and particularly by exposing the hypocrites of the 
ecclesiastical order, and the bigots among the laity, in 
his celebrated comedy, the " Tartuffe*,'' they therefore 
took the advantage of this play, to stir up Paris and the 
eourt against its author ; and if the king had not inter- 
posed, he had then fallen a sacrifice to the indignation of 
the clergy. The king, however, stood his friend now he 
*ras dead ; and the archbishop, through bis majesty's in- 
tercession, permitted him to be buried at St, Joseph's, 
which was a chapel of ease to the parish church of St. 

It is related that Moliere read his comedies to an elderly 
female servant, named Laforet, and when he perceived 
that the passages which he intended to be humorous and 
laughable bad no effect upon her, he altered diem. He 

+ This comedy was suppressed by prince of Conde, his waader at the dif- 
the interest of the ecclesiastics, after rent fates of these two pieces, and 
it had been acted a few nights, although asked the reason of it, the urince aa- 
*t the same time, a very profane farce swered ; " in the farce* religion oaly is 
was permitted to have a long run. ridiculed ; but Moliere, in the * Tar- 
When Louis XIV. expressed to the toffe,' has attacked even the ptiwrts." 


required the players also touring their children to the re- 
hearsals, that he might form his opinion of different pas- 
sages from the natural expressions of their emotions. Mo- 
Here, who diverted himself on the theatre by laughing at 
. the follies of mankind, could not guard against the effects 
of his own weakness. Seduced by a violent passion for the 
daughter of La Bejart, the actress, he married her, and 
was soon exposed to all the ridicule with- which he had 
treated the husbands who were jealous of their wives. Hap- 
pier in the society of his friends, he was beloved by his 
equals, and courted by the great. Marshal de Vivonne, 
the great Cond£, and even Lewis XIV. treated him with 
that familiarity which considers merit as on a level with 
birth. . These flattering distinctions neither corrupted his 
understanding nor his heart. A poor man having returned 
him a piece of gold which he bad given him by mistake, 
" In what a humble, abode, 9 ' he exclaimed, " does Virtue 
dwell ! Here, my friend, take another." When Baron in- 
formed him of one of his old theatrical companions whom 
extreme poverty prevented from appearing, Moliere sent 
for him, embraced him, and to words of consolation adcled 
a present of twenty pistoles and a rich theatrical dress. 
When he was in the height of his reputation, Racine, who 
was just then come from Languedoc, and was scarcely 
known in Paris, went to see him, under pretence of con* 
suiting him about an ode which he had just finished. Mo- 
liere expressed such a favourable opinion of the ode, that 
Racine ventured to shew him his first tragedy, founded on 
the martyrdom of Theagenes and Chariclea, as he had 
reaxl it in the Greek romance. Moliere, who had an ho- 
nest consciousness of superiority, which exalted him above 
envy, was not sparing either of praise or of counsel. His 
liberality carried him still farther : he knew that Racine 
was pot in easy circumstances, and therefore lent him a 
hundred louis-d'ors; thinking it a sufficient recompense 
to have the honour of producing a genius to the public, 
which, he foresaw, would one day be the glory of the stage. 
The French have very justly placed Moliere at the head 
of all. their comic authors. . There is, indeed, no author, in 
all the fruitful and distinguished age of Lewis XIV. who 
has attained a higher reputation, or who has more nearly 
reached the summit of perfection in his own art, according 
to the judgment of all the French* critics. Voltaire boldly 
pronounces him to be the most eminent comic poet of any 


age or country ; nor, perhaps, is this the decision of mere 
partiality ; for, upon the whole, who deserves to be pre- 
ferred to him ? When Louis XIV. insisted upon Boileau's 
telling »him who was the most original writer of his time, 
he answered, Moliere ! Moliere is always the satirist only 
of vice or folly. He has selected a great variety of ridicu- 
lous characters peculiar to the times in which he lived, 
and he has generally placed the ridicule justly. He pos- 
sessed strong comic powers ; he is full of mirth and plea- 
santry ; and his pleasantry is always innocent. His come- 
dies in verse, such as his " Misanthrope 9 ' and TartufFe," 
are a kind of dignified comedy, in which vice is exposed, 
in the style of elegant and polished satire. His verses have 
all the flow and freedom of conversation, yet he is said to 
have passed whole days in fixing upon a proper epithet or 
rhime. In his prose comedies, though there is abundance 
of ridicule, yet there is never any thing to offend a modest 
ear, or to throw contempt on sobriety and virtue. Toge- 
ther with those high qualities, Moliere has also some de- 
fects, which Voltaire, though his professed panegyrist, 
candidly admits. He is acknowledged not to be happy in 
the unravelling of his plots. Attentive more to the strong 
exhibition of characters, than to the conduct of the in- 
trigue, his unravelling is frequently brought on with too 
little preparation, and in an improbable manner. In his 
verse comedies, he is sometimes not sufficiently interest- 
ing, and too full of long speeches ; and in bis risible pieces 
in prose, he is censured for being too farcical. Few wri- 
ters, however, if any, ever possessed the spirit, or attained 
the true end of comedy, so perfectly, upon the whole, as 
Moliere. His " Tartu ffe," in the style of grave comedy, 
and his " Avare," in the gay, are accounted his two capital 

At the time of his death, Moliere was intended for a 
vacant place in the French academy. More than a cen- 
tury afterwards the academicians placed his bust in their 
ball, the gift of D'Alembert, and from the many inscrip- 
tions proposed, the following was adopted : n 

" Rien ne manque a sa gloire, il manquoit a la notre." 

And when the place of his interment Was lately pulled 
down, bis remains were removed to the garden of the Mu- 
seum, and placed among the honorary monuments there, in 

218 MO LIERK* 

Of the numerous editions of Moliere, the French bib» 
liograpbers point out, as the best, that by Bret, 1773, 6 
vols. 8vo, with the engravings of the younger Moreau, and 
a splendid one by Didot, 17^2, 6 vols. 410. 1 

MOLIERES (Joseph Privat de), born in 1677, of a 
noble and ancient family at Tarascon, entered among the fa» 
ibers of the oratory, and was pupil to Malebraoche. Quitting 
the oratory, after that celebrated philosopher's death, he de- 
voted himself wholly to physic and mathematics, in which he 
acquired great skill, and was appointed professor of philo- 
sophy at the royal college in 1723, and afterwards member 
of the academy of sciences, in 1729. His principal work is 
u Philosophical Lectures," 4 vols. 12mo, in which he ex*- 
plains the laws, mechanism, and motions of the celestial 
vortices, in order to demonstrate the possibility and exist* 
ence of them in the system of the Plenum ; his system is 
that of Descartes, but corrected by Newton's principles. 
He also left "Mathematical Lectures," i2mo, very inowrv 
rectly printed ; and " La premiere partie des El£mens de 
G6ometrie," 12mo. In his temper he shewed very littlfe 
of the philosopher. In the maintenance of ins principles 
he could bear no contradiction; and when some of hispo* 
aitive assertions provoked the smiles of the academicians* 
he fell into violent passions, and on one occasion this imi- 
tation was so great, as to bring on a fever, of which be 
died, May 12* 1742. in other respects his character was 
amiable; but, like some other mathematicians, he was 
liable in bis studies to such absence of mind, as to appear 
almost wholly insensible to surrounding objects, and this 
infirmity becoming known, he was made the subject of 
depredations. A shoe-black, once finding him profoundly 
absorbed in a reverie, contrived to steal the silver buckles 
from his shoes, replacing them with iron ones. At another 
time, while at his studies, a villain broke into the room in 
vhich be vras sitting, and demanded his money ; Molieres, 
without rising from his studies, or giving any alarm, coolly 
shewed him whete it waft, requesting him, as a great fa- 
vour, that he would not derange his papers** 

MOLINA (Lewis), born of a noble family at Cuenca, 
entered the Jesuits' order, 1553, at the age of eighteen, 
and taught theology with reputation during twenty years in 
the university of Ebbra. He died October 12, 1660, at 

* Moreri. — Diet. Hist. — Warton's Essay on Pope*— Blair's Lecture*, 

* Moreri. — Diet. Hist. 

MOLI N A. 319 


Madrid, aged sixty-five. His principal works are, Com- 
mentaries on the first part of the Summary of St. Thomas, 
in Latin, a large treatise " De Justitia et Jure," a book on 
"The Concordance of Grace and Free-will," printed at 
Liabon, 1588, 4to, in Latin, which ought to have at the end 
an appendix, printed in 1589. It i» an apology from Mo- 
lina against those who called some propositions in his book 
heretical, and this last work was what divided the Domi- 
nicans and the Jesuits into Thomists, and Moliuists, and 
jaised the famous disputes about grace and predestination. 
Molina's object was to shew that the operations of divine 
grace were entirely consistent with the freedom of human 
will ; and be introduced a new kind of hypothesis to re* 
move the difficulties attending the doctrines of predestina- 
tion and liberty, and to reconcile the jarring opinions of 
Augustinians, Thomists, Semi- Pelagians, and. other con- 
tentious divines. Molina affirmed, that the decree of pre- 
destination to eternal glory was founded upon a previous 
knowledge and consideration of the merits of the elect ; 
that the grace from whose .operation these merits are de* 
rived, is not efficacious by its own intrinsic power only, 
but also by the consent of our own will, and because it is 
administered in those circumstances, in which the Deity, 
by that branch of his knowledge which is called scientia 
media, foresees that it will he efficacious. The kind of 
prescience* denominated in the schools scientia media, is 
that foreknowledge of future contingents, that arises from 
an acquaintance with the nature and faculties- of rational 
beings, of the circumstances in which they shall be placed, 
of the objects that shall be presented .to them, and of the 
influence which these circumstances and objects must have 
en their actions. 

. In order to put an end to these contentions, pope Cle- 
ment VIII. instituted the celebrated congregation De 
Angiitis, in 1597 ; but after several assemblies of coun- 
sellors and cardinals, in which the Dominicans and Jesuits 
disputed contradictorily during nine years before the pope 
and the court of Rome, the affair was still undecided* 
Pope Paul V. under whom these disputes had been con- 
tinued, at length published a decree, Aug. 31, 1607, for- 
bidding the parties to defame or censure each other, and 
enjoining the superiors of both orders to punish those se* 
verely who should disregard this prohibition.* 

1 Dupin.-— Mosheim. 

220 M O L I N E T. 


MOL1NET {Claude du), regular canon and procura- 
tor- general of the congregation of St. Genevieve, and one 
of the most learned antiquaries of the seventeenth century, 
was born in 1620, at Chalons sur Marne, of a noble and 
ancient family. He collected a large cabinet of curiosi- 
ties, and placed the library of St, Genevieve at Paris in 
the state which has rendered it so celebrated. He died 
September 2, 1687, aged sixty ^seven. His principal works 
are, an edition of the " Epistles of Stephen, bishop of 
Tournay," with learned notes ; u History of the Popes by 
Medals," from Martin V. to Innocent XI. 1679, folio, La- 
tin ; " Reflexions sur l'origine et l'antiquit6 des Ghanoines 
s6culiers et rlguliers," 4to ; " Dissertation sur la Mkre des 
Anciens;" another "Dissertation sur une Tfite d'lsis," 
&c. ; " he Cabinet de la Bibliotheque de Ste< Genevieve/ 9 
1692, folio, a curious book. He was the author also of 
some dissertations in the literary Journals, and left several 
MSS. on subjects of history and antiquities. He was a 
man of vast research ; but, as his countrymen say, he was 
" plus rempli d'erudition que de critique," and certainly 
in some cases took little pains to discriminate between the 
true and the fabulous. 1 

MGLINOS (Michael), a Spanish priest, and by some 
reckoned the founder of the sect of Quietists, was born in 
the diocese of Saragossa in 1627, and appears to have re- 
sided mostly at Rome, where his ardent piety and devotion 
procured him a considerable number of disciples of both 
sexes. In 1675 he published his " Spiritual Guide," writ- 
ten in Spanish, which was honoured with the encomiums 
of many eminent personages, and was republished in Ita- 
lian in several places, and at last at Rome in 1681. It was* 
afterwards translated into French, Dutch, and Latin (the 
last by professor Franke at Halle in 1687), and passed 
through several editions in France, Holland, and Italy. 
It was at Rome, however, where its publication in* 1681 
alarmed the doctors of th£ church. The principles of Mo- 
linos, which, Mosheim remarks, have been very differently 
interpreted by his friends and enemies, amount to this, 
that the whole of religion consists in the perfect tranquil- 
lity of a mind removed from all external and finite things, 
and centered ia God, and in such a pure love of the Su-' 

* Biog. UoiT. art. Dumolin«t,*-Moreri.«— Diet. Hist* 

M O L I N O S. 221 

preme Being, as is independent of all prospect of interest 
or reward ; or, in other words, " the soul, in the pursuit 
of the supreme good, must retire from the reports and 
gratifications of sense, and, in general, from all corporeal 
objects, and, imposing silence upon all the motions of the 
understanding and will, must be absorbed in the Deity. 19 
•Hence the denomination of 2uietist$ was given to the fol- 
lowers' of Molinos ; though that of Mystics, which was their 
vulgar title, was more applicable, and expressed their 
*ystem with more propriety, the doctrine not being new, 
.but rather a digest of what the ancient mystics had ad- 
vanced in a more confused manner. For this, however, 
Molinos wflis first imprisoned in 1685, and notwithstanding 
he read a recantation about two years afterwards, was sen- 
tenced to perpetual imprisonment, from which he was re- 
leased by death in 1696. Madame Guyon was among the 
most distinguished of his disciples, and herself no incon- 
siderable supporter of the sect of Quietists. 1 
' MOLLOY (Charles, esq.), descended from a very 
good family in the kingdom of Ireland, was born in the 
city of Dublin, and received part of his education at Tri- 
nity college there, of which he afterwards became a fellow. 
-At his first coining to England he entered himself of the 
Middle Temple, and - was supposed to have had a very 
considerable hand in the writing of a periodical paper, 
called " Fog's Journal," and afterwards to have been the 
principal writer of another well-known paper, entitled 
** Common Sense/' 'All these papers give testimony of 
strong abilities,: great depth of understanding, and clear- 
ness of reasoning. Dr. King was a considerable writer in 
the latter, as were lords Chesterfield and Lyttelton. Our 
author had large offers made him to write in defence of sir 
Robert Walpole, but these he rejected : notwithstanding 
wbichy at the great change in the ministry in 1742, he 
was entirely neglected, as well as his fellow-labourer Am- 
herst, who conducted " The Craftsman. 1 ' Mr. Molloy, 
however, having married a lady of fortune, was in circum- 
stances which enabled him to treat the ingratitude of his 
patriotic friends with the contempt it deserved. He lived 
m^ny years after this period, dying so lately as July 16, 
1767. He was buried at Edmonton, July 20. He also 
wrote three dramatic pieces, 1. " Perplexed Couple," 1715, 

1 MosheijOi, where are more particulars of the history and system of Molinos. 



12mo. 2. " The Coquet," 17 i 8, 8vo. 3. " Halfway Of* 
ficers," 1720, 12mo. None of which met with. any very 
extraordinary success. 

Harris, in his edition of Ware's " Writers of Ireland," 
mentions another Charles Molloy, a native of the King's 
County, and a lawyer of the Iriner Temple, who wrote 
" De Jure Maritimo et Navali, or a Treatise of Affairs 
Maritime, and of Commerce," first published at London ia 
167$, and still known by many republications, the last of 
which was ii> 1769, 2 vols. £vq. He died under fifty years 
of age, in 1690, at bis bouse in Crane-court, Fleet-street 
Harris gives some account also of 1 a Francis Moiloy, of 
King's Qounty, professor of divinity in the college of $t 
Isidore at Rome, who wrote " Sacra Tbeologia*" Rome* 
1666, Svo ; " Gramoaatica Latino-Hibernica compendiata," 
ibid. 1677, 12mo. Edward Lluyd, who has made art ah* 
stract of this in his " Archsologia Britannica," says that it 
was the most complete Irish grammar then extant, although 
imperfect as to syntax, &c. He says also, what is less 
credible, that Motloy was not the author of it ; although 
the latter put* his name to it, and speaks of it in the pre* 
face as his own work. Molloy's other work is entitled 
" Lucerna Fidelium," Rome, 1676, 8vo, which although the 
title is in Latin, is written in Irish, and contains an expla- 
nation of the Christian religion according to the faith of 
the church of Rome, 1 


MOLYNEUX (Wiluam, esq.) an excellent matbeta*> 
tician and astronomer, was born April 17,. 1656, at Dub* 
lin, where his father, a gentleman of good family and for- 
tune, lived*. Being of a tender constitution, he was edu- 
cated under a private tutor at home, till he was near fifteen, 
and then placed in the university of Dublin, under the care 
of Dr. Palliser, afterwards archbishop of Cashell. He dis- 
tinguished himself here by the probity of his manners as 

* His family were all lovers of 
learning. His father*- Samuel, had an 
office in the court of exchequer* was 
master-gunner of Ireland (an employ* 
ment which he held many years), and 
published "Practical Problems con- 
cerning the doctrine of Projects design- 
ed for great Artillery and Mortar 
Pieces; " It was printed on copper* 
plates, and collected from a larger 

treatise on gunnery, written by him* 
He died about two years before his soil, 
jn 1696. His grandfather, Daniel, was 
Ulster king at arms, whom sir James 
Ware calls (l venerandss antiquitat'n 
cultor." Be finished " Meredith Ham- 
mer's Chronicle of Ireland," bus ifcr 
whatever reason, the second patt only 
was published. 

* Brog. Dram.— Harris's Ware .— Lygons's Environs, vol. II. 

M O L Y N E U X. 823 


W*ll » hv the strength of his parts ; and, haying made a 
remarkable progress in academical learning, and parties 
larly in the new philosophy, as it was then called, he pro* 
ceeded at the regular time to his bachelor of arts degree^ 
After four years spent in this university, he came to Lon+ 
don, and was admitted into the Middle Temple in June 
1675. He staid there three years, and applied himself to 
the study of the laws of his country, as much as was neces- 
sary, for one who was not designed for the profession of the 
law;, but the bent of his genius, as well as inclination, 
lying strongly to philosophy and mathematics, he spent 
the greatest part of his time in these inquiries, which, from 
the extraordinary advances newly made by the Royal So* 
oiety, were then chiefly in vogue. 

Thus accomplished, he returned to Ireland in June 167S, 
and shortly after married Lucy, daughter of sir William 
Domvile, the king's attorney- general. Being master of an 
tasy fortune, he continued to indulge himself in prosecuting 
such branches of moral and experimental philosophy as 
were most agreeable to his fancy ; and astronomy having 
the greatest share, he began, about 1681, a literary cor- 
respondence with Flamsteed, the king's astronomer, which 
h&hept np for several years. In. 1683, he formed a design 
of erecting- a philosophical society at Dublin, in imitation 
of the royal society at London ; and, by the countenance 
and encouragement of sir William Petty, who accepted 
the office of president, they began a weekly meeting that 
year, when. oar author was appointed their first secretary. 
The reputation of his parts and learning, which, by mean* 
of this society became more known, recommended him, in 
1684* to the notice and favour of the duke of Ormond, 
then lord lieutenant of Ireland ; by whose influence he 
was appointed that year, jointly with sir William Robinson* 
surveyors-general of bis majesty's building* and works, and 
chief engineer. la 16&5, he was. chosen fellow of the 
royal society at London ; and that year, for the sake of 
improving himself in the art of engineering, be procured an 
appointment from the Irish government, to view the most 
considerable fortresses- in Flanders. Accordingly be travelled 
through that country and Holland, and some part of Ger- 
many and France; and carrying with him letters of recom- 
mendation from Flamsteed to Cassini, he was introduced to 
him, and other eminent astronomers, in the several places 
through which he passed. , 

&U M O L Y N E U X. 

. Soon after his return from abroad, he printed at Dublin, 
in 1686, his " Sciothericum telescopium," containing a de- 
scription of the structure and use of a telescopic dial in- 
vented by him : another edition of which was published at 
London in 1700, 4to. On the publication of sir Isaac 
Newton's " Principia" the following year, 1687, our au- j 

thor was struck with the same astonishment as the rest of 
the world ; but declared also, that he was not qualified to 
examine the particulars. Halley, with whom he constantly 
corresponded, had sent him the several parts of this ines- 
timable treasure, as they came from the press, 'before 
the whole was finished, assuring him, that be looked upon 
it as the utmost effort of human genius. 

In 1688, the philosophic society at Dublin was broken 
up and dispersed by the confusion of the times. Mr. 
Molyneux had distinguished himself, as a member of it, 
from the beginning, by several discourses upon curious 
subjects ; some of which were transmitted to the royal 
society at London, and afterwards printed in the " Philo- 
sophical Transactions." Jp 1689, among great numbers of 
other Protestants, he withdrew from the disturbances in 
Ireland, occasioned by the severities of Tyrconnel's go- 
vernment ; and, after a short stay in London, fixed himself 
with his family at Chester. In this retirement he employed 
himself in putting together the materials he had some time 
before prepared for his " Dioptrics," in which he was much 
assisted by Flamsteed ; and, in August 1690, went to Lon- 
don to put it to the press, where the sheets were revised 
by Halley, who, at our author's request, gave leave for 
printing, in the appendix, his celebrated theorem for find- ' 
ing the foci of optic glasses. < Accordingly the book came 
out, 1692, in 4to, under the title of " Diqptrica nova : a 
Treatise of Dioptrics, in two parts; wherein the various 
Effects and Appearances of Spherical Glasses, both . Con- 
vex and Concave, single and combined, in Telescopes and 
Microscopes, together with their usefulness in many con- 
cerns of Human Life, are explained." He gave it the 
title of " Dioptrica nova," not only because it was almost 
wholly new, very little being borrowed from other writers, 
but because it was the first book that appeared in. English 
upon the subject. This work contains several of the most 
generally useful propositions for practice demonstrated in a 
clear and easy manner, for which reason it was many. years 
much used by the artificers ; and. the second part is very 


entertaining, especially in bis history which he gives of the 
several optical instruments, and of the discoveries made 
by them* The dedication of the " Dioptrics" being ad*» 
dressed to the royal society, he takes notice, among other 
improvements in philosophy, by building it upon expe- 
rience, of the advances that had been lately made in logic 
by the Celebrated John Locke. 

Before he left Chester, he lost his lady, who died soon 
after she had brought him a son. Illness had deprived bet 
of he.r eye-sight twelve years before, that is, soon after 
she was married; from which time she had been very 
sickly, and afflicted with extreme pains of the head. As 
soon as the. public tranquillity was settled in his native 
country, he returned home; and; upon the convening of 
a new parliament in 1692, was chosen one of the repre* 
sentatives for the city of Dublin. In the next parliament, 
in 1695, he was chosen to represent the university there, 
and continued to do so to the end of his life; that learned 
body having, before the end of the first session of the for- 
mer, conferred on him the degree of doctor of laws. He 
was likewise nominated, by the lord-lieutenant, one of the 
commissioners for the forfeited estates, to which employ- 
ment was ^nnexed a salary of five hundred pounds a-year ; 
but looking upon it as an invidious office, and not being 
a lover of money, he declined it. In 1698, he published 
" The Case of Ireland stated, in relation to its being bound 
by Acts of Parliament made in England :" in which he is 
supposed to have delivered all, or most, that can be said 
upon this subject, with great clearness and strength of 
reasoning. This piece (a second edition of which, with 
additions and emendations, was printed in 1720, 8vo,) was 
answered by John Cary, merchant of Bristol, in 3 book 
called, " A Vindication of the Parliament of England, &c." 
dedicated to the lord-chancellor Somers, and by Atwood, 
a lawyer. Of these Nicolson remarks that " the merchant 
argues like a counsellor at law, and the barrister strings his 
small wares together like a shop-keeper." What occa- 
sioned Molyneux to write the. above tract, was his. con- 
ceiving the Irish woollen manufactory to be oppressed by 
the English government ; on which account he could not 
forbear asserting his country's independency, He had 
given Mr. Locke a hint of his thoughts upon this subject, 
before it was quite ready for the press, and desired his sen- 
timents upon the fundamental principle on which hisargu- 



ment was grounded ; in answer to which that gentleman* 
intimating that the business was of too large an extent for 
the subject of a letter, proposed to talk the matter over 
with him in England. This, together with a purpose which 
Molyneux had long formed, of paying that great man *, 
whom he had never yet seen, a visit, prevailed with him to 
cross the water once more, although he was in a very in- 
firm state of health, in July this year, 1698; and he re- 
mained in. England till the middle of September. But the 
pleasure of this long-wished-for interview, which he in- 
tended to have repeated the following spring, seems to have 
been purchased at the expence of his life; for, shortly af- 
ter, he was seized with a severe fir of his constitutional 
distemper, the stone, which occasioned such retchiugs as 
broke a blood-vessel, and two days after put a period to his 
life. He died October 11, 1698, and was buried at St. 
Andoen's church, Dublin, where there is a monument and 
Latin inscription to his memory. Besides the " Sciotbe- 
ricuni telescopicum," and the " Dioptrica nova, 9 ' already- 
mentioned, he published the following pieces in the 
"Philosophical Transaction s." l. "Why four convex- 
glasses in a telescope shew objects erect/ 9 No. 53. 

2. " Description of Lough Neagb, in Ireland,' 9 No. 158. 

3. " On the Connaught worm, 99 No. 168. 4. " Descrip- 
tion of a new hygrometer/ 9 No. 172. 5. " On the cause 
of winds and the change*of weather, &c. 99 No. 177. S. 
"Why bodies dissolved swim in menstrua specifically 
lighter than themselves, 99 No. 181. 7. "On the Tides/' 
No. 184. 8. " Observations of Eclipses. 99 No. 164—185. 
9. " Why celestial objects appear greatest near the ho- 
rizon. 9 * No. 187. 10. "On the errors of Surveyors, 
arising from the variation of the Magnetic-needle, 9 * 
No. 230. - 

MOLYNEUX (Samuel) son of the above, was born at 
Chester in July 1689, and educated with, great care by 
his father, according to the plan laid down by Locke upon' 
that subject. When his father died, be was committed to 
the care of his uncle Dr. Thomas Molyneux, an excellent 

* We have an instance of a singular Locs;e, " have been mere ballad-ma- 

coincidence of opinion between Locke kers in comparison of him." An<t 

and Molyneux* Molyneux had a high Locke, in bis answer, says, " I find, 

opinion of sir Richard Blackmore's with pleasure, a strange harmony 

poetic vein : " All our English poets, throughout, between your thoughts) 

except Milton," says he in a letter to and mine."* 

» Bio* Brit.— Harris's Ware,— Martin's Biog. Pluto* 


scholar and physician at Dublin, and also an intimate frien4 
pf 'Mr. Locke ; who executed his trust so well, that Mr* 
JVioijneux became afterwards a most polite and accom- 
plished gentleman, and was made secretary t& bis late ma- 
jesty George II. wben he was prince of Wales. Astronomy 
and optics being his favourite study, as they bad been his 
father'?, he projected many schemes for the advancement 
of them, and was particularly employed, in the years 1723, 
1724, and 1725, in perfecting the method of making tele- 
acopes ; one of which, of his own making, hs had presented 
to John V. king of Portugal. In the midst of these thoughts, 
being appointed a commissioner of the admiralty, he be- 
came so engaged in public affairs, that he had not leisure 
to pursue these inquiries any farther ; and gave his papers 
to Dr. Robert Smith, professor of astronomy at Cambridge, 
.whom he invited to make use of his house and apparatus of 
instriupents, in order to finish what he had left imper- 
fect. Mr. Molynepx dying soon after, in the flower of his 
age, Dr» Smith lost the opportunity ; yet, supplying 
what wa# wanting from Mr. Huygens and others, he pub- 
lished the whole in bis " Complete Treatise of Optics." 

The preceding WiUisqi Molyneux had also a brother, 
Thomas, who was born in Dublin, and educated partly 
in the university there, and partly at Leyden and Paris* 
Returning home, he became professor of physic in the 
university of Dublin, fellow of the college of physicians, 
physician to the state, and physician-general to the army* 
fie had also great practice, apd in 173Q was created a ba- 
ronet He died Oct. 1 9, 1733. Hf had been a felfow of 
the rpyal society of London, and several of his pieces are 
published ip the Transactions* He published, separately, 
" Some Letters to Mr. Locke,* 1 Lond. 1708, 8vo.* 

MOLZA (Francis-Maria), an eminent Italian and La- 
tin poet, was .tarn of a noble family at Medena, in 1489 ^ 
and, after being educated at Rome, where he made extra- 
ordinary proficiency in the Greek and Latin languages,, 
juid even in the Hebrew, be was recalled to Modeoa, where, 
in 1512, he married, and intended to settle. The fame, 
bpwev^r, of L#q X> coprt, lejd him about four years after, 
Jback to Roto?, where be formed an acquaintance with many 
eminent sqhol^rs ; but appears to have.paicl pto?e attention 
to the cultivation of his taste than his morals, as he formed 

i Biog. Brit—Ware^* Ireland. 

*2* M O L Z A, 

a licentious connexion with a Roman lady, in consequence 
of which he received a wound from the hand of an un- 
known assassin, which had nearly cost him his life. Even 
when, on the death of Leo X. he left Rome, he did not 
return to his family, but went to Bologna, where he be- 
came enamoured of Camilla Gonzaga, a lady of rank and 
beauty, and a warm admirer of Italian poetry. His life 
after this appears to have been wholly divided between 
poetry and dissipation ; and he died of the consequences of 
the latter, in 1544. His Italian and Latin poems were for 
many years published in detached forms until 1749, when 
Serassi produced an entire edition at Bergamo. l 

MOLZA (Tarquinia), grand-daughter to the precede 
i n g> by Camillo, his eldest son, was born at Modena in 
1542. She was instructed in the classsics, in Hebrew, and 
in the belles lettres, became an adept in some of the ab- 
struser branches of science, and was a proficient in music ; 
and with all these, was distinguished by the graces and 
amiable qualities of her sex. She was married, ih 1560, to 
Paul Porrino, but never had any children ; and after hia 
death, in 1578, she passed her life in literary retirement 
at Modena, where she died in 1617. Her writings, v con- 
sisting of Latin and Italian poems, translations from Plato, 
and other classics, were printed in the Bergamo editi6it 
of Iter grandfather's works. This lady was the subject of 
numerous eulogies from contemporary writers ; but the 
most extraordinary honour that she received, was that of 
being presented with the citizenship of Rome, by the 
senate and people of that city, in a patent reciting her 
singular merits, and conferring upon her the title of Unica. 
The honour is extended to the whole noble family of 
Molza, * " 

MOMBRITIUS, or MOMBRIZIO (Boninus), a na- 
tive of Milan, who flourished in the fifteenth century, oh- 
tained considerable reputation for some Latin poems, par- 
ticularly one on " The Passion," but his most celebrated 
work was a collection of the " Lives of the Saints/ 9 not a 
confused and credulous compilation, but which exceeded 
all preceding works of the kind, by the pains he took to 
distinguish truth from fable. This he was enabled to do 
by a judicious examination of all the existing authorities, 

* Tiraboschi.— Roscoe>s LeoX.— Gen. Diet, 

* Geo. DicL-rMwrtri.— Tirfttotchi* 



and by availing himself of many MSS. which he discovered 
in public libraries, and carefully collated. In some in* 
sxances he* has admitted supposed for real facts, but in 
such a vast collection, a few mistakes of this kind are par- 
donable, especially as he brought to light much informa- 
tion not before made public. This work, which is of un- 
common rarity and great price, is entitled " Sanctuarium, 
sive vitse Sanctorum, 9 ' 2 vols. fol. without date or place, 
but supposed to have been printed at Milan about 1479. 
Some copies want the last leaf of signature Nnnn, but even 
with that defect bear a very high price. ' 

MONANTHEUIL (Henry de), an able mathematical 
^nd medical writer, was born at Rheims about 1536, of a 
family which possessed the^estate of Monantheuil in the 
Vermandois, in Picardy. He was educated at Paris in the, 
college de Presles, under Ramus, to whose philosophical 
opinions he constantly adhered. Having an equal inclina- 
tion and made equal progress in mathematics and medicine, 
he was first chosen professor of medicine, and dean of that 
faculty, and afterwards royal professor of mathematics. 
While holding the latter office he had the celebrated De 
Thou and Peter Lamoignon among the number of his 
scholars. During the troubles of the League, he remained 
faithful to his king, and even endangered his personal 
safety by holding meetings in his house, under pretence 
of scientific conversations, but really to concert measures 
for restoring Paris to Henry IV. He died in 1606, in the 
seventieth year of his age. His works are, 1. " Oratio pro 
mathematicis artibus," Paris, 1574, 4to. 2. " Admonitio 
ad Jacobum Peletarium de angulo contactus," ibid. 1581, 
4to. 3. " Oratio pro suo in Regiam cathedram ritu," ibid. 
1585, 8vo. 4. " Panegyricus dictus Henrico IV. statim a 
felicissima et auspicatissima urbis restitutione," &c. ibid* 
1594, translated into French in 1596. 5. " Oratio qua 
ostenditur quale esse debeat collegium professorum regio- 
rum," &c. ibid. 1596, 8vo. 6. " Commentarius in librum 
Aristotelis ntp tmv /mixowimw," Gr. and Lat. ibid. 1599, 4to». 
7. " Ludus latromathematicus," &c. ibid 1597, 8vo, and 
1700. 8. " De puncto primo Geometric principio liber,'* 
Leyden, 1600, 4to. This was at one time improperly attri- 
buted to his son, Thierry. 9. " Problematis omnium quae 
a 1200 annis invents sunt nobilissimi demonstration Paris, 

1 Tiraboschi.— Moreri.— Brunei'* Manuel du Llbraire. 

ti6 M-O N A R t> E S. 


1 600. He left some other works, both MS. and printed, 
of less consequence. ! 

MONARDES (Nicholas), a Spanish physician, waa 
born at Seville in the early part of the sixteenth centtny.. 
He received his education at the university ofAlcalade 
Henarez, and settled in practice at Seville, where he died 
in 1578. The first of his writings related to a controverted 
question, and was entitled " De secanda vena in Pleuritide 
inter -Graecos et Arabes concordia," Hispal. l$39. This 
was followed by a tract, " De Rosa et partibus ejus ; de 
succi Rosarum temperatura," &c. But his reputation was 
chiefly extended by his work, in the Spanish language, 
concerning the medicinal substances imported from the 
flew world, entitled " Dos Libros de las cosas qiie se traen 
de las Indias Occiden tales, que sirven al uso de Medicina,'* 
Sevilla, 1565. It was reprinted in 1569 and 1580, and to 
the latter edition a third book was added. Charles TEcluse* 
or Clusius, translated this work into Latin, with the title 
of " Simplicium Medicamentorum ex novo orbe delatorum, 
quorum in Medicina usus est, Hiitoria," Antw. 1574, and 
improved it by his annotations, and by the addition of 
figures. This work was also translated into Italian, French, 
and English, the latter by Frampton; 1580, 4to, Although 
the descriptions are inaccurate, the work had at least the 
merit of exciting the public attention to medicines hereto- 
fore little known. Monardes also published three works 
in Spanish, which were translated into Latin by 1' Eel use, 
with the title of " Nicolai Monardi Libri tres, magna Me- 
dicines secreta et varia Experimenta continentes," Lugd« 

1601. The first of these relates to the lsfpis bezoardicus ; 
the second, to the use and properties of steel, which he 
was the first after Rhazes to recommend as a deobstruent, 
acoording to Dr. Freind ; and the third, to the efficacy of 
snow. His name is pert/etuated by the botanical genua 
Monarda, in the class dimdria of Linnaeus. * 



MONCKTON (Sir Philip, knt.), was the son of sir 
Francis Monckton, knt. of Cavil Hall, and of Newbold, both 
in the East-riding of Yorkshire, and descended from an 

* Niccron, vol. XV.— Moreri.— Eloy, Diet. Hist, de Medicine.— Gen. Diet.-** 
Saxii Onomast. 

* Antonio BibI, Hisp.— Moreii.— Elojr, Diet, Hist, dt Medktue.-rReet 's Cy -. 


apcieot family in that county, who possessed the tordsbfp 
of Monckton before the place was made * nunnery, which 
Was ia the 20th Edward II. (1326). Sir Philip was born at 
Heck, near Howden, in Yorkshire, and was high sheriff 
for that county in the 21st Charles II. (1669). He served 
for some time in parliament for Scarborough, and had been 
knighted in 1643. His loyalty to Charles I. brought him 
under the cognizance of the usurpers, and for his loyal 
services be underwent two banishments, and several impri- 
sonments during the course of , the civil war; his grand- 
father, father, and himself, being a,U at one time seques* 
tered by Cromwell. In consideration of these services 
and sufferings, king Charles II. in 1653, wrote a letter to 
him in his own band (which was delivered by major Waters) 
promising that if it pleased God to restore him, be should 
share with him in his prosperity, as he had been conteut 
to do in. his adversity ; but he afterwards experienced the- 
same ingratitude as many of his father's friends, for when 
he waited on the lord chancellor Clarendon with a recom- 
mendation from the earl of Albemarle for some compen- 
sation for his services, he was treated with the utmost inso- 
lence, and dismissed with marked contempt. Sir Philip 
had been a prisoner in Belvoir castle, and was released on 
col. Rossiter's letter to the lord general Fairfax in his fa- 
vour. He fought at the several battles of Hessey Moor, 
Marston Moor, Aderton Moor, and at Rowton Heath, near 
Chester, where he was wounded in his right arm, and was 
forced to manage his horse with bis teeth whilst he fought 
with his left, when he was again wounded and taken pri- 
soner. He was likewise at the siege of Pontefract castle, 
and at York. He married miss Eyre, of an ancient family, 
of Hassop, in Derbyshire. His manuscripts are now in 
the possession of his descendant, the lord viscount Gal way, 1 
MONCKTON (Hon. Robert), great grandson of the 
preceding, and a major-gefteral in the army, was born 
about 1728, and was the son of John Monckton, the first 
viscount Galway, and baron of Killard, by his wife the lady 
Elizabeth Manners, daughter to John second duke of Rut- 
land. He was sent with a detachment to Nova Scotia in 
1755, and served under general Wolfe against Quebec* 
He dislodged a -body of the enemy from the point of Levi, 
and formed a plan for tending the troops, near the heights 

% i Lodge's Pepjntge.— •Print* raformaiiot. 


of Abraham, and assisted in the execution for conducting 
the right wing at the battle of Quebec, where be was danger- 
ously wounded. He received the thanks of the House of 
Commons, and afterwards went to New York, where be reco- 
vered of his wounds. He was also at the taking of Mar- 
tinico, and was sometime governor of Portsmouth, where 
Fort Monckton was so called in honour of him. He died in 
1782, leaving the character of a brave, judicious, and bu- 
tane officer. In bis account of the taking of Martinico 
in 1762, be mentions an attack made by the French troops 
from Morne Gamier on some of our posts, in which they 
were repulsed, and such was the ardour of our troops, 
that they passed the ravine with the enemy, seized their 
batteries, and took post there. It is also said that on this 
occasion the English party had no colours with them when 
they took possession of the batteries, and supplied the want 
of them by a shirt and a red waistcoat. From the many 
instances which have been given of General Monckton's 
liberality, the following may be selected as deserving to 
be remembered. When the troops were sent to Martinico, 
general Amherst took away the usual allowance of bangh 
and forage-money. General Monckton, knowing the dif- 
ficulties which subaltern officers have to struggle with in 
the best situation, felt for their distress, and in some de- 
gree to make it up to them, ordered the negroes which 
were taken, to be sold, and the money divided among the 
subalterns. On finding that it would not produce them 
five pounds a-piece, he said he could not offer a gentleman 
a less sum, and made up the deficiency, which was about 
SOOl. out of his own pocket. He kept a constant table of 
forty covers for the army, and ordered that the subalterns 
chiefly should be invited, saying, he had been one himself; 
and if there was a place vacant, he used to reprimand his 
aid-de-camp. ' 

MONCONYS (Balthasar), a celebrated traveller, was 
the son of the lieutenant-criminel of Lyons. After having 
studied philosophy and mathematics in bis native city and 
in Spain, he visited the East in order to seek for the books 
of Mercurius Trismegistus and Zoroaster ; but finding no- 
thing to detain him, returned to France, and was esteemed 
by the learned, particularly the amateurs of chemistry 
and astrology. He died April 28, 1665. His travels have 

l Geat Mag. See Index*— Private infbrmatioa. 

MONCONY8. 233 

Wen printed under the title of " Journal de *es voyages 
eti Portugal, Provence, Italie, Egypt, &c. &c. redigg par 
le sieur de Liergues, son fils," Lyons, 1665 — 6, 3 vols. 4to. 
They are ill-written, bis style being loose and diffuse, 
but they contain many curious particulars. It appears 
that he was in England in 1663, as he gives several in- 
teresting anecdotes of the court of Charles II. and of tbe 
manners of the times. He travelled through various coun« 
tries as tutor to the sons of noblemen, one of whom, the 
duke de Chevereuse, was with him in England. Brunet 
gives the title of what appears to be another work of travels 
by Monconys, " Voyage en divers endroits de l'Europe, en 
Afrique et au Levant, 9 ' Paris (Holland) 1695, 5 vols. 12 mo.* 

MONCRIF (Francis Augustin Paradis de), a member 
of the French academy, was born at Paris in 1687. He 
was a very elegant writer, and his works have gone through 
various editions. His principal performances are, " An 
Essay on the necessity and means of Pleasing," which is 
an ingenious book of maxims. He wrote " Les Ames 
Rivales," an agreeable romance, containing lively and 
just descriptions of French manners. He was also 1 author 
of various pieces of poetry, small theatrical pieces, com- 
plimentary verses, madrigals, &c. Moncrif died at Paris 
in 1770, at the age of eighty- three, and left behind him a 
great character for liberality, and amiable manners. * 


MONGAULT (Nicolas Hubert), an ingenious and 
learned Frenchman, and one of the best writers of bis time, 
was born at Paris in 1674. At sixteen he entered into the 
congregation of the fathers of the oratory, and was after- 
wards sent to Mans to learn philosophy. That of Aristotle 
then obtained in the schools, and was the only one which 
was permitted to be taught ; nevertheless Mongault, with 
some of that original spirit which usually distinguishes men 
of uncommon abilities from the vulgar, ventured, in a 
public thesis, which he read at the end of the course of 
lectures, to oppose the opinions of Aristotle, and to main- 
tain those of Des Cartes. Having studied theology with 
the same success, he quitted the oratory in 1699 ; and 
soon after went to Thoulouse, and lived with Colbert, 
archbishop of that place, who had procured him a priory 

* Moreri.— -Maty's Review, toI. V. p. 39. 

* Neurologic des Homines Celebres, for 1771.-- D'Alembert's Hist, des Meia- 
fcres de P Academic.— Diet Hist. 


in 1698; In i710 the duke of Orleans, regent of theking*? 
doto, committed to him the education of bis son, the diike 
of Ghartres ; which important office he discharged bo well 
that he acquired universal esteem. In 1714, he had the 
abbey Chartreuve given him, and that of Villeneuve in 
1719. The duke of Chartres, becoming colonel-general 
of the French infantry, chose the abW Mongault to fill the 
place of secretary-general ; made him also secretary of the 
province of Dauphiny ; and, after the death of the regent, 
his father, raised him to other considerable employments* 
All this while he was as assiduous as his engagements WouIc| 

1>ermit in cultivating polite literature ; and, in 1 7 14, pub-* 
ished at Paris, in 6 vols. 12mo, an edition of " Tolly's 
Letters to Atticus," with an excellent French translation, 
and judicious comment upon them. This work has been 
often reprinted, and is justly reckoned admirable ; for, as 
Middleton has observed, in the preface to his " Life of 
Cicero," the abb6 Mongault " did not content himself with 
the retailing the remarks of other commentators, or out of 
the rubbish of their volumes with selecting the best, but 
entered upon his task with the spirit of a true critic, and, by 
the force of his own genius, has happily illustrated many 
passages which all the interpreters before him had given 
up as inexplicable." He published also a very good trans- 
lation of " Herodian," from the Greek, the best edition) 
of which is that of 1745, in 12mo. He died at Paris, 
Aug. 15, 1746, aged almost seventy-two. 

He was a member of the French academy, and of the 
academy of inscriptions and belles lettres ; and was fitted 
to do honour to any society. In the first volume of the 
*' Memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions" there are two 
fine dissertations of his : one " upon the divine honours 
paid to the governors of the Roman provinces, during the 
continuance of the republic ;" the other, " upon the tem- 
ple, which Cicero conceived a design of consecrating to 
the memory of his beloved daughter Tullia, under the title 
ofFanum." 1 

MONK (George), duke of Albemarle, memorable for 
having been the principal instrument in the restoration of 
Charles II. to his crown and kingdoms, was descended from 
a very ancient family, and born at Pothe ridge, in Devon- 
shire, Dec. 6, 1608. He was a younger son; and, ns 

1 Moreri.— Diet Hipt. 

M N tf. 235 

provision being expected from bis father, sir Thomas Monk, 
whose fortune was reduced, he dedicated' himself to arm* 
from his youth. He entered in 1625, when not quite se- 
venteen, as a volunteer tinder sir Richard Grenville, then 
at Plymouth, and just setting out under lord Wimbledon 
cm the expedition against Spain. The year after he ob- 
tained a pair of colours, in the expedition to the isle of 
Rhee; whence returning in 1628, he served the following 
year as ensign in the Low Countries, where he was pro- 
moted to the rank of captain. In this station he was pre- 
sent in several sieges arid battles ; and having, in ten years 
service, made himself absolute master of the military art, 
be returned to his native country on the breaking out of 
the war between Charles I. and his Scotish subjects. His 
rteptftation, supported by proper recommendations, pro- 
Cured him the rank of lieutenant-colonel, in which post be 
served in both the king's northern expeditions; and was' 
afterwards a. colonel, when the Irish rebellion took place. 
In the suppression of this he did such considerable service, 
that the lords justices appointed him governor of Dublin : 
but the parliament intervening, that authority was vested 
in another: 4 Soon after, on his signing a truce with the 
rebels, by the king's order, September 1643, he returned 
with his regiment to England ; but, on his arrival at Bris- 
tol, was met by orders both from Ireland and Oxford, di- 
recting the governor of that place to secure him. The 
governor, however, believing the suspicions conceived 
against him groundless, sutfered him to proceed to Oxford 
on his bare parole ; and there he so fully justified himself 
to lord Digby, then secretary of state, that he was by that 
nobleman introduced to the king; but his regiment was 
given to colonel Warren, who had been his major. As 
some amends for this, the king made him major-general in 
the Irish brigade, then employed in the siege of Nantwich, 
in Cheshire; at which place he arrived just soon enough 
to share in the unfortunate surprisal of that whole brigade 
by sir Thothas Fairfax. He was sent to Hull, and thence 
conveyed in a short time to the Tower of London, where 
he remained in close confinement till Nov. 13, 1646; and 
then, as the only means to be set at liberty, he took the 
Covenant, -engaged with the parliament, and agreed to 
accept a command under them in the Irish service. Some 
have charged him with ingratitude for thus deserting the 
king, who had beea very kind to him during his con- 

236 MONK. 


finement, and in particular had sent him from Oxford 
100/. which was a great sum for his majesty, then much 
distressed. It has, however, been pleaded in his favour, 
that he never listened to any terms made him by the parlia- 
mentarians while the king had an army on foot. Whatever 
strength may be in this apology, it is certain that when 
bis majesty was in the hands of his enemies, he readily 
accepted of a colonel's commission ; and, as he had been 
engaged against the Irish rebels before, he thought it con- 
sistent with the duty he owed, and which be had hitherto 
inviolably maintained to the king, to oppose them again. 
H5 set out for Ireland, Jan. 28, 1646-7, but, returned in 
April on account of some impediments. Soon after, he 
had the command in chief of all the parliament's forces ii* 
the north of Ireland conferred upon him ; upon which he 
went again, and for the following two years performed 
several exploits worthy of an able and experienced soldier. 
Then he was called to account for having treated with the 
Irish rebels ; and summoned to appear before the parlia- 
ment, who, after hearing him . at the bar of the house, 
passed this vote, Aug. 10, 1649, "That tbey did disap- 
prove of what major-general Monk had done, in conclud- 
ing a peace with the grand and bloody Irish rebel, Owen 
Roe O'Neal, and did abhor the having any thing to do 
with him therein ; yet are easily persuaded, that the mak- 
ing the same by the said major-general was, in his judg- 
ment, most for the advantage of the English interest in 
that nation ; and, that he shall not be farther questioned 
for the same in time to come." This vote highly offended 
the major-general, though not so much as some passages 
in the House, reflecting on his honour and fidelity. He 
was, perhaps, the more offended at this treatment, as he 
was not employed in the reduction of Ireland under Oliver 
Cromwell ; who, all accounts agree, received considerable 
advantage from this very treaty with O'Neal. Monk's 
friends endeavoured to clear his reputation ; his reasons 
for agreeing with O'Neal were also printed ; yet nothing, 
could wipe off the stain of treating with Irish rebels, till it. 
was forgotten in bis future fortune. 

About this time his elder brother died without issue male; 
and the family estate by entail devolving upon bim, he. 
repaired it from the ruinous condition in which his father 
and brother had left it. He had scarce settled bis 
private affairs, when he was called to serve against the 


Scots (who had proclaimed Charles II.) under Oliver Crom- 
well ; by whom he was made lieutenant-general of the »r- 
tillery, and had a regiment given him. His services were 
now so important, that Cromwell left him commander in 
chief in Scotland, when he returned to England to pursue 
Charles II. In 1652, be wa$ seized with a violent fit of 
illness, which obliged him to go to Bath for the recovery 
of his health : after which, he set out again for Scotland, 
was one of the commissioners for uniting that kingdom with 
the new-erected commonwealth, and, having successfully 
concluded it, returned to London. The Dutch war having 
now been carried on for some months, lieutenant-general 
Monk was joined with the admirals Blake and Dean in the 
command at sea; in which service, June 2, 1653, he con r 
tributed greatly by his courage and conduct to the defeat 
of the Dutch fleet. Monk and Dean were on board the 
same ship ; and, Dean being killed the first broadside, 
Monk threw his cloak over the body, and gave orders for 
continuing the fight, without suffering the enemy to know 
that we had lost one of our admirals. Cromwell, in the 
mean time, was paving bis way to the supreme command, 
which, Dec. 16, 1653, he obtained, under the title of pro- 
tector ; and, in this capacity, soon concluded a peace' with 
the Dutch. Monk remonstrated warmly against the terms 
of this peace ; and bis remonstrances were well received 
by Oliver's own parliament. Monk also, on his return 
home, was treated so respectfully by them, that Oliver is 
said to have grown jealous of him, as if he had been in- 
clined to another interest, but, receiving satisfaction from 
the general on that head, he not only took him into favour, 
but, on the breaking out of fresh troubles in Scotland, sent 
him there as commander in chief. He set out in April 
1654, and finished the war by August; when he returned 
from the Highlands, and fixed his abode at Dalkeith, a 
seat belonging to the countess of Buccleugh, within five 
miles of Edinburgh : and here he resided during the re- 
maining time that he stayed in Scotland, which was five 
years, amusing himself with rural pleasures, and beloved 
by the people, though his government was more arbitrary 
than any they had experienced. He exercised this go- 
vernment as one of the protector's council of state in Scot- 
land, whose commission bore date in June 1655. Crom- 
well, however, could not help distrusting him at times, on 
account of his popularity ; nor was this distrust entirely 

$3# MONK, 

without the appearance of foundation. It is certain the 
Jtipg entertained good hopes of him, and to that purpose 
sent to him the followiug letter from Colen, Aug. 12, 165% 

" One, who believes be knows your nature and incliiiar 
•tions very well, assures me, that, notwithstanding all iU 
accidents and misfortunes,, jou retain still your old affec* 
tion to me, and resolve to express it upon the first season? 
able opportunity ; which is as much as I look for from 
We must all patiently wait for that opportunity, which may 
be offered sooner than we expect : when it is, let it find 
you ready ; and, in the mean time, have a care to keep 
yourself out of their hands, who know the hurt ybu can da 
them in a good conjuncture, and can never but suspect 
your affection to be, as I am confident 4t is, towards 

Yours, &c. Charles Rjbx." 

However, Monk made no scruple of discovering every 
step taken by the cavaliers which came to his knowledge, 
even to the sending the protector this letter; and joined 
in promoting addresses to him from the army, one of which 
was received by the protector March 19, 1657, in which 
year Monk received a summons to Oliver's house of lords. 
Upon the death of Oliver, Monk joined in an address to 
the new protector Richard, whose power, nevertheless, he 
foresaw would be but short-lived ; it. having been bis epi* 
nion, that Oliver, had he lived much longer, would scarce 
have been able to preserve .himself in his station. And 
indeed Cromwell himself began to, he apprehensive pf that 
.great alteration which happened after his death, and fear- 
ful that the general was deeply engaged in those measures 
which procured it ; if we may judge from a letter written 
by him to general Monk a little before, to which was added 
the following remarkable postscript : " There be that tell 
.me, that there is.a certain. cunning. fellow in Scotland,. called 
George Monk, who is said to lie in wait there to introduce 
Charles Stuart ; I pray you, use your diligence to appre- 
-hend him, and. send him up to me." It belongs to history 
to relate all the steps which led to .the restoration of Charles 
II. and which were ably conducted by Monk* Immedi- 
ately after that event, he was loaded with pensions, and 
honours ; was made knight of the garter, one of the privy*- 
council, master of the horse, a gentleman of the bed- 
chamber, first lordncommissioner of the treasury ; . and soon 
after created a peer, being made baron Monk of Potheridge, 
Beauchamp, and Tees, earl of Torjriqgtoo, 4 aod duke of 

' MONK. 23* 

Albemarle, with a grant of 70007. per annum, estate of 
inheritance, besides other pensions. He received a very 
peculiar acknowledgment of regard on being thus called 
to the peerage; almost the whole house of commons at- 
tending him to the very door of the house of lords, while 
be behaved with great moderation, silence, and humility. 
This behaviour was really to be admired in a man, who, 
by his personal merit, had raised himself within the reach 
of a crown, which he had the prudence, or the virtue, to 
wave : yet he preserved it to the end of his life : insomuch, 
that the king, who used to call him bis political father, said 9 
very highly to his honour, " the dtfke of Albemarle de- 
meaned himself in such a manner to the prince he had 
obliged, as never to seem. to overvalue the services of ge- 
neral Monk." During the remainder of his life he was 
consulted and employed upoq all great occasions by the 
king, and at the same time appears to have been esteemed 
.and beloved by his fellow-subjects. In 1664, on the break- 
ing out of the first Dutch war, he was, by the duke of York, 
who commanded the fleet, intrusted with the care of the 
admiralty : and, the plague breaking out the same year in 
London, he was intrusted likewise with the care of the city 
by the king, who retired to Oxford. He was, at the latter 
end of the year, appointed joint-admiral of the fleet with 
prince Bupert, and, distinguished himself with great bra- 
very against the Dutch. In September 1666, the fire of 
London occasioned the Duke of Albemarle to be recalled 
from the fleet, to assist in quieting the ixiinds of the people ; 
who expressed their affection and esteem for him, by crying 
out publicly, as he passed through the ruined streets, that, 
" if his grace bad been there, the city had not bejen burned.'* 
The many hardships and fatigues he had undergone in a 
military life began to shake his constitution somewhat early; 
so that about his 60th year he was attacked with a dropsy;; 
.which, being too much neglected, perhaps on account of 
his having been, hitherto remarkably healthy, advanced 
very rapidly, and put a period to his life, Jan. 3, 1669-70, 
when he was entering his 62dyear. He died in the esteem 
jof his sovereign, and his brother -the duke of York, as ap- 
pears not only from the high posts he enjoyed, and the 
-great trust reposed in him by both, but also from the tender 
•concern shewn by them, in a constant inquiry after his 
state during his last illness, and the public and princely 
regajrd paid to his memory after his decease 4 for, hisfu~ 

*40 M ONfc 

neral was honoured with all imaginable pomp and solentf-* 
nity, and his ashes admitted to mingle with those of the 
royal blood; he being interred, April 4, 1670, in Henry 
the Vllth's chapel at Westminster, after his corpse bad 
lain in state many weeks at Somerset-house. 

The duke of Albemarle's character has been variously 
represented, and some parts of it cannot, perhaps, be de- 
fended without an appeal to those principles of policy 
which are frequently at variance with morality. Hume, 
however, thinks it a singular proof of the strange power 
of faction, that any malignity (alluding to' such writers as 
Burnet, Harris, &c.) should pursue the memory of a no- 
bleman, the tenour of whose life was so unexceptionable, 
and who, by restoring the ancient and legal and free gcn- 
vernment to three kingdoms plunged in the most destruc- 
tive anarchy, may safely be said to be the subject in these 
islands, who, since the beginning of time, rendered the 
most durable and most essential services to his native coun- 
try. The means also, by which he atchieved his great- 
undertakings, were almost entirely unexceptionable. " His 
temporary dissimulation," continues Hume, " being abso- 
lutely necessary, ctiuld scarcely be blameable. He had 
received no trust from that mongrel, pretended, usurping 
parliament whom he dethroned; therefore could betray 
none : he even refused to carry his dissimulation so far as 
to take the oath of abjuration against the king." Yet Hume 
allows .that in his Letter to Sir Arthur Hazelrrg (in the 
Clarendon papers) he is to be blamed for his false protes- 
tations of zeal for a commonwealth. 

This extraordinary man was an author : a light in which 
he is by no.means generally known, and yet in which he did 
not want merit. After his death, was published, by au- 
thority, a treatise which he composed while a prisoner iri 
the Tower: it is called, "Observations upon military and 
political Affairs, written by the honourable George Duke 
of Albemarle," &c. London, 1671, small folio. Besides 
a dedication to Charles II. signed John Heath, the editor^ 
it contains thirty chapters of martial rules; interspersed 
with political observations, and is in reality a kind of tailt** 
tary grammar. We have, besides, " The Speech of ge- 
neral Monk in the House of Commons, concerning the 
settling the conduct of the Armies of Three Nations/ for 
the Safety thereof;" another delivered at Whitehall, Feb. 
21, 1659, to the members of parliament, at their meeting 

MONK. 241 

4>efQ*e4he jrd-fldmission of their formerly-secluded mem* 
hers ; and " Letters relating to the Restoration," London, 
.17 14-15. 1 

MONK (Hon. Mary), daughter of Lord Molesworth, 
#njd mfe to George Monk, esq. was celebrated for her 
fttfcetical talents. She acquired by her own application a 
perfect knowledge of the Latin, Italian, and Spanish lan- 
guages ; and, from a study of the best authors, a decided 
jtaate for poetical composition. She appears to have written 
for her own .amusement, rather than with any view to pub- t 
lication. Her poems were not printed till after her death, 
when tbey .were published under the title of " Marinda ; 
Poems jand Translations upon several Occasions," London, 
1716, Svo. A dedication to Caroline, princess of Wales, 
was prefixed to them by lord Molesworth, th$ father of 
Mrs. Monk, who speaks of the poems as the production 
" of the leisure hours of a young woman, who, in a re- 
mote country retirement, without other assistance than that 
of a good library, and without omitting the daily care due 
to a large family, not only acquired the several languages 
here made use of, but the good morals and principles con* 
tained in those books, so as to put them in practice, as well 
during her life and languishing sickness, as at the hour of 
ber death ; ;dying not only like a Christian, but a Roman 
lady, and becoming at once the grief and the comfort of 
hex relations." She died in 1715, at Bath. On her death* 
bed she wrote some very affecting verses to her husband, 
which are not printed in her works, but may be found in 
vol. II. of the " Poems of Eminent Ladies/' and in " Cib« 


MONMOUTH (Geoffroy). See JEFFREY. 

MONNIER (Peter Charles le), an eminent French 
astronomer, and mathematician,, was born at Paris, Nov. 23, 
1715. His education was chiefly directed to the sciences, 
to which be manifested an efeiiy attachment ; and his pro* 
gr^ss was such that at the age of twenty -one, he.wa* 
chq&en as the co-operator of \Maupertuis, in the measure 
of a degree of the meridian at the polar circle. At the 
period when the errors in Flatnsteed's catalogue of the stars 
began to be manifest, he undertook to determine anew the . 
positions of the zodiacal stars as being the most useful to 

342 MONN1ER, 

astronomers. In 1743 he traced at St Sulpice a grand 
meridian line^ in order to ascertain certain solar motions, 
and also the small variations in the obliquity of the ecliptic. 
. .' In 1746, he determined, after numerous observations, 
thfe great inequalities of Saturn, produced by the action 
;o£ Jupiter; and his work served as a foundation for the 
-paper of Euler on this subject, which* gained the prize at 
the academy of sciences in 1743. Soon after this, Le 
Monnier published his " Astronomical Institutions/' a work 
-which was so much the more useful, as it was then the only 
.one in France, that contained the first principles of astro* 
iiomy. Having undertaken to determine the errors of the 
lunar tables, he directed his labours peculiarly to that sa- 
tellite, which he observed with assiduity during the entire 
period of eighteen years, at the end of which the same 
errors should recommence. His principal works, besides 
the foregoing, are " Lunar Nautical Astronomy," " Tablesv 
of, the Sun," and " Corrections of those of the Moon." He 
took great pleasure in. astronomical observations, and to 
him has been ascribed the great improvement that has taken 
place in France in practical astronomy. 

During his long, career he was considered among, big 
friends as the soul of astronomy, and made numerous pro- 
selytes to this study by bis advice, example, and insiruc* 
ttons. It is to him we chiefly owe the early progress of 
two celebrated astronomers, Lalande and Pingr£. Le Mon- 
nier died in 179:9, in the 84th year of his age. • He had a 
brother, Lewis William, a very able experimental pbilo~ 
ftopber, but who is not to be confounded with an abbe of 
that name who translated Terence and Persius into French,-, 
and who was . the author .of fables, tales, and epistles* 
The latter died in 1796. 1 

MONNOYE (Bernard de-la), a learned French poet; 
was boro in Dijon, the capital of Burgundy, June 1 5, 164-1.- 
He was a map of parts and learning, had a decided taste' 
for poetry; and, in J 671, had a fair, opportunity of dis- 
playing his talents. ; The subject of the prize of poetry, 
founded by the members of the French academy at this 
time, was, " The Suppressing of Duelling by Lewis XIV." 
At this was the first contest of the kind, the candidate* 
were numerous and eager; but la Monnoye succeeded* 
and had the honour of being the first who won the prise 
founded by the French academy ; by which he gained a 

i Hist, de VAstronomie depuii 1781 juiqu'a 18U, par; M. Voiron, 

M.ONNOYE. 243 

reputation that increased ever after. In 1 673, he was a 
candidate for the new prize, the subject of which was, 
"The protection with which his Gallic majesty honoured 
the French academy ;" but his poem came too late. He 
won the prize in 1675, on " The glory of arms an<J learn- 
ing under Lewis XIV;" and that also of 1677, on " The 
Education of the Dauphin." On this occasion, the highest 
compliment was made him by the abt)6 Regnier; who said, 
that " it would be proper for the French academy to elect 
Mr- de la Monnoye upon the first vacancy, because, as he 
would thereby be disqualified from writing any more, such 
as should then be candidates would be encouraged to 
write. 9 ' It was indeed said, that he discontinued to write 
for these prizes at the solicitation of the academy ; a cir- 
cumstance which, if true, reflects higher honour on him 
than a thousand prizes. He wrote many other successful 
pieces, and was no less applauded in Latin poetry than in 
the French. Menage and Bayle have both bestowed the 
highest encomiums on bis Latin poetry. His Greek and 
Italian poems are likewise much commended by the French 

But poetry was not la Monnoye's only province: to .a 
perfect skill jn poetry, he joined a very accurate and ex- 
tensive knowledge of the languages. He was also an acute 
(critic : and no man applied himself with greater assiduity 
to tbe study of history, ancient and modern. He was per- 
fectly acquainted with all tbe scarce books, that had any- 
thing curious in them, and was well versed in literary his- 
tory. He wrote "Remarks on the Menagiana :" in the 
Jast edition of which, printed in 1 7 1 5, in 4 vols* 1 2mo, ire 
included several pieces of his poetry, and a curious dis- 
sertation on the famous book " De tribus Impostoribus." 
His " Dissertation on Pomponius Laetus," at least an 
.extract of it, is inserted in the new edition of Baillet's 
u Jugemens des S^ayans/' published in 4722, with a great 
jmmber of remarks and corrections by la Monnoye. lie 
also embellished the " Anti»Baillet of Menage," with cor* 
xections and notes. He was a great benefactor to litera- 
ture, by his own productions, and the assistance which 
he communicatd very freely, upon all occasions, to other 
futthors. Among others, he favoured Bayle with a great 
number of curious particulars for his "Dictionary/' which 
was liberally acknowledged. He died at Paris, Oct. 1 5, 
1728, in his 88th year. 

R 2 


Mr. de Sallingre published at the Hague €€ A Collection 
of Poems by hi Monnoye," with bis eulogium, to which we 
owe many of the particulars given above. He also left 
behind him U A Collection of Letters," mostly critical; 
several curious " Dissertations ;*' three 'hundred " Select 
Epigrams from Martial, and other £oets, ancient and mo- 
dern, in Frenph verse ;" and several other works in prose 
and verse, in French, Latin, and Greek, ready for the press. 
A collection of his works in 3 vols. 8vo, was published m 
1769. He deserved that the French academy should admit 
into their list a person on whom they had so often be- 
stowed their laurels, and he might, doubtless, have ob- 
tained that honour sooner, had he sued for it: but, as lie 
declined such solicitation, he was not elected till 1713, ttot 
the death of abb£ Regner des Marias. He married CJatfde 
tlenriot, whom he survived, after living many years witk 
her in the strictest amity ; as appears from a copy of iAs 
verses, and also from the epitaph he wrote for himself anti 
his wife. He had accumulated a very curious and valua- 
ble library, but was obliged, by the failure of the Missisipfri. 
scheme, to propose selling it, in order to support bis 
family. This the duke de Villeroi hearing, settled an 
annual pension of 6000 livres upon him ; for which he Ex- 
pressed his gratitude, in a poem addressed to that noble- 
man. It is said, however, that the duke did it only tipda 
condition, that himself should inherit the library after tfete 
death of la Monnoye, who accepted the' terms. 1 
MONRO (Alexander, M. D.), an eminent anatomist, 
atfd 'the father of the medical school of; Edinburgh, was 
descended both by bis paternal -ajid maternal parents from 
distinguished fannies in the north of Scotland, He was 
born in l London, in Septfetttber 1697, where his father, 
then a sur£eon ;i in tBearmy of king' William in Flanders, 
resided updn -leave of Absence in the^wihter. 0n quitting 
the artoy, Mr. n Monro ^fettled in" Edinburgh ; and perceiv- 
ing early iridica'tiens u bf talent' in -Alefcarider, he gave him 
the best instruction tfhibh 'Edinburgh then affbrded, and 
iafterwaras sfehthi'm to 'London, 'where !: be dttentffed the 
anaforiiical courses of Oftrese1d4o, and 1 while here, *■ laid the 
^foundation of his l most4mportant work 6n the'bones. He 
then' pursued bis studies «at Patis and Leyden, *wh«te 4rts 

MQNR'ft *45 

industry tod promising talents recommended him to the 
particular notice of Boerhaave. On his return to Edin- 
burgh, in the autumn of 1719* he was appointed professor 
and demonstrator of. anatomy to the company of surgeons, 
the joint demonstrators having spontaneously resigned in 
his; favour, and soon after began alsptp give public lectures 
on anatomy, aided by the preparations which he had made 
when abroad ; and at the same time Dr. Alston, then a 
young man, united with him in. the plaji, and began a 
course of lectures on, the matem& medica and bdtany. 
These courses may be regarded as the opening of that me- 
dical school, which has since extended its fame, not only 
throughout Europe, but over the new world* Mr. Monro 
suggested this plan ; and* by the following circumstance, 
probably, contributed to lead bis son into a mode of lec- 
turing, which, subsequently carried him to excellence. 
Without the* young teacher's knowledge, he invited the 
president and fpUaw* o£ the College, oi Physicians, and 
%he whole company of surgeons, to honpur the first day's 
lecture with their presence. This unexpected company 
threw the doctor into avbch confusion, that he forgot the 
words of the dfaceiirse, which he had written and coco- 
Bfthted to memory. Having left his papers at home, he 
was at a loss for a Hjbtle time what to do : but, with much 
presence of mind, he immediately began to shew some of 
die anatomical preparations, in order to gain time for re-* 
collection ; and ve»y soon resolved not to attempt to re* 
peat the cbaeontse which he had prepaid, hut to express 
biwaelf in such language as should occur to him from the 
aubject, wfefcl* he wa» cooBdent that he understood. The 
experiment succeeded: he delivered' l?im*elf well> and 
gained great applause as a good and re?dy speaker. Thus 
discovering hia own strength, he resolved henceforth never 
fee. recite any written discourse in teaching, and acquired a 
free and elegant style of delivering lectures. 

In the same year, 1720, a regular series of medical in- 
struction was instituted at Edinburgh, through the interest 
of Dr. Monro's father: these two lectureships were put 
upon the university establishment, to which were span 
after added those of Drs. Sinclair, Rutherford, Innes, and 
Plummer. This system of medical education was., how- 
ever, incomplete, without affording some opportunity to 
the students of witnessing the progress and treatment of 
diseases, as well as of hearing lectures. A proposal wat* 

246 MONRO. 

therefore, made to erect and endow an hospital by sub- 
scription ; and Dr. Monro published a pamphlet, explain- 
ing the advantages of such an institution. The royal in- 
firmary was - speedily raised, endowed, and established by 
charter ; and the institution of clinical lectures, which were 
commenced by Dr. Monro on the surgical cases, and after- 
wards by Dr. Rutherford, in 1748, on the medical cases, 
Completed that admirable system of instruction, upon which 
the reputation and usefulness of -the medical school of 
Edinburgh have been subsequently founded. 

Dr. Monro, who was indefatigable in the labours of his 
office, soon made himself known to the professional world 
by a variety of ingenious and valuable publications. His 
first -and principal publication was bis "Osteology, or 
Treatise on the Anatomy of the Bones," which appeared 
in 1726, and passed through eight editions during his life, 
and was translated into most of the languages of Europe. 
To the later editions of this work he subjoined a concise 
neurology, or description of the nerves, and a very accurate 
account of the lacteal system and thoracic duct. 

Dr. Monro was also the father and active supporter of a 
society, which was established by the professors and other 
practitioners of the town, for the purpose of collecting and 
publishing papers on ' professional subjects, and to which 
the public is indebted for six volumes of " Medicai Essays 
and Observations by a Society at Edinburgh, 9 ' the first of 
which appeared in 1752. Dr. Monro was the secretary of 
this society ; and after the publication of the first volume, 
when the members of the society became remiss in their 
attendance, the whole labour of collection and publication 
was carried on by himself; " insomuch that after this," 
says his biographer, *' scarce any other member ever saw 
a paper of the five last volumes, except those they were 
the authors of, till printed copies were sent them by the 
bookseller." Of this collection, many of the most valuable 
papers were written by Dr. Monro, on anatomical, phy- 
siological, and practical subjects: the most elaborate of 
these is an "Essay on the Nutrition of the Foetus," in 
three dissertations. Haller, speaking of these volumes as 
highly valuable to the profession, adds, a Monrous ibi 

After the conclusion of this publication, the society was 
revived, at the suggestion of the celebrated mathematical 
professor, Colin Maclaurin, aud was extended to the ad- 

MONRO. 347 

mission of literary and philosophical topics. Dr. Monro 
again took an active part in its proceedings, as one of its., 
vice-presidents, especially after the death of Maclaurin, 
when two volumes of its memoirs, entitled " Essays Phy- 
sical and Literary," were published, and some materials four . 
a third collected, to which Dr. Monro contributed several 
useful, papers. The third was not published during his 
life.* His last publication was an " Account of the Success . 
of Inoculation in Scotland," written originally as an answer; 
to some inquiries addressed to him from the committee of * 
the faculty of physicians at Paris, appointed to investigate, 
the merits of the practice. It was afterwards published. at 
the request, of some of his friends, and contributed to ex- 
tend the practice in . Scotland. Besides the works which : 
he published, he left several MSS. written at different 
times, of which the following are the principal: viz.. A*' 
History of Anatomical Writers; An Encheiresis Anaio- 
mica ; Heads of many of his Lectures ; A • Treatise on 
Comparative Anatomy ; A Treatise on Wouncjs and Tu- 
mours ; and, An Oration de Cuticula. This last, as well . 
as the short tract on comparative anatomy, has been printed 
in aii' edition of his whole works, in one volume quarto, : 
published by his son, Dr. Alexander Monro, at Edinburgh, 
in 1781. This tract bad been published surreptitiously iq 
1744,,. from notes. taken at his lectures; but is here given 
in -a more correct form. 

In 1759, Dr. Monro resigned bis anatomical chair, which 
he had so long occupied with the highest reputation, to 
his son, just mentioned ; but he still continued to lecture * 
as one of the clinical professors, on the cases in the in- 
firmary. His life was also a scene of continued activity in 
other affairs, as long as. his health permitted. For be was 
not only a member, but a most assiduous attendant, of 
many, societies and institutions for promoting literature, 
arts, sciences, and manufactures in Scotland ; he was also 
a director of the bank of Scotland, a justice of the peace, 
a commissioner of high roads, &c. and was punctual in 
the discharge of all his duties. His character in private 
life was as amiable and exemplary as it was useful in pub- 
lic. • To the literary honours, which he attained at home, 
were added those of a fellow of the royal society of Lou-, 
don, and an honorary member of. the royal academy of 
surgery, at Paris. 

2** MO N r a 

Dr. Monro was a man of middle stature, muscular, at*4p 
possessed of great strength and activity; but was subject 
for many years to a spitting of blood on catching tbe least 
cold, and through his life to frequent inflammatory fevers. 
After an attack of the influenza, in 1762, he was afflicted* 
with symptoms of a disease of a painful and tedious nature, 
whichZcontinued ever after, until it terminated bis exist- 
ence. This was a fungous ulcer of the bladder and rectum, 
the distress of which he bore with, great fortitude and re- 
signation, and died' with perfect calmness, on the I Oth of 
July, 1767, at the age of seventy. 

Two of his sons became distinguished physicians : Dr. 
Alexander, his successor, and who has filled his chair 
since his death, is well known throughout Europe by his 
valuable publications. It was not until 1801- that t# re- 
lieve himself from tbe fatigues of the professorship, he 
associated with himself, his son, the third Alexander Monro, 
who bids fair to perpetuate the literary honours of his 
family. Dr. Donald Monro, the other son of the fh*t 
Alexander, settled as a physician in London, became a 
fellow of the royal college of physicians, and senior phy* 
sician to the army. He wrote, • besides several smaller me- 
dical treatises, " Observations on the Means of preserving 
the Health of Soldiers," 1780, 2 vols* 8vo; a treatise on 
niedtcal and pharmaceutical chemistry, and the Materia* 
Medica, 1788, 4 vols. 8vo; and the life of his father, pre- 
fitted to the edition of his works- published Ay his son> 
Alexander, 1781, 4to. He died in July 1802, aged seventy 
one. It is from this life of thfe first Dr. Monro, that tbe 
preceding account is taken. 1 

MONRO (John), an eminent physician, was descended! 
from the ancient fafrftily of that name, in Hie totality e#' 
Ross, in North Britain ; and was born at Greenwich, in tlfe 
county of Kent, on the 16th of November, 1715, O. S. 
His grandfather^ Dr. Alexander Monro', was principal of 
tbe university of Edinburgh, and, just before tbe rtreota** 
tton iri 1688^ had been nominated by king James ffatr lid,- 
to fill the vacant see of the Orkneys; but the alteration 
which took plate in the chtirch-establisfctaerit o*f Scotland 
at that period,' prevented his'obtaining possession of this 
bishopric; and the friendship which prevailed betweeti 
him tod the celebrated lord Dundee, the dvdwed opponent 

\ J.ife ap above,— Reel's Cyclopedia* 

MONRO. 24& 

of Jang William, added to hia being, thought aver$e to the 
new order of things, exposed him to much persecution, 
from the supporters of the revolution* and occasioned- him> 
to satire from Edinburgh to London,, whitiher he brought 
with, him his only son, then a child. James Monro, the 
son* of Dr. Alexander, after taking his academical degrees* 
in the university of Oxford, practised with' much success 
as< a physician in London-; apd, dedicating bis; studies 
principally to the investigation of that branch of medicine 
which professes to relieve the miseries arising from insanity,* 
war elected physician to the hospital of Bridewell and- 

Dr. John Monro was the . eldest son of Dr. James, an A 
was educated at Merchant-Taylors school in London, whenee 
he was removed in 1723 to St. John's college, Oxford, of 
which he became a fellow. In 1743, by the favour of sir 
Robert Walpole, with whom his father lived on terms of 
friendship, be was elected to one of the travelling fellow- 
ships founded by Dr. Radcliffe, and soon after went abroad. 
He studied physic, first at Edinburgh, and afterwards at 
Leyden, under the celebrated Boerhaave ; after which he- 
visited various parts of Europe. He resided some time at 
Paris, in 1745, whence he returned to Holland ; and, after 
a short stay in that country, he passed through part of 
Germany into England* carefully observing whatever merit- 
ed the notice of a mam of learning and taste. After quit- 
ting Italy he paid a second visit to France, and, having 
continued. some time in that country, returned to England 
in 1751. 

Dtfritfg fcfif absence on the* continent, the university of 
Oxford «onferred open ham tbe degree of doctor of physic, 
by diploma*; and bis father's health beginning to decline 
soon after bis arrival in England, be was, in July 1751, 
elected joint physician with hint to Bridewell and Betblem 
hospitals, and on his death, which happened in the latter 
end of 1750, he became sole physician thereof. 

Fioto this time he confined bis practice entirely to cases 
of insanity, in which branch of the medical art he attained 
to a higher degree of eminence than was possessed by any 
of his predecessors or contemporaries. In 1753, Dr, Bat- 
tie having published " A Treatise on Madness," wherein 
he spoke, as Dr. Monro conceived, disrespectfully of the 
former physicians of Betblem hospital, he thought it in- 
cumbent upon him to take some notice of the publication $ 

250 M O N R O: 

and, in the same year, published a smalL pamphlet, en- 
titled, " Remarks on Dr. Battle's Treatise on Madness.'* 
His ideas of this dreadful malady, as well as the motives 
which induced him to compose these remarks, are very* 
concisely and elegantly expressed in the advertisement 
which is prefixed to the work. " Madness is a distemper 
of such a nature, that very little of real use can be said 
concerning it ; the immediate causes will for ever disap- 
point our search, and the cure of that disorder depends on 
management as much as medicine. My own inclination 
would! never have led me to appear in print; but it was 
thought necessary for me, in my situation, to say some- 
thing in answer to the undeserved censures* which Dn 
Battie has thrown upon my predecessors." 

Dr. Monro defines madness to be a ". vitiated judgment ;*' 
though he declares, at the same time, he "cannot take 
upon him to say, that even this definition is absolute and 
perfect. 9 ' His little work contains the most judicious and' 
accurate remarks on this unhappy disorder ; and the cha- 
racter which, in the course of it, he draws of his father, 
is so spirited, and so full of the warmth of filial affection, 
as to merit being selected. . " To say be understood this, 
distemper beyond any of bis contemporaries is very little 
praise; the person who is most conversant in such cases, 
provided he has but common sense enough to avoid meta- 
physical subtilties, will be enabled, by bis extensive know- . 
ledge and experience, to excel all those who have not the. 
same opportunities of receiving information. He was a 
man of admirable discernment, and treated this disease 
with an address that will not soon be equalled.; he knew 
very well, that the management requisite for it was never 
to be learned but from observation; he was honest and: 
sincere, and though no man was more communicative; upon 
points of real use, he never thought of reading lectures on 
a subject that can be understood no otherwise than by per- 
sonal observation : physic he honoured as a prqfesswn, but,, 
he despised it as a trade; however partial I may be to bis 
memory^ his friends acknowledge this to be true, and bis 
enemies will not venture to deny it." 

In 1753, Dr. Monro married Miss Elizabeth Smith, se- 
cond daughter of Mr. Thomas Smith} merchant, of London, 
by whom he had six children. . The eldest of these, John, 
was designed for the profession of physic, and had made a 
considerable progress in his studies; but died, after a short 

MONRO. 2*1 

illness, at St John's college, Oxford, in 1779, in the 25th 
year of bis age. The loss of bis eldest son was severely 
fek by Dr. Monro, to whom be was endeared by his many 
amiable qualities and promising abilities ; and this loss was 
aggravated by. that of his only daughter, Charlotte, who 
was carried off in the 22d year of her age, by a rapid con- 
sumption, within four years afterwards. She was a young 
lady, who, to a native elegance of manners, added excel- 
lent sense, and an uncommon sweetness of disposition. 
It is not wonderful, therefore, that her loss should prove a 
severe blow to a father who loved her with the most lively 
affection. He was now in his 68th year, and had hitherto 
enjoyed an uncommon share of good health ; but the con* 
stant anxiety he was under during his daughter's illtiess, 
preyed upon his mind, and brought on a paralytic stroke 
in January 1783. The strength of his constitution, bow- 
ever, enabled him to overcome the first effects of this dis- 
order, and to resume the exercise of his profession ; but 
his vigour, both of mind and body, began from this time 
to decline. In 1787, his youngest son, Dr. Thomas Monro 
(who, on the death of his eldest brother, had applied him- 
self to the study of physic,) was appointed his assistant at 
Bethlem hospital; and he . thenceforward gradually with- 
drew himself from business, till the beginning of 1791, 
when he retired altogether to the village of Hadley, near 
Barnet ; and in this retirement he continued till his 
death, which happened, after a few days illness, on the 
27th of December, in the same year, and in the 77th year 
of his age. 

Dr. Monro was tall and handsome in his person, and of 
a robust constitution of body. Though naturally of a grave 
cast of mind, no man enjoyed the pleasures of society 
with a greater relish. : To great warmth of temper he added 
a nice sense of honour ; and, though avowedly at the head 
of that branch of his profession to which he confined his 
practice, yet his behaviour was gentle and modest, and 
Lis manners refined and elegant in an eminent degree. 
He possessed an excellent understanding, and great hu- 
manity of disposition ; but the leading features of his cha- 
racter were disinterestedness and generosity; as he has 
s.aid of his father i so may it, with equal truth, be said of 
himself— " physic he honoured as a profession^ but he 
despised it as a trade" Never did he aggravate the misery 
of those who were in want, by accepting what could ill be 

*52 MONRO. 

spared ; whilst he frequently contributed as, much by his 
bounty as his professional skill to alleviate, the distress be 
was forced to witness. It was the remark of a man of acute 
phservation, who knew him intimately, " that. he had met 
with many persons who affected to bold money in contempt, 
but- Dr. Monro was the only man he had found wbo really 
did despise it." 

He possessed a very elegant taste for the fine arts in ge~ 
peral, and his collection, both of books and prints, was 
very extensive. He was uncommonly well versed in the 
early history of engraving; and the specimens he had col- 
lected of the works of the first engravers were very select 
and- curious. - From these, as well as from the communi- 
cations of Dr. Monro, the late ingenious Mr. Strutt derived 
great assistance in the composition of bis history of en-* 
gravers. Though he never appeared as an autdwn, except 
it* the single instance mentioned above, he possessed a 
mtod stored: with, the beauties of ancient aa.wetl as. modern 
ktoflatufe. Horace and Shak&peaoe were \l\% favourite 
authors ; and bis notes and remarks on. the latter .were con* 
siderable : these; he communicated to Mr. Steevens,, pre* 
WQ143 to his publication* of the works, of our imMortal poet; 
aawieus to> contribute his mite to the elucidation of those 
passages which time has rendered obscure. His fondness 
far reading, was great* and proved, a considerable resource 
to, him. in the evening of life; and fortunately he was able 
to ergoy his books till within a very few days of his, death,. 

Dr. Mpauo was buried in the church-yard of Hadley ; 
and, of his children, three only survived him : ' James, who 
commanded the ship Houghton, in the service of the Bast 
Ipdia cosnpaay ; Chatrles ; and Thomas, who succeeded 
him,, and still is physician to Bethlem and Bridewell bos* 
piAals, Besides, these, and his son and daughter, whose 
deaths are .mentioned above, he had. a younger soa, Gul- 
ling^ who* died an infant. 1 

MONSON (Si a William),, a brave English admiral, 
was the third son of sir John Monson, of South Carlton, in 
Lincolnshire, and bora in 1569. For about two years be 
studied at Baliol college, Oxford : but, being of an active 
and martial disposition, be soon grew weary of a contem- 
plative life, and applied himself to the sea-service, in which 

i Written by one of the editors of the last edition of this Dictionary from 
private and authentic information. 

M DNS ON. »&» 

he became very expert. In the beginning of queen fili* 
zabeth?s war with Spain, he entered on board of ship with- 
out (he knowledge of his parents; but in 1587 we find he 
went out commander of a vessel, and in 1588, he served 
in. one of the queen's ships, but had not the command jof 
it. In 1589, he was vice-admiral to the earl of Ctunbes-? 
land, in his expedition to the Azores islands, ami at the 
taking of Fayal ; but, in their return, suffered such iurrtU 
ships, and contracted such a violent illness from them, a$ 
kept him at home the whole year 1590. " The extremity 
we endured, 9 ' says be, " was more terrible than befel ray 
ship during the eighteen years' war : for, laying aside the 
continual expectation of death by shipwreck, and the daily 
mortality of our men, I will speak of our famine, that ex- 
ceeded all men and ships I have known in the course of my 
life. For sixteen days together we never tasted a drop of 
drink, either beer,' wine, or water; and though we bad 
plenty of beef and pork of a year's salting, yet did we for* 
bear eating of it for making us the drier. Marly drank salt 
water, and those that did, died suddenly, and the last words 
they usually spake, was, ' drink, drink, drink !' And I dare 
boldly say, that, of five hundred men that were in that 
ship seven years before, at this day there is not a man 
alive but myself and one more." 

In 1591, 'he served a second time under five earl of 
Cumberland ; and the commission was, as all the former 
were, to act against the "Spaniards. They took several of 
their * hips ; and captain Monson, being sent to convoy 1 one 
of them to England, was surrounded and taken by six 
Spanish gallies, after a long arid bloody fight. On this 
occasion they detained him as an hostage for the perform* 
ance of certain covenants, and carried him to Portugal, 
where he was kept prisoner two years at Cascais and Lis* 
bon. Not discouraged by this ill-luck, he entered a third 
titfte'into the earl's service, in 1593 ; and he behaved him*- 
acftfuntbis, <as in all other expeditions, dike a brave and 
ebie seaman. In IS 94, he was created master of arts at 
Oxford ; in 1595, -he was married; in 1596, he served in 
the expedition . to Cadiz, under Walter Devereu^, earl of 
Essex, ta whttai he did great service by his wise and mo- 
derate counsel, and was : deservedly knighted. He was 
employed irt seveml other expeditions, and was highly ho- 
noured and^esteeaaed during Elizabeth's reign. Military 
smiiwsst^ aotpkiog^ James's favourites ; therefore, after the 

S54 ■ MONSON. 

death of the queen, he never received either recompence 
or preferment, more than bis ordinary entertainment or 
pay, according to the services he was employed in. How- 
ever, in 1604, he was appointed admiral of the Narrow 
Seas, in which station he continued till 1616 ; during which 
time be supported the honour of the English flag, against 
the insolence of the infant commonwealth of Holland, of 
which he frequently complains in his " Naval Tracts ;" and 
protected our trade against the encroachments of France. 

Notwithstanding bis long and faithful services, he had 
the misfortune to fall into disgrace ; and, through the re-* 
sentment of some powerful courtiers, was imprisoned in 
the Tower in 1616: but, after having been examined by 
the chief justice Coke and secretary Winwood* he was dis- 
charged. He wrote a vindication of his conduct, entitled 
" Concerning the insolences of the Dutch, and a Justifica- 
tion of sir William Mori son ;" and directed it to the lord 
chancellor Ellesmere, and sir Francis Bacon, attorney- 
general and counsellor. His zeal against the Dutch, and 
his promoting an inquiry into the state of the navy, con* 
trary to the inclination of the earl of Nottingham, then lord 
high admiral, seems to have been the occasion of his trou-* 
bles* He had also the misfortune to bring upon himself a 
general and popular odium, in retaking lady Arabella 
Steuart, after her escape out of England in June 1611, 
though it was acting agreeably to his orders and duty. This 
lady was confined to the Tower for her marriage with Wil- 
liam Seymour, esq. as was pretended ; but the true cause 
of her confinement was, her being too high allied, and 
having a title or claim to the crown of England. Sir Wil- 
liam, however, soon recovered his credit at court : for, in 
1617, he was called before the privy council, to give his 
opinion, how the pirates of Algiers might be suppressed; 
and the town attacked. He shewed the impossibility of 
taking Algiers, and. was against the expedition ; notwith? 
standing which, it was rashly undertaken by Villiers duke 
of Buckingham. He was also against two other under* 
takings, as ill-managed, in 1625 and 1628, namely, the ex- 
peditions to Cadiz and the isle of Rhee. He was not em* 
ployed in these actions, because he objected to the minis- 
ter's measures ; but, in 1635, it being found necessary to 
equip a large fleet, in order to break a confederacy that 
was forming between the French and the Dutch, be was 
appointed vice-admiral ia that armament, and performed 

MONSON. 255 

bis duty with great honour and bravery. After that he 
was employed no more, but spent the remainder of his 
day* in peace and privacy, at his seat at Kinnersley in 
Surrey, where he digested and finished his " Naval Tracts," 
published in Churchill's " Collection of Voyages." He 
died there, Feb. 1642*3, in his seventy-third year, and 
left a numerous posterity, the ancestors of the present 
noble family of Monson, baron Monson of Burton, in the 
county of Lincoln. 1 

MONSTRELET (Enguerrand de), an eminent French 
historian, was descended of a noble family, but the name* 
of his parents, and the period of his birth have not been 
•discovered. The place of his birth was probably Picardy, 
and the time, prior to the close of the fourteenth century* 
No particulars of his early years are known, except that 
he evinced, when young, a love for application, and a 
dislike to indolence. The quotations also from Sallust, 
Livy, Vegetius, and other ancient authors, that occur in 
his Chronicles, shew that he must have made some progress 
in Latin literature. He appears to have been resident in 
Cambray when he composed his history, and passed there 
the remainder of his life. In 1436 he was nominated to 
the office of .lieutenant du Gavenier of the Cambresis ; the 
gavenier was the collector or receiver of the annual dues 
payable to the duke of Burgundy, by the subjects of the 
church in the Cambresis, for the protection of them as 
earl of Flanders. Mohstrelet also held the office of bailiff 
to the chapter of Cambray from 1436 to 1440, when ano- 
ther was,app6intdd. The respect and consideration which 
he had now acquired, gained him the dignity of governor 
of Cambray in 1444, and in the following year he was < no- 
minated bailiff of Wallaincourt. He retained both of those 
places until his death, which happened about the middle 
of July, in 1453. His character in the register of the Cor- 
deliers, and' by the abbot of St. Aubert, was that of "a 
very honourable and peaceable man ;" expressions, says his 
biographer, that appear simple at first sight, but which 
epntatn a real eulogium, if we consider the troublesome 
tifnea ki which Monstrelet lived, the places he held, the 
interest he must have had sometimes to betray the truth in 
favour of one of the factions which then divided France, 


1 Biog. Brit,— Campbell's JLires of the British Admirals.— Collins's Peerage, 
new edit. 


and caused the revoKftttons< the* history of which be ha* pub- 
lished during the lite of the principal actors. 

Monstrelet's wodt, of which there are folio editions, the 
first withoutdate, the others 1518, 3 vols. 1*572* &c« is called 
4< iCht(HMeles 9 " bjut deserves rather to bo classed as history, 
alLthe characteristics of historical writing being jfownd in 
it notwithstanding its imperfections and oa&issions. Hie 
traces erects to tbeirsoOTce^developes the causes, illustrates 
them with the minutest details ; and bestows the utmost 
^ttenUoninpcoduckigihisaatharities fixim edicts, declara- 
tions, &ci His narrative begins on Easter Day in 140Q, 
where that/of FuoiasarteiKls, .a«d extends to the death of 
the duke xif Burgundy tin 1467, but the last thirteen years 
were written by ian unknown- author, jand it has since been 
^ootsmied by other bands' to 1516. After the example df 
Jfroissart, he dees ,notcon&ue himself to events that passed 
in France; he «mbraoesy with almost equal detail, the moat 
remarkable circumstances which happened during his time 
in Flanders, England, Scotland, and Ireland. But it be- 
comes unnecessary here to expatiate on the particular 
merits of this wort, as they are now known to the English 
public by the excellent translation lately published by 
Thomas Johnes, esq. at the Hafod press, in 1810, and 
which, with his preceding English edition of Froissart, h 
justly entitled to form a part in every useful library. From 
the biographical preface to Mr. Johnes* s Monstrelet, we 
have gleaned the above particulars. 1 

MONTAGUE (Charles, Earl of Halifax), an Engi- 
lish statesman and poet, was born April 16, 1661, at Hor- 
ton in Northamptonshire. He was the son of Mr. George 
Montague, a younger son of the earl of Manchester. He 
was educated first in the country, and then removed to 
Westminster, where, in 1677, he was chosen a king's 
acholar, and recommended himself to the celebrated mas- 
ter of the school, Busby, by his felicity in extemporary 
epigrams. He contracted a very intimate friendship with 
Mr. Stepney; and, in 1682, when Stepney was elected to 
Cambridge, the election of Montague not being to .pro* 
ceed till the year following, he. was afraid lest by being 
placed at Oxford, be might be separated from his compa* 
jMon, and therefore solicited to be removed to Cambridge, 

* Prtface as abeve, from the Memoir* de tfAac&fua 4* Betlss LeUta, 
Tel. XJLIII. by M. Dacier. s t 

MO-XT A,G:U E; 2*7 

without waiting for die advantages of another year; He • 
was now in bis twenty-first year, and his relation, Dr. Mon~ : 
tague, wasthen master of Trinity college in which he wns 
placed a fellow-commoner,, and took him under bis parti* * 
cular care. Here lie commenced an acquaintance with 
tbe great Newton/ which continued through his life, and 
was at last attested by a legacy, 

• In 1685, he wrote some verses on the death of king 
Charley which made such an impression on tbe earl of Dor- 
set, that he was invited to town, and introduced by that uni- 
versal patron to tbe other wits* In 1687, he joined withr. 
Prior in " The City Mouse and the .Country Mouse/ 9 one 
oif his best compositions, which was intended as. 3 bur* 
Jesque of Dry den's " Hind and Panther. 9 ' Commencing 
bis political career, he signed tbe invitation to the prince -. 
of Orange, and sat in the convention* He about tbe same 
time married tbe countess dowager of Manchester, 'and in- 
tended to have taken orders; but afterwards altering his- 
purpose, he purchased for 1500/. the place of one of the 
clerk* of the council. 

• After he bad written his epistle on tbe victory of die 
Boyne, bis patron Dorset introduced him ,to king William, - 
with tbifr expression : " Sir, I have brought a mouse to 
wait on your majesty," To which the king i? said to have 
replied, " You do well to put me in the way of making a 
man of him ;" and ordered him a pension of five hundred, 
pounds* This story, however current, says Dr. Johnson, 
seems to have been made after the event. The king's 
answer implies a greater acquaintance with our proverbial 
and familiar diction than king William could possibly have 
attained. . . . 

In March 1691, Mr. Montague first displayed his abilU 
ties in the debates upon tbe bill for regulating trials in cases 
of high treason ; the design of this bill, among other things, 
was to allow counsel to prisoners charged with that offence, 
while the trial was depending*, Montague rose up to speak 
for it, but after uttering a few sentences, was struck so 
suddenly with surprise, that, for a while, be was not able 
to go on. Recovering himself, he took occasion, from 
thi$ circumstance, " to enforce the necessity of allowing 
counsel to prisoners, who were to appear before their 
judges ; since he, who was not only innocent, and unac- 
cused, but one of their own members, was so dashed 

Vol. XXII. S- 


when be wa& to speak before that wise and* illustrious as- 
sembly*." ' 

In this year, f691, he was made one of the commis- 
sioners of the treasury, and called to the privy council ; 
and in 1694 was appointed second commissioner and chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, and under-treasurer. In 1695, 
he entered into the design of re-coining all the current 
money of the nation ; which, though great difficulties at- > 
tended it, he completed in the space of two years. In* 
1-698, he projected the scheme for a general fund, which, 
gave rise to the sinking fund, afterwards established by 
sir Robert Walpole. The same year, he* found out a me- 
thod to raise the sinking* credit of the Bank of England; 
and, in 1697, he provided against the mischiefs from the 
scarcity of money, by raising, for the sepvice of the go- 
vernment, above two millions in exchequers-notes ; ba 
which 7 occasion he was sometimes called the British Ma** - 
ohiavel. Before the end of this* session of parliament, it 
was resolved by the House of Commons, that " Charles 
Montague, esq. chancellor of the exchequer, for his good 
services to the government, did deserve his majesty's fa- 
vour." This vote, when we consider that the public affairs 
called for the skill of the ablest statesmen, and that he was 
at this time not more than thirty-six years of age, may be 
admitted as a proof of the high esteem entertained of his 

In 1 098*, being advanced to the first commission of titer 
treasury, he wa& appointed one of the regency in the king's 
absence : the next year he was made auditor of the exche- 
quer, and the year after created baron Halifax. He was, 
however, impeached by the Commons ; but the articles-, 
were dismissed by the Lords, 

At the accession of queen Anne he was dismissed from 
the council 1 : and in the first parliament of her reign was* 
again attacked by the Commons, and again escaped by the 
protection of the Lords. In 1704, he wrote an answer to 

* Mr. Reed observes that this atiec- ing thrown out hy the House of Lords, 

dote is related by Mr. Walpoie, in bis ft became a law in the 7th William^ 

Catalogue of rTojfral stadWoble Authors-, when Halifax and Shaftesbury both 

of ike earl of Shaftesbury, author of bad seats. The editors of the " BU*» 

the M Characteristic*}." but it appears srraphia Britannica" adopt Mr. Wat- 

to he a mi»tafk«, if we are to under- pole's story, but they are not speaking 

stand that the words were spoken by of this period. The story first appeared 

Shaftesbury at this time, when be had in the Life of lord Halifax, publiahesl 

no seal in the House 6f Commons ; iff 1715. 
nar did the bill pass at tow time, be* • * 



B&fltley's Speech • against - occasional conformity. < Kfe 
headed the inquiry into the danger of the church. In 1706* 
he proposed and negotiated the union .with Scotland ; and 
when the elector of Hanover had received the garter, after 
the, act had pasaed for securing the protestant. succession, 
he was appointed to carry the ensigns of the order to the 
electoral court. . He sat as one of the judges of Sache- 
yereU ; but voted for a mild sentence. Being now no 
longer in favour, he contrived to obtain a writ for sum- 
moning the electors! prince to parliament as duke of Cam- 
bridge. At the queen's death he was appointed one of the 
regency, during her successor's absence from his kingdoms ; 
and,, as soon as George I. bad taken possession of the 
throne, he was created earl of Halifax, installed knight of 
the garter, and expected to have been appointed lord high 
treasurer; but as he was only. created first commissioner, 
be was highly chagrined, nor was he pacified by the above 
honours, or by the transfer of the. place of auditor of the 
^chequer to his nephew. Inflamed, says Mr. Coxe, by 
disappointed ambition, be entered into cabals with the tory 
foaders, for the removal of those with whom he had so long 
cordially acted ; but his death put an end to bis intrigues. 
While he appeared to be in a very vigorous state of health, 
he was suddenly taken ill, May 15, and died on the 19th, 

As he was a patron of poets, his own works did not miss 
of celebration* Addison began to praise him early, and 
was followed or accompanied by other poets;, perhaps, by 
almost all, except Swift and Pope, who forbore to flatter 
him in his life, because he had disappointed their hopes; 
and after his death spoke of him, Swift with slight censure, 
and Pope in the character of Bufo with acrimonious con- 

He was, : as Pope says, " fed with dedications ;" and 
Tickell affirms that no dedication was unrewarded. Dr. 
Johnson's remarks on this are too valuable to be omitted. 

** * Pope's contemptuous character of 
lord Halifax as Bnfo oocuri in the 
" Prologue to thj? Satire*," and yet in 
the " Epilogue" to the same, he says 
in a note that Halifax was " a peer no 
less distinguished by his love of letters 
than bis abilities in. parliament." In 
the preface to the lUad, he also speaks 
highly of him, but they had not at that 
time fallen out. The cause of their 

quarrel is stated in Johnson's life of 
Pope, with a ludicrous anecdote re- 
specting Halifax's talents as a critic. 
Swift's dislike was founded on the same 
cause as Pope's, disappointment of 
certain expectations from lord Halifex, 
of whom be said that " his encourage- 
ments were only good words and good 

S 2 


" To charge all unmerited praise with the guilt of flattery, 
and to suppose that the encomiast always knows and feels 
the falsehoods of bis assertions, is surely to discover greet 
ignorance of human nature and human life. In determi* 
nations* depending not on rales, but on experience and 
comparison, judgment is always in some degree subject to 
affection. Very near to admiration is the wish to admire. 
Every man willingly gives value to the praise which he 
receives, and considers the sentence passed in bis favour 
as the sentence of discernment. We admire in a friend 
that understanding which selected us for confidenoe ; we 
admire more, in a patron, that judgment which, instead of 
scattering bounty indiscriminately, directed it to us ; and, if 
the patron be an author, those performances which grati- 
tude forbids us to blame, affection will easily dispose as to 
exalt. To these prejudices, hardly culpable, interest adds 
a power always operating, though not always, because act 
willingly, perceived. The modesty of praise wears gra- 
dually away ; and perhaps the pride of patronage may be 
in time so increased, that modest praise will no longer 
please." The opinion of the same critic, on the poetry of 
Montague, may safely be quoted, as it 1 seems to be the 
general one. " It would now be esteemed no honour,, by 
a contributor to the monthly bundle of verses, to be told, 
that, in strains either familiar or solemn,' he sings like 
Montague.'* His poems and speeches, with memoirs of 
his life, were published in 17 15. The former were inserted 
in Dr. Johnson's edition of the English Poets, but although 
they have served to make his name more familiar with the 
public, it, is in political history that his character appear* 
to greatest advantage. 1 

MONTAGUE (Edward), earl of Sandwich, an Eng- 
lish general, admiral, and statesman, was the only surviving 
sen of sir Sidney Montague, the youngest son of Edward 
lord Montague of Bough ton. He was born July 27, 1625, 
and after a liberal education was very early introduced 
into public life. His career may be said to have com* 
menced at the age of eighteen ; for in August 1643 he was 
commissioned to raise a regiment in the service of the 
parliament, and to act against Charles I. He then' joined 
the army, and acquitted himself with great courage at the 

> i Bk>g» Brit— Life prefixed to hi* Wort*.— Jottnfon's Life hi English Foetf. 
— Cibber's Lives.—Swift's and Pope's Works ; let Indexes.— Park's edition •# 
the Royal and Noble Authors. 


storming of Lincoln, the battles of Morston-moor and 
Naseby, and on other occasions, before be had arrived at 
•his twentieth year. He sat also in the House of Commons 
a* representative for Huntingdonshire before he was of age, 
ajwl had afterwards a seat at the board of treasury under: 
Cromwell. After the Dutch war be went from the army 
t* the navy, had a command in the fleet, and Cromwell 
Jmd so good an opinion of him, as to associate him with the ■ 
celebrated admiral Blake in bis expedition to the Medi- 
terranean. In 1656 he returned to England with some rich- 
prizes, and received the thanks of the parliament, as well 
as renewed instances of Cromwell's favour. In the follow- 
ing year he was appointed to command the fleet in the 
Downs, the object of which was to wsrtch the Dutch, to 
carry on the war with 8pain, and to facilitate the enter* 
prize ef Dunkirk. After the death of Cromwell, he ac- 
cepted, under Richard, the command of a large fleet which 
was sent to the North,- on board of which he embarked in 
the spring of 1659. I A April he wrote to the kings of Swe- 
den and Denmark, and to the Dutch admiral Opdam, in- 
forming them that his instructions were, not to respect the 
private advantage of England by making war, but the ge- 
neral tranquillity of Europe, by engaging the Powers of 
the North to enter into an equitable peace ; and in the ne- 
gotiations which he carried on with other ministers to effect 
fhfc purpose, he is said to have displayed the talents of a 
aommmtirate statesman. 

-He appears, however, about this time, to have conceived 
a dislike against his employers ; for which tWo reasons are 
assigned ; the one, that previous to his sailing, the paftia* 
ment had tied him down to act only in conjunction with 
their commissioners, one of whom was Algernon Sidney ; 
tnd the other, that they had given away his regiment of 
horse* -While thus employed, and with these feelings* 
Charles II, sent him two letters, one from himself, and the 
©tfeerfrom chancellor Hyde, the purpose of which was to 
induce him to withdraw from the service of parliament* 
tad, as a necessary step,, to return with the fleet to Eng+ 
land, wbere it ikiight be ready to act in conjunction with 
air George Booth and others, who were already disposed to 
promote the restoration. He accordingly set sail for Etjg+ 
land, but had the mortification to find that sir George 
Booth wai in the Tbwer, the parliament in full authority, 
and a charge agaiiist himself brought by Algernon Sidney. 

2«2 MONT A G U"E.' 

He set out, however, for London, and defended his con- 
duct to parliament with so much plausibility, that the only 
consequence was his being dismissed from -his command. 
*. His retirement was not of long duration ; and upon the 
nearer approach of the restoration, general Monk having- 
procured him to be replaced in bis former rank in the navy t 
he convoyed the king to England, who made him a knight 
of the garter, and soon afterwards created him baron Mon- 
tague of St. Neots in Huntingdonshire, viscount Hinchin- 
broke in the same county, and eari of Sandwich in Kent. 
He was likewise sworn a member of the privy council, made 
master of the king's wardrobe, admiral of the narrow seas, 
and lieutenant admiral to the duke of York, as lord high 
admiral of England. When the Dutch war began in 1664, 
the duke of York took upon him the command of the fleet 
as high admiral, and the earl of Sandwich commanded the 
blue squadron ; and by his well-timed efforts, a great num- 
ber .of the enemy's ships were taken. In the great battle, 
June 3, 1665, when the Dutch lost their admiral Opdauv 
and had eighteen men of war .taken, and fourteen de- 
stroyed,, a large share of the honour of the victory was 
justly assigned to the earl of Sandwich, who also on Sept. 4, 
of the same year, took eight Dutch men of war, two of 
their best East India ships, and twenty sail of their mer- 

Soon after his return to England, he was sent to the 
court of Madrid, to negociate a peace between Spain and 
Portugal, which he not only effected in the most satisfac- 
tory manner, but also concluded with the court of Spain* 
one of the most beneficial treaties of commerce that ever 
was made for this nation. On /the renewal of the Dutob 
war in 1672, his lordship embarked again with the duke of 
York, and commanded the blue squadron. The fleet came 
in sight of the Dutch about break of day, May 28, and in 
the subsequent engagement he performed such exploits as 
could not fail to have rendered the victory complete, had 
he been properly seconded by his squadron, but a Dutch 
fire-ship, covered by the smoke of the enemy, having 
grappled the Royal James (that on which the earl of Sand«* 
wich foughj:), set her in aflame, and, the brave earl perish- 
ed with several gallant officers. His body being found 
about a fortnight afterwards, was, by his majesty's orders 
brought to London, and interred with great solemnity in 
Henry Vll.'s chapel, Weslp&inster-^bbey. It was su£* 

;M 0:N TA« U E. CJ263 

.posed by many, though unjustly, that the duke of York 
did not support him as he might have done towards the 
ibeginning of the action ; but it was agreed by all, that sir 
Joseph Jordan, the earl's vice-admiral, might have disen~ 
gaged bim. His loss occasioned great reflections on the 
duke ; and in. the parliament which met at Westminster in 
.Oct.. 1680, when the exclusion bill was in debate, some 
members openly charged him in the House, of Commons 
with the death of the earl of Sandwich. 

Toe character of this nobleman, may be inferred from 
the. above particulars. Of his bravery and skill both as a 
commander and statesman, there cannot beany difference 
of opinion ; but there are the strongest inconsistencies in 
his political career, and perhaps greater inconsistencies in 
.the dispensation pf court-favours after the restoration. He 
iad contributed to dethrone the father, and bad offered 
• the son's. crown to the usurper; yet for his slow services at 
£he very eve of the restoration, Charles II. heaped rewards 
and honours upon bim, while he neglepted thousands who 
had, .at the risk. of life and property, adhered to the royal 
^ause through. aUats -vicissitudes. 

Lord Orford, who has given this nobleman a place in 
his " Catalogue of Royal and Noble. Authors," mentions of 
his writing, •? A Letter, to Secretary Thurloe," in the first 
volume of " Thurloe's State-papers. ;" " Several .Letters 
during his Embassy to Spain," published with ". Arling- 
ton's LQtiera.;" and " Original Letters and Negotiations, of 
Sir R,icbard Faashaw, .the Earl of Sandwich, the Carl of 
Sunderland, and Sir WiUiam Gqdolphiu, wherein divers 
matters between the three Crowns of England, Spain, and 
Portugal, from 1603 to 1678, are set in a clear light," in 
2 vols. Svo. He was also the. author of a singular transla- 
tion, called " The Art of Metals, in which is declared, the 
planner of their Generation, and the Concbmitants of them, 
in Uvo books, written in Spanish by Albaro Alonzo Rarba, 
JVt. A- <? urate of St. Bernard's parish, in the imperial city 
of Potosi, in the kingdom of Peru, in the West Indies, in 
J 640; translated in 1669, by the right honourable Edward 
earl of Sandwich/' 1674, a small Svo. A short preface of 
the editor says : " The original was regarded in Spain and 
ibe West Indies as an inestimable jewel ; but that, falling 
into the earl's hands, he enriched our language with it, 
being content that .all our lord the king's people should Jba 

ft64 MONTAGU E. 

?phiIosopheYs." Therfc are also some astronomical observa- 
tions of his in No. 21 of the Philosophical Transactions. 1 ' 
MONTAGUE (John), fourth earl of Sandwich, son 
of Edward Richard Montague, lord viscount Hinchinbroke* 
and Elizabeth only daughter of Alexander Popbam, esq. of 
Littlecote in the couuty of Wilts, was- born in the parish 
of St. Martin in the Fields, Westminster, Nov. 3,- 17 id. 
He was sent at an early age to Eton school, where, tinder 
the tuition of Dr. George, he made a considerable prtf- 
*ficieucy in the classics. In 1735, hfe was admitted of Tri- 
nity college, Cambridge, and during his residence thert, 
he and the late lord Halifax were particularly distinguished 
for their college exercises ; and were the first noblemen 
who declaimed publicly in the college chapel. After 
spending about two years at Cambridge, he set out on fc 
voyage round the Mediterranean, bis account of which has 
Recently been published. Mr. Ponsonby, late earl of BesJ- 
fcorough* Mr. Nelthorpe, and Mr. Mackye, accompanied 
bis lordship (for he was now earl of Sandwich) on this 
agreeable tour, with Liotard the painter, as we have no* 
ticed in his article (vol. XX.) On his lordship's return tft- 
England, he brought with him, aft appears by a letter writ- 
ten by him to the rev. I>r. Dampier, " two mummies and 
eight embalmed ibis's from the catacombs of Memphis ; 4 
large quantity of the famous Egyptian papyrus ; fifteen 
intaglios ; five hundred tfieiials, most of them easier to be 
read than that which Jias the inscriptidn FAMIAN ; a mad- 
Me vase from A'thetis, and a very long inscription v as yet 
wideeyphered', on both sides of a piece of marble of about 
two feet in height. 9 ' This marble was afterwards presented 
to Trinity college, and the inscription was explained by 
the late. learned Dr. Taylor, in 174$, by the title of i/*r- 
mor Sandvicense. 

* Being now of age, he took his teat in the House of Lords> 
and began his political career by joining the party then irt 
opposition to sir Robert Walpole. On the formation df 
the ministry distinguished by the appellation of broad* 
bdttovi, he was appointed second lord of the admiralty^ 
Dec. 15, 1744^ In consequence of the active part which 
he took in raising men to quell the rebellion in 1745, hi 
obtained rank in the army. His political talents must at 

« * * 

I Campbtll'a Lives of the Admirals. ^-ColliQg'g ^ sir E, Bry^ges*^f 
J>ark'8 edition of the Royal and Noble Authors. 


tfcis time have.' been acknowledged, as in 1746 be, was 
appointed plenipotentiary to the congress to be holden at 
.Breda** and next year his powers were renewed, and con* 
tinned till the definitive treaty of peace was signed at Aix* 
la-Cbajtelie in Oct 1748. On his return he was sworn of 
the privy- council, and appointed first lord of the admiralty; 
.and on the, king's embarking for Hanover, he wad declared 
one of .the lords justices during his majesty's absence.- In 
June 1751, be was displaced from the admiralty, and did 
not again hold any public office till 1755, when he became 
one of the joiut vice*- treasurers of Ireland. In April 1763; 
lie was again appointed first lord of theadoriraJty ; and the 
death of lord Hardwicke causing a vacancy in the office of 
high steward of the university of Cambridge, lord S&ncU 
wich became a candidate to succeed him, but failed, aitet 
a very close contest. In 1765 he was again out of office* 
b.q* in 1768 was made joint- postmaster with lord Le De«* 
spencer. In Jan. 1771, under lord North's administca* 
tioo, he was a third time appointed first lord of the adnu\i 
ralty, frhich he held during. the whole stormy period of the 
American war^ and resigned only on the dissolution of the 
ministry which bad carried it on: His conduct in the ad-* 
miralty was allowed to redound greatly to his credit. He 
neforraed many abuses in the dock-yards; increased the 
establishment of the marines ; set the example- of annual 
visitations to the dock-yards ; was the promoter and patroi* 
of several voyages of discovery; and upon the. whole, bis 
attention to and knowledge of the duties of the naval de* 
parttnent, although sometimes the objects of jealous in* 
quiryj bad probably never been exceeded* 

In 1763, under the coalition cabinet he accepted thg 
tangership of the parks, which he held only until the fcl-* 
lowing year, and then returned to the calm satisfaction of 
a private station. In 1791, a complaint in the bowels, to 
which he had been subject, obliged him to try the waters 
of Bath; but, receiving no benefit, he returned to his 
house in town in the latter end of February 1792, where 
after languishing for some weeks, he died April 30. 

"The earl of Sandwich," says his biographer, "was 
father to be considered as an able and intelligent speaker* 
then a brilliant and eloquent orator* In his early parlia* 
mentary career, he displayed uncommon knowledge of the 
sort of composition adapted to make an impression on a. 
popular assembly ; arid from a happy choice of words, and 



a judicious arrangement of his argument, be seldom spoke 
without producing a sensible effect on the mind of every 
impartial auditor. In the latter part of bis political life, 
and especially during the American war, bis harangues 
were less remarkable for their grace and ornament, than 
for sound sense, and the valuable and appropriate informa- 
tion which they communicated. His speeches, therefore, 
were regarded as ihe lessons of experience and wisdom* 
He was never ambitious of obtruding himself upon the 
house. Heibad a peculiar delicacy of forbearanoe, arising 
from a Sense of propriety ; which, if more generally prac- 
tised, would tend very much to expedite the public busi- 
ness by compressing the debates, now usually drawn out 
to an immeasurable and tiresome length, within more rea- 
sonable bounds. If, after having prepared himself on any 
important question, when he rose iti the bouse any other , 
lord first caught the chancellor's eye, he sat down with Abe 
most accommodating patience ; and, if the lord, who spoke 
before him, anticipated tbe sentiments which be meant to 
offer, he either did not speak, at all, or only spoke 'to such 
points as had not been adverted to by the preceding 
speaker. Whenever, therefore, be rose, the House was 
assured that he had something material to communicate: 
lie was accordingly listened to with attention, and seldom 
sat down without furnishing their lordships with facts at 
ence important and interesting ; of which no other peer 
was so perfectly master as himself. During the period of 
the American war be -was frequently attacked in both 
houses for bis official conduct or imputed malversation. 
When any such attempts were made in the House of Peees, 
be heard his accusers with patience, and. with equal tem- 
per as .firmness refuted their allegations, exposing their 
fallacy or their falsehood. On all such occasions, he met 
his opponents fairly and openly, in some instances con* 
curring in their motions for papers, which his adversaries 
imagined would prove him a negligent minister ; in. others 
resisting their object, by shewing the inexpediency or the 
impolicy of complying with their requests. In the .parlia** 
mentary contest, to which the unfortunate events .of the 
American war gave rise, he is to be found more than onoe 
rising in reply to the late earl of Chatham ; whose exti*- 
ordinary powers of eloquence inspired sufficient awe to 
silence and intimidate even lords of acknowledged ability. 
Lord Sandwich never in such cases suffered himself to be 


dfcSEfod'by the splendor of oratorical talents ; or ever spoke 
without affording proof that his reply was necessary and 
adequate. In fact, his lordship never rose without first 
satisfying himself, that the speaker he meant to reply to 
was in error ; and that a plain statement of the facts in 
question would dissipate the delusion, and afford convic- 
tion to the house. By this judicious conduct his lordship 
secured the respect of those whom he addressed, and cotn- 
iftanded at all times an attentive hearing." 

In his private character, his biographer bears testimony 
to the easy pojiteness^and affability of his manners; his 
cheatfulness and hospitality ; the activity of his disposition; 
ajdd his readiness to perform acts of kindness. Of his 
morals less can be said. He was indeed a man of pleasure, 
in all the extent of that character ; his most harmless en- 
joyment was music, in whiifo he was at once a man of 
taste, a warm enthusiast, and a liberal patron. He is said 
to have been the author of a pamphlet, entitled " A State 
of Facts relative to Greenwich hospital,* 1779, in reply 
to captain Balllie's " Case of the Royal Hospital at Green- 
wich," published in 1778. Since his death has been pub- 
lished, " A Voyage performed by the Earl of Sandwich 
round the Mediterranean, in the years 1738 and 1739, 
Written by himself." This was edited by his chaplain the 
rev. John Cooke in 1799, with a memoir of the noble au- 
thor, from which we have extracted the above particulars. 
This noble lord's narrative is less interesting now than it 
would have been about the period when it was written, 
and is indeed very imperfect and unsatisfactory, but the 
plan and execution of such a voyage are creditable to his 
lordship's taste and youthful ambition. 1 

MONTAGU (Lady Mary Wortley), an English lady 
of distinguished talent, by marriage related to the Sand- 
wich family, was the eldest daughter of Evelyn Pierrepoint, 
duke of Kingston, and the lady Mary Fielding, daughter 
of William earl of Denbigh. She was born about 1690, 
and lost her mother in 1694. Her capacity for literary 
attainments was such as induced her father to provide her 
with the same preceptors as viscount Newark, her brother; 
'and under their tuition, she made great proficiency in the 
Greek, Latin, and French languages. Her studies were 

1 Memoir as above. — Collins't Peerage, by Sir E, Brydges.— Mouth. Rer. 
vol XXXllt. N. S. 


afterwards superintended by bishop Burnet, and that part 
bf life Which by females of her rank is usually devoted to 
trifling amusements, or more trifling " accomplishments,'* 
w&s spent by her in studious retirement, principally at 
Thoresby and at Acton, near London. Her society Wtoi 
eonfined to a few friends, among whom the most confidfctW 
tial appears to have been Mrs. Anne Wortley, wife of thef 
bott. Sidney Montagu, second son of the heroic earl of 
Sandwich. In this intimacy originated her cOnnectiori 
with Edward Wortley Montagu, esq. the eldest son of this 
lady ; and after a correspondence of about two years, they 
were privately married by special licence, whifch bear* 
date August 12, 1712. Mr. Wortley Was a man possessed 
of solid rather than of brilliant parts, but in parliament^ 
where at different periods of bjs life he had represented thO 
'cities of Westminster and Peterborough, and the bbroughj, 
of Huntingdon and Bossirtey, he acquired considerable 
distinction &4 a politician and a speaker. In 1714 fee was 
appointed one of the lords -commissioners of the treasury; 
and on this occasion bis lady was introduced to the eoirrt 
of George I. where her beauty, wit, and spirit wfcre nut* 
versally admired. She lived also in habits of familiar ac- 
quaintance with tivo of the greatest geniuses of the age£ 
'Addison and Pope ; but it did not require their discern^ 
ment to discover that, even at this time, she was a womaft 
of very superior talents. • * 

In 1716, Mr. Wortley resigned his situation trs a lord erf 
the treasury, on being appointed ambassador to the P<M*te, 
in order to negociate peace between the Turks and Ida* 
perialists. Lady Mary determined to accompany hiixi hi 
this difficult and ? during war, dangerous journey, and 
While travellirior, and after her arrival in the Levant, amused 
Jierself and delighted her friends by a regular correspond* 
ence, chiefly directed to her sister the countess of Maf, 
lady Rich, and Mrs. Thistlethwaite, both ladies of the court; 
£nd to Mr. Pope. Previously to her arrival at the capital 
fcf the Ottoman empire, the embassy rested about twfr 
Inonths at Adrianople, to which city the Sultan, Acbmed 
the third, bad removed his court. It was here that she 
first was enabled to become acquainted with the customs of 
the Turks, and to give so lively and so- jtist a pictwfe of 
their domestic manners and usages of ceremony. Her ad- 
mission into the interior of the seraglio was one of her most 
remarkable adventures, and most singular privileges, and 


gwe rise to many strange conjectures, which it i# not now 
necessary to revive. It is more important to record that, 
daring hep residence at Constantinople, she was enabled 
to confer oo Europe a benefit of the greatest consequence;, 
'tamely, inoculation for the small-pox. which was at that 
time universal in the Turkish dominions. This practice 
she examined with such attention as to become perfectly 
satisfied with its efficacy, and gave the most intrepid and 
convincing proof of her belief, in 1717, by inoculating hef 
son, whd was then about three years old. ' Mr. Mattland, 
who had attended the embassy in a medical character, first 
endeavoured to establish the practice in London, and was- 
encouraged by lady Mary's patronage. In 1721 the ex- 
periment was successfully tried on some criminals. With 
50 much ardour did lady Mary, on her return, enforce this 
salutary innovation among mothers of her own Tank, that, 
aa we find in her letters, much of her time was necessarily 
dedicated to various consultations; and to the superintend- 
ence of the success of her plan. In 1722, she had a 
daughter of six years old, inoculated, who was afterwards 
countess of Bute } and in a short time the children of the 
royal family, that had not had the small-pox, underwent 
the same operation with success ; then followed some of 
t)ie nobility, and the practice gradually prevailed among all 
&nks, although it had to encounter very strong prejudices ; 
and was soon extended, by Mr. Maitland to Scotland, and 
by other operators to most parts of Europe. 
. Mr* Wortley*s negociations at the Porte having failed, 
Owing to the high demands of the Imperialists, he received^ 
letters of recall, Oct. 28, 1717, but did not commence his 
journey till June 1718; in October of the same year he 
arrived in England. Soon after, lady Mary was solicited' 
by Mr. Pope to fix her summer residence at Twickenham, 
with which she complied, and mutual admiration seemed 
to knit these kindred geniuses in indissoluble bonds. A: 
short time, however, proved that their friendship was not 
superhuman. Jealousy of her talents, and a difference in 
apolitical sentiments, appear to have been the primary cause* 
of that dislike which soon manifested itself without cere- 
mony and without delicacy. Lady Mary was attached to 
the Walpole administration and principles. Pope hated* 
the whigs, and was at no pains to conceal his aversion in 
Conversation or writing. What was worse, lady Mary had. 
for some time omitted to consult him upon any new poeti-y 

27Q MONTiG U. 

cal production, and even when be had been formerly vetf 
free with his emendations,. was wont to say, u Come, no 
touching, Pope, for what is good, the world will give-to 
you, and leave the bad for me ;" and she was well aware 
that he disingenuously encouraged that idea. But the 
more immediate cause of their implacability, was a satire 
in the form of a pastoral, entitled "^Town Eclogues;" 
These were some of lady Mary's earliest, poetical attempts, 
and had been written previously to her leaving England* 
After her return, they were communicated . to a favoured 
few, and no doubt highly relished from their supposed, or 
teal personal allusions. Botfy Pope and Gay suggested 
many additions and. alterations, which were certainly not 
adopted by lady Mary ; and as copies, including their cor- 
rections, were found among the papers of these, poets^ 
tjieir editors have attributed three out of six to them* 
" The. Bfisset Table," and "The Drawing Boom," are 
given to Pope ; and the u Toilet" to Gay* The publica- 
tion, however, of these poems, in the name of Pope, by 
Curl, a bookseller who hesitated at nothing mean or in* 
famous,, appears to have put a final stop to all intercourse' 
between Pope and lady Mary. " Irritated," says her late 
biographer, " by Pope's ceaseless petulance, and disgusted 
by his subterfuge, she now retired totally from bis society, 
and certainly did not abstain from sarcastic observations* 
which were always repeated. to him" The angry hard re- 
taliated in the most gross and public manner against her 
*nd her friend lord Hervey. Of this controversy, which is 
admirably detailed by Mr. Dallaway, we shall only add,, 
that Dr. Warton and Dr. Johnson agree in condemning the 
prevarication with which Pope evaded, every direct charge 
of his .ungrateful behaviour to those whose patronage he 
bad once servilely solicited ; and even bis panegyrical com- 
mentator, Dr. Warburton, confesses that there were alle- 
gations against him, which " he was not quite clear of*." , 
Lady Mary, however, preserved her envied rank in the 
world of fashion and ef literature until 1739, when her 
health declining, she took the resolution to pass the re- 
mainder of her days on the continent. Having obtained 
Mr. Wortley's consent, she left England in the month of 
July, and hastened to Venice, where she formed many 

* After all this Pope has found a zealous advocate in Mr. Hayley.— See bis 
" Desultory Remarks on the Letters of Eminent Persons," prefixed to his edi- 
tion of Cowper's Works. 


connexions with the noble inhabitants, and determined to 
establish herself in the north of Italy. Having been gratis 
lied by a short tour to Rome and Naples, she returned to- 
Brescia, one of the palaces of Which city she inhabited, 
mid also spent some months at Avignon and Chamberry, 
Her summer residence she fixed at Louverre, on the shores 
of the lake of Isco, in the Venetian territory, whither she 
had been first invited on account of the mineral waters, 
which she' found greatly beneficial to her health* There 
she took possession of a deserted palace, she planned her 
garden, applied herself to the business of a country life, 
and was happy in the superiatendance of her vineyards 
and silk-worms* Books, and those chiefly English, sent by 
her daughter lady Bute, supplied the want of society. 
Her visits to Genoa and Padua were not un frequent, but 
about 175$, she quitted her solitude, and settled entirely 
at Venice, where she remained till the death of Mr. Wort- 
ley in 1761. She then yielded to the solicitations of her 
daughter, and after an absence of twenty -jtwo years, she 
began her journey to England, where she arrived in Oc- 
tober. But her health had suffered much, and a gradual 
decline terminated in death, on the 21st of August, 1762, 
and in the seventy -third year of her age. 

The year following her death, appeared " Letters of 

Lady M y W y M ," in 3 vols. 12mo, of which 

publication Mr. Dallaway has given a very curious history. 
By this it appears that after lady Mary had collected copies 
of the letters which she had written during Mn Wortley'a 
embassy, she transcribed them in two small quarto volumes, 
and upon her return to England in 1761, gave them to Mr. 
Sowden, a clergyman at Rotterdam, to be disposed of as 
he thought proper. After her death, the late earl of Bute 
purchased them of Mr. Sowden, but they were scarcely 
landed in England when the above mentioned edition was. 
published. On farther application to Mr. Sowden, it could 
only be gathered that two English gentlemen once called 
on him to see the letters, and contrived, during his being 
called away, to go off with them, although they returned ' 
diem next morning with many apologies. Whoever will 
look at the three 12mo volumes, may perceive that with 
tte help of a few amanuenses, there was sufficient time <o 
transcribe them during this interval. Cleland was the 
editor of the publication, and probably one of the " gea- 
tlemeu" concerned in the trick of obtaining the copies. , 


< The appearance of these letters, however, excited ant* 
verbal attention, nor on a re-perusal of them at. this in*** 
proved period of fepiale literature, can any thing he de- 
ducted from Dr. Smollett's opinion in the " Critical Re- 
view, 1 * of which he was then conductor* " The publication 
of these letters will be an immortal monument ^o the me- 
mory of lady M. W. M. and- will shew, as long as the 
English language endures, the sprtghtliness of her wit, the. 
solidity of her judgment, the elegance of her. taste,; and' 
the excellence of her real character. These letters, are so* 
bewitchingly entertaining,, that we defy the most phleg- 
matic man on earth to read one without going through with 
them, or after finishing the third volume* not to wish there 
were twenty more of them." Other critics were not -as* 
enraptured, and seemed to doubt their authenticity, whirh, 
however, is now placed beyond, all question by the follow?* , 
ing publication, " The Works of the right hon. lady M. 
W. M. including her correspondence, poems, and. essays, 
published by permission (of the Earl of Bute) from her 
genuine papers," London, l£03,. 5 vols. 12mo, with Me~ 
moirs of her Life by Mr. Dallaway, drawn up with much 
taste and delicacy, and to which we are indebted for the* 
preceding sketch. This edition, /besides her poems, and; 
a few miscellaneous* essays, contains a great number of 
letters never before printed, perhaps of equal importance' 
with those which have long been before the world, as they 
appear not to have been intended for publication, which 
the others certainly were, and we have in these new. letter^' 
a more exact delineation of her character in advanced life. 
This if it be not always pleasing, will afford many instruc- 
tive lessons. Her poetry, without being of the superior 
kind, is yet entitled to high praise, and bad she cultivated 
/the acquaintance of the muses with more earnestness, and 
had not disdained the scrupulous 'labour by which some 
df her contemporaries acquired fame, it is probable she 
might have attained a higher rank. She certainly was * 
woman of extraordinary talents, atfd acquired the honours* 
Of literary reputation at a time when tbeyt'were not be* 
stowed on the undeserving. It is, however, incumbent 
epon us to add, that the moral tendency of her letters may 
be justly questioned ; many of the descriptions of Eastern 
luxuries and beauty are such as cannot be tolerated in an 
age x>f decency, and a prudent guardian will hesitate long 
before be can admit the letters from Constantinople among 


books fit for the perusal of the young. Her amiable rela- 
tive, the late Mrs. Montague, represents Lady Mary as" 
one who "neither thinks, speaks, acts, or dresses like any 
body ;" and many traits of her moral conduct were also, it 
is to be hoped, exclusively her own. ' 

MONTAGUE (Edward Wortley), only son of the 
preceding lady Mary, was born in October 1713, and hi 
the early part of his life seems to have been the object of 
his mother's tenderest regard, though he afterwards lost 
her favour. In 1716, he was taken by her on his father's 
embassy to Constantinople, and while there, was, as we 
have noticed in her life, the first English child on whom the 
practice of inoculation was tried. Returning to England 
with his parents in 1719, he was placed at Westminster- , 
school, where he gave an early sample of his wayward 
disposition, by running away, and eluding every possible 
search, until about a year after he was accidentally dis- 
covered at Blackwall, near London, in the character of a 
vender of fish, a basket of which he had then on his head. 
He had bound himself, by regular indenture, to a poor 
fisherman, who said he had served him faithfully, making 
his bargains-shrewdly, and paying his master the purchase- 
money honestly. He was now again placed at Westmin- 
ster-school, bat in a short time escaped a second time, and 
bound himself to the master of a vessel which sailed for 
Oporto, who, supposing him a deserted friendless boy, 
treated him with great kindness and humanity. TJjjs treat- 
ment, however, produced no corresponding feelings ; for 
the moment they landed at Oporto, Montague ran away 
tip the country, and contrived to get employment for two 
or three years in the vintage. Here at length he was dis- 
covered, brought home, and pardoned ; but with no better 
effect than before* He ran away a third time ; after which 
his father procured him a tutor, who made him so far re* 
gular that he had an appointment in one of the public of- 
fices; and, in 1747, he was elected one of the knights of 
the shire for the county of Huntingdon ; but in his sena- 
torial capacity he does not appear to have any way distin- 
guished himself; nor did he long retain his seat, his ex-' 
polices so far exceeding his income, that he found it pru- 
dent once 'more to leave England, about the latter end of 
175 U His first excursion was to Paris, where, in a sbprt 

1 life as above. 

Vol. XXII. T 



time, be was imprisoned in the Chatelet, for a fraudulent 
gambling transaction : how be escaped is not very clear* 
but he published a defence of himself, under the title of 
" Memorial of £. W. Montague, esq. written by himself, 
in French, and published lately at Paris, against Abraham. 
P&yba, a Jew by birth, who assumed the fictitious name of 
James Roberts. Translated into English from an authen-* 
tick copy sent from Paris," 1752, 8va. 

In the parliament which assembled in 1754, Mr. Monta- 
gue was returned for Bossiney : and in 1759 he published 
his " Reflections on the Rise and Fall of the ancient Re-. 
publics, adapted to the present state of Great Britain," 
8vo. This work contains a concise, and not inelegant, re- 
lation of the Grecian, Roman, and Carthaginian states, 
interspersed with occasional allusions to his own country, 
the constitution of which he appears to have studied with* 
care. It is somewhat singular that Mr. Forster, the person 
whom his father had engaged as his tutor, endeavoured to, 
claim the merit of this work ; but not, as Mr. Seward re- 
marks, until more than a year after Mr. Montague's death, 
when he could receive no contradiction. 

His father died in January 1761, at the advanced age 
of eighty, and by his will, made in 1755, bequeathed 
to his son an annuity of one thousand pounds a- year, to 
be paid to him during the joint lives of himself and his' 
mother lady Mary ; and after her death an annuity of two 
thousand pounds a- year, during the joint lives of himself 
and bis sister lady Bute. By the same will he empowered 
Mr. Montague to make a settlement on any woman be 
might marry, not exceeding eight hundred pounds a-year ;. 
and to any son of such marriage he devised a considerable* 
estate in the West Riding of Yorkshire*. It was this last; 
clause which gave rise to a story that he had advertised, 
for a wife, promising to marry *' any widow or single lady, 
of genteel birth and polished manners, and five, six, seven, 
ejc eight months in her pregnancy. 9 ' Such an advertisement 
certainly appeared, but not sooner than 1776, within a few 
months of his death, and when he was abroad ; all which 
render the story rather improbable. 

His mother died in 1762, and left him only one guinea* 
he having offended her irrecoucileably : but as he was 
now independent by bis father's liberal bequest, he pnce. 
more took leave of his native country, ana passed the re- 
mainder of his life in foreign parts. In 1762, while at 

M O N T A O U ii «#. 

Turin, be Wrote two letters to the earl of Macclesfield, 
which were fead at the Royal Society, and afterwards pub- 
lished in a quarto pamphlet, entitled, " Observations, 
upon a supposed antique bast at Turin." In the Philoso- 
phical Transactions are also, fay him, " New Observations 
on Pompey's Pillar," and an account of bis journey from 
Cairo in Egypt to the Written Mountains in the desarta of 
Sinai. It is said that he published " An Explication of the 
Causes of Earthquakes ;" bat it is not recollected where. 
Hi* travels in the East occupied some years, and in. the 
course of them he first abjured the protestant for the 
Roman catholic religion, and then the latter for Mahome- 
tanism, all the rites and ceremonies of which he performed 
with a punctuality which inclines us to think that he wa9 
in some degree deranged. He died at length at Padua in 
May 1776, and was buried under a plain slab, in the clois- 
ter of the Hermitants, with an inscription recording his 
travels and his talents. The latter would hare done honour 
to any character, but in him were obscured by a disposition 
which it would be more natural to look for in romance than 
in real life. l 

MONTAGUE (Elizabeth), a learned and ingenious 
English lady, was the daughter of Matthew Robinson, esq* 
of West Layton, in Yorkshire, of Coveney, Cambridge- 
shire, and of Mount Morris in Kent,, by Elizabeth daugh- 
ter and heiress of Robert Drake, esq. . She was born at. 
York, Oct. 2, 1720, but lived, for some of her early years, 
with her parents at Cambridge, where she derived great 
assistance in her education from Dr. Conyers Middleton, 
whom her grandmother had taken as a second husband.' 
Her uncommon sensibility and acutencss of understanding, 
as welt as her extraordinary beauty as a child, rendered 
her an object of great notice and admiration in the uni* 
versity, and Dr. Middleton was in the habit of requiring 
from her an account of the learned conversations at which, 
in his society, she was frequently present : not admitting 
of die excuse of her tender age as a disqualification, but 
insisting, that although at the present time she could but 
imperfectly understand their meaning, she would in future 
derive great benefit from the habit of attention inculcated 
by this practice. Her father, a man of considerable inteU 

i See many adtfitioaat particulars* adventures, and eccentricities of this sin- 
gular character, in Mr. Nichols's History «f Leicestershire and Life of Bowyer, 


MONTAIGNE, or MONTAGNE (Michael m), an 
Eminent French writer, was born at the cattle of Mont- 
aigne, in tbe Perigord, Feb. 8, 1533. His father, seigneur 
of Montaigne, and mayor of Bourdeaux, bellowed particu- 
lar attention on his education, perceiving in him early 
.proofs ef talents that would one day reward his care. His 
mode of teaching him languages is mentioned as somewhat 
singular at that time, although it has since been frequently 
practised. He provided him with a German attendant, 
who did not know French, and who was enjoined to speak 
to him in Latin, and in consequence young Montaigne is 
said to have been a master of that language at the age of 
six years. He was taught Greek also as a sort of diversion, 
and because his father had heard that the brains of children 
may be injured by feeing roused too suddenly out of sleep, 
he caused him to be awakened every morning by soft musk. 
All this care he repaid by tbe most tender veneration for 
tbe memory of his father. Filial piety, indeed, is said to 
have been one of the most remarkable traits of his cha- 
racter, and he sometimes displayed it rather in a singular 
manner. When on horseback he constantly wore a cleric 
•which had belonged to his father, riot, as he said, for con- 
venience, but for the pleasure vt gave him. " II me semble 
in'envelopper de lui," — " I seem to be wrapped up in my 
father;" and this, which from any other wit would have 
been called the personification ef a pom, was considered in 
Montaigne as a sublime expression of ,fi Hal piety. 

At the age of thirteen he had finished bts courie of 
studies, which be began at tbe college of Bourdeaux, un- 
der Crouehy, the celebrated Buchanan, and Muret, all 
learned and eminent teachers, and bis progress bore pro- 
portion to tbeir care. Being designed fipr the bar by his 
father, he married the daughter of a counsellor of parlia- 
ment at Bourdeaux, when in his thirty-third year, and fojr 
some time himself sustained that character, but afterwards 
abandoned a profession to which he probably was never 
cordially attached. His favourite study was that of humjin 
nature, to pursue which he travelled through various parts 
of France, Germany, Swisserland, and Italy, making his 
observations on every thing curious or interesting in so- 
ciety, and receiving many marks of distinction. At Rome, 
in 1581, he was admitted a citizen ; and tbe same year he 
was chosen mayor of Bourdeaux, and in this office gave 
such satisfaction to his fellow-citizens, that in 1582 they 



Employed him ia a special mission to court on important 
affairs, and after his mayoralty expired, they again elected 
him into the same office. In 1538 he appeared to advan- 
tage at the assembly of the states of Blois, and although 
not a deputy, took a share in their proceedings and cabals. 
During one of his visits at court, Charles IX? decorated 
him with the collar of the order of St. Michael, without 
any solicitation, which, when young, he is said to have 
coveted above all thipgs, it being at that time the highest 
mark of honour among the French nobility, and rarely 

Returning afterwards to his family residence, he devoted 
himself to study, from which he suffered some disturbance 
during the civil wars. On one occasion a stranger pre- 
sented himself at the entrance of his house, pretending 
that while travelling with his friends, a troop of soldiers 
had attacked their party, taken away their baggage, killed 
all who made resistance, and dispersed the rest. Mon? 
taigne, unsuspectingly, admitted this man, who was the 
chief of a gang, and wanted admittance only to plunder 
the house. In a few minutes two or three more arrived, 
whom the first declared to, be his friends that had made 
their escape, and Montaigne compassionately made them 
welcome. Soon after, however, he perceived the court 
of his chateau filled with more of the party, whose beha- 
viour left him in no doubt as to their intentions. Mon- 
taigne preserved his countenance unaltered, and ordered 
them every refreshment the place afforded, and presented 
this with so much kindness and politeness, that the cap- 
tain of the troop had not the courage to give the signal 
for pillage. 

In bis old age Montaigne was much afflicted with the 
stone and nephritic colic, but could never be prevailed 
upon to take medicines, in which he never had any faith. 
The physicians, he used to say, " know Galen, but they 
know nothing of a sick person ;" and such was his confi- 
dence in the powers of nature, that be refused even a 
common purgative, when the indication was plain. He 
died Sept. 15, 1592, in his sixtieth year. 

His reputation is founded on his " Essays," which Were 
at one time extremely popular, and which are still read 
with pleasure by a numerous class of persons. La Harpe 
says of him, " As a writer, he has impressed on our lan- 
guage (the French) an energy which it did not before pos? 


sess, and which has not become antiquated, because it is 
that of sentiments and ideas. As a philosopher he has 

Sainted man as he is ; he praises without compliment, and 
lames without misanthropy." In 1774 was published at 
Rome (Paris), " Memoirs of a Journey into Italy," &c. by 
Montaigne, the editor of which has given us a few les» 
known particulars of the author. He says that " with a 
large share of natural vivacity, passion,, and spirit, Mon- 
taigne's life was far from being that of a sedentary con- 
tern platist, as those may be inclined to think, who view 
him only in the sphere of his library and in the composition 
of his essays. His early years by no means passed in the 
arms of leisure. The troubles and commotions whereof 
be had been an eye-witness during five reigns, which he 
had seen pass successively before that of Henry IV. had 
not in any degree contributed to relax that natural activity 
and restlessness of spirit. They had been sufficient to call 
it forth even from indolence itself. He had travelled a 
good deal in France, and what frequently answers a better 
purpose than any kind of travel, he was well acquainted 
with the metropolis, and knew the court. We see his at- 
tachment to Paris in the third book of his Essays. Thuanus 
likewise observes, that Montaigne was equally successful 
in making his court to the famous duke of Guise, Henry of 
Lorraine, and to the king of Navarre, afterwards Henry 
IV. king of France. He adds, that he was at his estate at 
Blois when the duke of Guise was assassinated, 1558. Mon- 
taigne foresaw, says he, that the troubles of the natioti 
would only end with the life of that prince, or of the king 
of Navarre ; and this instance we have of his political sa- 
gacity. He was so well acquainted with the character and 
disposition of those princes, so well read in their hearts 
and sentiments, that he told his friend Thuanus, the king 
of Navarre would certainly have returned to the religion of 
bis ancestors (that of the Romish communion) if he had 
not been apprehensive of being abandoned by his party. 
Montaigne, in short, had talents for public business and 
negotiation, but his philosophy kept him at a distance 
* from political disturbances ; and he had the address to con- 
duct himself without offence to the contending parties, in 
the worst of times*" 

More recently, in 1 799, his memory has been revived 
in France by an extravagant eloge from the pen of a 
French lady, Henrietta Bourdic-viot, who assures us that 


<-« it was in the works of Montaigne that she acquired the 
knowledge of her duties." But we rather incline to the 
more judicious character given of this author by Dr. Jo- 
seph Warton. " That Montaigne," says this excellent 
critic, " abounds in native wit, in quick penetration, in 
perfect knowledge of the human heart, and the various 
vanities and vices that lurk in it, cannot justly be denied. 
JBpt a man who undertakes to transmit his thoughts on life 
and manners to posterity, with the hope of entertaining 
and amending future ages, must be either exceedingly 
vain or exceedingly careless, if he expects either of these 
effects can be produced by wanton sallies of the imagina- 
tion, by useless and. impertinent digressions, by never 
forming or following any regular plan, never classing or 
confining, his thoughts, never changing or rejecting any 
sentiment that occurs to him* Yet this appears to have 
been the conduct of our celebrated essayist ; and it has 
produced m$ny awkward imitators, who, under the notion 
of writing with the fire and freedom of this lively old Gas* 
con, have fallen into confused rhapsodies* and uninterest- 
ing egotisms. But these blemishes of Montaigne are tri- 
fling and unimportant, compared with his vanity, his inde- 
cency, and his scepticism. That man must totally have 
suppressed the natural love of houest reputation, which is 
so powerfully felt by the truly wise and good, who can 
calmly sit down to give a catalogue of his private vices, 
publish his most secret infirmities, with the pretence of 
exhibiting a faithful picture of himself, and of exactly 
pburtraying the minutest features of his mind. Surely he 
deserves the censure Quintilian bestows on Demetrius, a 
celebrated Grecian statuary, that he was nimius inveritate, 
et similitudinis quam pulchritudims amantior ; more stu- 
dious of likeness than of beauty." 

The first edition of Montaigne's Essays was published 
by himself in 1580, 8vo, in two books only, which were 
augmented afterwards to the present number. Of the 
subsequent editions, those by P. Coste are reckoned the 
best, and of these, Tonson's edition, 1724, in 3 vols. 4to, 
is praised by the French bibliographers, as the most beau- 
tiful that has ever appeared. We have also two English 
translations. Montaigne's iife was first written by the 
president Bouhier, and prefixed to a supplementary vo- 
lume of his works in 1740. Montaigne appeared once as 
the editor of some of the works of Stephen de la Boetie, in 

£S2 M N T A J G N £ 

1571 ; at)d ten ydws afterwards translated the ** Natural 
Theologie" of Raimond de Sebonda, a learned Spaniard, 
and prefixed prefaces to both. 1 

MONTALEMBERT (Mark Rene de), senior membet 
of the academy of sciences of France, was born July 16, 
1714., at Angouleme. His family bad been a long time ren* 
dered illustrious in arms by Andr6 De Montalembert, count 
d'£ss£, lieutenant-general to the king, commander of his 
jinnies in Scotland, governor -of Terouane near St. Omers, 
and wbo died oh the breach, the 12th of June 1553. In 
3739 the young Montalembert entered into the army, and 
distinguished himself at the sieges of Kehl and Philipsburg 
in 1736. He was afterwards captain of the guards to the 
prince of Conti. In peace be studied the mathematics and 
natural philosophy : he read a memoir to the academy of 
aciences, upon the evaporation of the water in the salt 
works at Turcheim, in the palatinate, which he had exa- 
mined, and was made a member in 1747. There are in 
the volumes in the academy some memoirs from him upon 
the rotation of bullets, upon the substitution of stoves for 
fire-places, and upon a pobl, in which were found pike 
purblind, and others wholly without sight. From 1750to 
17*55 he established the forges at Angoumois and Perigord, 
and there founded cannon for the navy. In 1777 three 
volumes were printed of the correspondence which he held 
with the generals and ministers, whilst he was employed 
by his country in the Swedish and Russian armies during 
the campaigns erf 1757 and 1761, and afterwards in Bri* 
tanny and the isle of Olerou, when fortifying it. He for* 
lifted also Stralsund, in Pomerania, against the Prussian 
troops, and gave an account to his court of the military 
-operations in which it was concerned ; and this in a maru 
ner which renders it an interesting part of the History of 
ithe Seveii*years War. In 1776 he printed the first volume 
of an immense work upon Perpendicular Fortification, ami 
the art of Defence ; demonstrating the inconveniences of 
the old system, for which he substitutes that of casemates, 
>which admit of such a kind of firing, that a place fortified 
-after his manner appears to be impregnable. His system 
lias been, however, not always approved or adopted. His 
treatise was extended to teir volumes in quarto, with a 

-great number of plates; the last volume was published 

.• ■ • 

( t » |loreri.«— Nic«r?B> vol. XVI,— Adventurer, No. 49.— Pict, Hist. 


in 1792, and will doubtless carry bis name to posterity 
wan author as well as a general. He married, in 1770, 
Marie de Comarieu, who was an actress, and the owner of 
a theatre, for whom the general sometimes composed a 
dramatic piece. In 1764 and 1786 he printed three ope* 
rattcal pieces, set to music by Cambini and Tomeont : they 
were, " La Statue," " La Bergdre qualitA," and " La 
Boh6mienfie." Alarmed at the progress of the revolution, 
he repaired to England in 1789 or 1790, and leaving fails 
wife there, procured a divorce, and afterwards married* Ro*» 
ealie Louise Cadet, to whom he was under great obliga* 
tion during the Robespierrian terror, and by whom he had a 
daughter born in July 1796. In his memoir published in 
•1790, it may be seen that he had been arbitrarily dis- 
possessed of his iron forges, and that having a claim for 
«ix millions of livres due to him, he was reduced to a pent- 
ston, but ill paid, and was at last obliged to sell his estate 
at Maumer, in Angoumois, for which he was paid in a*- 
«igna*s, and which were insufficient to take htm out' of 
that distress which accompanied him throughout his life. 
He was sometimes almost disposed to put an end to his 
existence, but had the courage to resume his former 
studies, and engaged a person to assist him in cbmpleat- 
ing some new 'models. His last public appearance was in 
the institute, where be read a new memoir upon the mount- 
ings (affect) of -ship-guns. On this occasion he was re- 
ceived with veneration by the society, and attended to 
with religious silence : a man of eighty-six years of age 
bad never been heard to read with so strong a voice. His 
memoir was thought of so much importance, that the in- 
stitute wrote to the minister of marine, who sent orders to 
Brest for the adoption of the suggested change. He was 
upon the list for a place in the institute, and was even pro- 
posed as the first member for the section of mechanics, but 
learning that Bonaparte was spoken of for the institute, be 
'wrote a letter, in which he expressed bis desire to see the 
young conqueror of Italy honoured with this new crowns 
His strength of mind he possessed to the last, for not above 
a month before his death he wrote reflections upon the 
siege of St. John d'Acre, which contained further prooft 
of the solidity of his defensive system, but at last be fell ill 
of a catarrh, which degenerated into a dropsy, and carried 

iiim off March 22, 1602. ' 

«... < » • « i 

\ Diet Hist. — Biographie Mode rue. 


MONTANUS, an ancient heresiarch among tbe Chris- 
tiaos, founded a new sect in tbe second century of tbe 
church, whicb were called Montanists. They bad also tbe 
name of Phrygians and Catapbrygians, because Montanus 
was either born, or at least first known, at Ardaba, a vil- 
lage : of My si a, which was situated upon tbe borders of 
Phrygia. Here he set up for ? prophet, although it seems 
he had but lately embraced Christianity : bat it is said that 
he had .an immoderate desire to obtain a first place in tbe 
church, and that be thought this tbe most likely means of 
raising himself. In this assumed character he affected to 
appear inspired with the Holy Spirit, and to be seized and 
agitated with divine ecstacies; and, under these disguises 
he uttered prophecies, in which he laid down doctrines, 
and established rites and ceremonies, entirely new. This 
wild behaviour was attended with its natural consequences 
and effects upon tbe multitude ; some affirming bim to be 
a true prophet ; others, that be was possessed with an evil 
spirit. To carry on his delusion the better, Montanus 
associated to himself Priscilla aud Maxim ilia, two wealthy 
ladies, who acted the part " of prophetesses ;" and, <( by 
the power of whose gold," as Jerome tells us, " he first 
seduced many churches, and then corrupted them with 
his abominable errors." He seems to have made Pepuza, 
a town in Phrygia, tbe place of his first residence ; and be 
artfully called it Jerusalem, because he knew the charrt 
there was in that name, and what a powerful temptation it 
would be in drawing from all parts tbe weaker and more 
credulous Christians. Here he employed himself in de- 
livering obscure and enigmatical sayings, under the name 
of prophecies ; and made no small advantage of- his fol- 
lowers, who brought great sums of money and valuable 
presents, by way of offerings. Some of these prophecies 
of Montanus and his women are preserved by Epiphanius, 
in which they affected to consider themselves only as mere 
machines and organs, through which God spake unto his 

The peculiarities of this sect of Christians are explicitly 
set forth by St. Jerome. They are said to have been very 
heterodox in regard to tbe Trinity ; inclining to Sabellian- 
jsro, " by crowding," as Jerome expresses it, " tbe Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, into the narrow limits of one per- 
son." Epiphanius, however, contradicts this, and affirms 
them to have agreed with the church in the doctrine of tbe 

M O N T A N tr 3: 2ts 


Trinity. The Montanists held all second marriages to tie 
unlawful, asserting that although the apostle Paul per- 
mitted them, it was because he " only knew in part, and 
prophesied in part; 1 ' but that, since the Holy Spirit had 
been poured upon Montanus and bis prophetesses, they 
were not to be permitted any longer. But the capital 
doctrines of the Montanists are these : " God," they &ay,. 
" was first pleased to save the world, under the Old Testa--, 
ment, from eternal damnation by Moses and the prophets. 
When these agents proved ineffectual, he assumed flesh 
and blood of the Virgin Mary, and died for us in Christ, 
under the person of the. Son. When the salvation of the 
world was not effected yet, he descended lastly upon Mon- 
tanus, Priscilla, and Maximilla, into whom he infused that 
fulness of bis Holy Spirit, which had not been vouchsafed 
to the apostle Paul ; for, Paul only knew in part, and pro- 
phesied in part." These doctrines gained ground very fast; 
and Montanus soon found himself surrounded with a tribe of 
people, who would probably have been ready to acknow- 
ledge bis pretensions, if they had been higher. To add to 
his influence over their minds, he observed a wonderful 
strictness and severity of discipline, was a man of moni-- 
fication, and of an apparently most sanctified spirit. He 
disclaimed all innovations in the grand articles of faith; 
and only pretended to perfect what was left unfinished by 
the saints. By these means he supported for a long time 
the character of a most holy, mortified, and divine person* 
and the world became much interested in the visions and 
prophecies of him and bis two damsels Priscilla and Maxi- 
milla; and thus the face of severity and saintship conse- 
crated their reveries, and made real possession pass for 
inspiration. Several good men immediately embraced the 
delusion, particularly Tertullian, Alcibiades, and Theo- 
dotus, who, however,, did not wholly approve of Montanus'$ 
extravagancies ; but the churches of Phrygia, and after- 
Wards other churches, grew divided upon the account of 
these new revelations; and, for some time, even the bishop 
of Rome cherished the imposture. Of the time or manner 
of Montanus's death we have no certain account. It has 
been asserted, but without proof, that he and his coad- 
jutress Maximilla were suicides. 1 

I Moaheim.— Cave, ?J« *•— ■ Marcher's Works. 


• MONT ANUS (Benedict Alius), a very learned Spa- 
niard, was born at Frexenel, in Estremadura, in 15%7 t and 
was the son of a notary. He studied in the university of 
Atcala, where he made great proficiency in the learned 
languages. Having taken the habit of the Benedictines* 
be accompanied, in 1562, the bishop of Segovia to the 
council of Trent, where he first laid the foundation of hns 
celebrity. On bis return to Spain, be retired to a hermit* 
age situated on the top of a rock, near Aracena, where it: 
was his intention to have devoted his life to meditation, hot 
Philip II. persuaded him to leave this retreat, and become 
editor of a new Polyglot, which was to be printed by 
Christopher Plantin at Antwerp. On this employment he 
spent four years, from 1568 to 1572, and accomplished 
this great work in 8 volumes folio. The types were cast by 
the celebrated William Lebe, whom Plantin bad invited 
from Paris for this purpose. This Polyglot, besides what 
is given in the Alcala Bible, contains the Chaldaic para- 
phrases, a Syriac version of the New Testament, in Sy- 
riac and Hebrew characters, with a Latin translation, &e. 
While Montanus was beginning to enjoy the reputation to 
which* his labours in this work so well entitled him, Leo de 
Castro, professor of oriental languages at Salamanca, ac- 
cused him before the inquisitions of Rome and Spain, as 
having altered the text of the holy Scriptures, and con- 
firmed the prejudices of the Jews by his Chaldaic para- 
phrases. In consequence of this, Montanus was obliged to 
take several journies to Rome, to justify himself, which be 
did in the most satisfactory manner. Being thus restored, 
Philip II. offered him a bishopric ; but he preferred his 
former retirement in the hermitage at Aracena, where he 
hoped to finish his days. There he constructed a winter 
and a summer habitation, and laid out a pleasant garden, 
&c. ; but had scarcely accomplished these comforts, when 
Philip II. again solicited him to return to the world, and 
accept the office of librarian to the Esemrial, and teach the 
oriental languages. At length be was permitted to retire 
to Seville, where he died in 1598, aged seventy-one. 

Arias was one of the most learned divines of the sixteenth 
century. He was a master of the Hebrew, Chaldaic, Sy- 
riac, Arabic, and Greek and Latin languages, and spoke 
fluently in German, French, and Portuguese. He was 
sober, modest, pious, and indefatigable. His company was 
sought by the learned, the great, and the pious ; and his 

M O N T A N V 9< $8* 

conversation was always edifying: Besides the Antwerp 
Polyglot, he was the author of, 1. " Index correctoriut 
Lib. Theologicorum, Catholici regis authoritate editus," 
Antwerp, 1571, 4to, 2. " Coalmen taria in duodecim puo- 
phetas nainores," ibid. 1571, 4 to; reprinted 15S2. 3, "Elu- 
cidationes in quatuor Evangel i a & in Act. Apost." ibid* 1 57£*, 
4to. 4. " Elucidationes in omnia JS. S. apostolorum script*, 
&c? ibid. 1588, 4 to. 5. " De optimo imperio, sive in Li* 
bruin Josue commentarius," ibid. 1583, 6. " De varia Re- 
publica, sive Comment, in librum Judicum," ibid. 1592, 
4to. 7. " Antiquitatum Judaicarum, lib. novem," Leydery 
1593. 8. " Liber generationis et regenerationis Adas** 
sive historia generis bumani," Antwerp, 1593, 4to; a se- 
cond part in 1601. 9. "Davidis, aliorumque Psalnai ex 
Heb. in Lat. carmen conversi," ibid. 1574, 4to. 10. " Cooa- 
mentarii in triginta priores Psalmos," ibid. 1605: with a. 
few other works enumerated by Antonio and Niceron, 1 

MONTANUS, or DA MONTE (John Baptist), was aa 
Italian physician of so much reputation, that he was re*, 
garded by his countrymen as a second Galen. He was, 
born at Verona in 1488, of the noble family of Monte in 
Tuscany, and sent to Padua by his father, to study the 
civil law. But his bent lay towards physic ; which, how- 
ever, though he made a vast progress in it, so displeased his . 
father, that he entirely withdrew from him all support. He 
therefore travelled abroad, and practised physic in several 
cities with success, and increased his reputation among the 
learned, as an orator and poet. He lived some time at Rome, 
with cardinal Hyppolitus ; then removed to Venice ; whence, 
having in a short time procured a competency, he retired 
to Padua. Here, within two years after his arrival, he was 
preferred by the senate to the professor's chair ; and he 
was so attached to the republic, which was always kind to 
him* that, though tempted with liberal offers from .the em- 
peror, Charles V. Francis I. of France, and Cosmo duke 
of Tuscany, he retained his situation. He was greatly af- 
flicted with the stone in his latter days, and died in 155 K 
He was the author of many works; part of which were 
published by himself, and part by his pupil John Crato 
after his death. They were, however, principally comments 
upon the ancients, and illustrations of their theories ; and 

* Antonio Bibl. Hisp. — Biog. Universale iri Arias. — Dupio. — Niceron, to?. 
XXVIII Foppen Bibl, Belf .— Saxii Onomasticon. 

288 MONf ANUS. ' 

hare therefore ceased to be of importance, since the ori- v 
ginals have lost their value. He translated into Latin the 
works of A€tius, which he published at the desire of car- 
dinal Hyppolitus. He also translated into Latin verse the 
poem of Museus; and made translations of the Argonautics 
attributed to Orpheus, and of Lucian's Tragopodagra. 1 

MONTBELIARD (Philibert-Gueneau), a French na- 
turalist,' was born in 1720, at Semur, in Auxois. He spent' 
the early part of bis youth at Dijon, and afterwards came 
to Paris, where he made himself known as a man of science. 
He continued with reputation, the " Collection Acade- 
roique," a periodical work, which gave a view of every; 
thing interesting contained in the " Memoirs" of the dif- 
ferent learned societies in Europe. He was chosen by 
Buffon to be his associate in bis great work on natural his r 
tory, and the continuation of bis ornithology was com- 
mitted to him. He is described by Buffon, " as of all 
men, the person whose manner of seeing, judging, and 
writing, was most conformable to his own." When the 
class of birds was finished, Montbeliard undertook that of 
insects, relative to which he had already furnished several 
articles to the New Encyclopedia, but bis progress was ' 
cut short by his death, which took place at Semur, Nov. 2S, 


MONTECUCULI (Raymond de), a very celebrated 
Austrian general, was born in 1608, of a distinguished fa- 
mily in the Modenese* Ernest Montecuculi, his uncle, 
who was general of artillery in the imperial troops, made 
bim pass through all the military ranks, before he was 
raised to that of commander. The young man's first ex- ' 
ploit was in 1634, when at the head of 2000 horse, he Sur- 
prised 10,000 Swedes who were besieging Nemeslaw, in 
Silesia, and took their baggage and artillery; but he was 
shortly after defeated and made prisoner by general Ban- 
nier. Having obtained his liberty at the end of two yearis, a 
he joined his forces to those of J. de Wert, in Bohemia, 
and conquered general Wrangel, who was killed in the 
battle. In 1627, the emperor appointed Montecuculi ma- 
rechal de camp general, and sent him to assist John Casi- 
mir, king of Poland. He defeated Razolzi, prince of 
Transylvania, drove out the Swedes, and distinguished 

* Eloy Diet. Hist, de Medecine. * Diet Hist. 


himself greatly against the Turks in. Transylvania, and in 
Hungary, by gaining tbe battle of St. Gothard, in 1664. 
Monteouculi commanded the imperial forces against 
France in 1673, and acquired great honour from tbe cap- 
ture of Bonn, which was preceded by a march, conducted 
with many stratagems to deceive M. Turenne. The com- 
mand of this army was nevertheless taken from him the 
year following, but he received it again in 1675, that he 
might oppose tbe great, Turenne, on the Rhine. Monte- 
cuculi had soon to bewail tbe death of this formidable 
enemy, on whom he bestowed the highest encomiums: "I 
lament," said he, " and 1 can never too much lament, the 
loss of a man who appeared more than man ; one who did 
honour, to human nature." The great prince, of Cond^ 
was the only person who could contest with Montecuculi, 
the superiority which M. de Turenne' s .death gave Lira. 
That prince was therefore sent to the Rhine, and stopped 
the imperial general's progress, who nevertheless considered 
this last campaign as his most glorious one.; ( not because 
he was a conqueror, but because be was not conquered by 
two such opponents as Turenne and Conde. He, spent 
the remainder, of his life at the emperor's court,- devoting 
himself to the belles lettres ; and, the academy of natu- 
ralists owes its establishment to him. He died October 16, 
1680, at Lines, aged seventy-two. This great general left 
«ome very excellent " Memoires" on the military art ; the 
best French edition .of which is that of Strasburg, 1735 ; to 
which that. of Paris, 1746, 12mo, is similar. 1 . . , 

MONTE-MAYOR (George jje), a celebrated CastiU 
lian poet, was born at Monte-mayor, whence he took hi* 
name, probably in the . early part of the sixteenth century, 
one authority says in 1520. It is thought he owed his re- 
putation more to genius than study ; in his early years be 
was in the army, and amidst the engagements of a military 
life, cultivated music and poetry. He appears to have af- 
terwards obtained an employment, on account of his mu- 
sical talents, in the suite of Philip II. ; and was also patro- 
nized by queen Catherine, sister to the emperor Charles V. 
He died in the prime of life in 1562. His reputation now 
rests on his " Diana," a pastoral romance, which has al- 
ways been admired on the continent, and translated into 
various languages. The last edition of the original is that 

ft. ' * Diet. Hilt— Moreri. 

Vol. XXII. U 


of Madrid, ] 795, 8vo. Gaspar Polo published a continua- 
tion, " La Diana enajnorada cinco libros que progequen let 
VII, de Jorge de Montemayor," Madrid, 1778, 8vo, a work 
which, Brunet says, is more esteemed than that of Moott- 
mayor. 1 

MONTESQUIEU (Charles de Sbcondat, baton of), 
a very celebrated French writer, was descended of an an* 
•cient and noble family of Guienne, and born at the castle 
of Brede near Bourdeaux, Jan. 18, 1639. The greatest 
care was taken of his education ; and, at the age of twenty, 
he bad actually prepared materials for bis •* Spirit of Laws," 
by a wellr digested extract from those immense volumcfs 
which compose the body of the civil law ; and which he 
had studied both as a civilian and a philosopher. Mau- 
pertuis informs us that he studied this science almost from 
bis infancy, and that the first product of his early genius 
was a work, in which he undertook to prove, that the ido- 
latry of most part of the pagaps did not deserve eternal 
punishment, but this he thought fit to suppress. In Feb. 
1714, he became a counsellor of the parliament of Bouiu 
deaox, and was received president amortier, July 13, 1716, 
in the room of an uncle, who left htm his fortune and hie 
office. He was admitted, April 3, 1716, into the academy 
of Bourdeaux, which was then only in its infancy. A taste 
for music, and for worts of entertainment, had, at first, 
assembled the members who composed it ; but the socio* 
ties for belles lettres being grown, in bis opinion, too nu- 
merous, he proposed to have physios for their chief ob- 
ject ; and the duke de la Force, having, by a prize just 
founded at Bourdeaux, seconded this jast and rational pro* 
posal, Bourdeaux acquired an academy of sciences, . 

Montesquieu is said not to have been eager to shew him- 
self to the public, but rather to wait for "an age ripe foj 
writing." It was not till 1721, when he was thirty-two 
years of age, that he published his " Persian Letters." 
The description of oriental manners, real or supposed, of 
the pride and phlegm of Asiatic love, is but the smallest 
object of these " Letters ;" which were more particularly 
intended as a satire upon French manners, and treat of 
several important subjects, which the author investigates 
rather fully, while he only seems to glance at th$ai. 
Though this work was exceedingly admired, yet he did not 

» Ant. BibL Hitp.— Diet. Hitt.— Brunei Mamul du Likfltire. 


openly declare himself the author of it. He expresses 
himself sometimes freely about matters of religion, awl 
therefore as soon as he was known to be the author, he 
had to encounter much censure and serious opposition, for 
at that time the philosophizing spirit was not tolerated in 
France. In 1725, he opened the parliament with a speech* 
the depth and- eloquence of which were convincing proofs 
of his great abilities as an orator; and the year following 
he quitted bis charge. 

A place in the French academy becoming vacant by th* 
death of monsieur de Sacy, in 1728, Montesquieu, .by the 
advice of bis. friends, and supported also by the voice of 
the public, offered himself for it. Upon this, the minister, 
cardinal Fleury, wrote a letter to the academy, informing 
them, that his majesty wquld never agree to the election of 
the author of the " Persian Letters ;" that he had not him* 
self read the book; but that persons in whom be placed 
confidence, bad informed him pf its dangerous tendency* 
Montesquieu, thinking it prudent immediately to enco4nr 
ter this opposition, waited on the minister, and declared 
to him, that, for particular reasons, he bad flqc owned the 
*' Persian Letters,*' but that he would be still farther from 
disowning a work, for which he believed he bad no reaso* 
to bhish ; and that he ought to be judged after a reading, 
and not upon information* At last, the minister did what; 
he opght to haive begun with ; he read the hook, loved the 
author, and learned to place his. con6dence better. Th^ 
French academy, says J>'Alei*bert 4 was not deprived of 
one of its greatest ornaments, nor France of a subject, of 
which superstition or calumny was ready to deprive her \ 
for Montesquieu, it seems, bad frankly 4* c l*red to the 
government, that he ; could not think of continuing in 
France after the affront they were about to offer, but should 
aeek- among foreigners for that safety, repose, and honpur^ 
which he might have hoped in his own country. He was 
jecerred into the academy, Jan. 54, 1728 ; and his dis* 
course upon that occasion, which was reckoned a very finq 
one, is printed among his works*. . , 

* His conduct ba« been differently condemned by a cardinal or a minis. 

represented by Voltaire. Monies- ter. Montesquieu himself carried the 

quieti* says feat author* took a v*ry work to the. cardinal, who seldom read, 

judicious step to make the minister and he perused part of it. Tbis air of 

bis friend. Be printed, in a few days* confidence, supported by the influence 

a new edition ^>f his book % in which, of some persons of credit, regained the 

every thing was omitted that' could be cardinal's interest ; and Montesquieu; 




As before his admission into the academy, he had given 1 
tip his civil employments, and devoted himself entirely to 
his genius and taste, he resolved to travel, and went first, 
in company with lord Waldegrave our ambassador, td 
Vienna, where he often saw prince Eugene ; in whom he 
thought he could discover some remains of affection for his 
native country. He left Vienna to visit Hungary ; and 1 , 
passing thence through Venice, went to Rome. There he 
applied himself chiefly to examine the works of Raphael^ 
of Titian, and of Michael Angek), although he had not 
made the fine arts a particular study. After having tra- 
velled over Italy, be came to Switzerland, and carefully 
examined those vast countries which are watered by the 
Rhine. He stopped afterwards some time in the United 
Provinces ; and, at last, went to England, where he stayed 
three years, and contracted intimate friendships with many 
of the most distinguished characters of the - day. He in 
particular received many marks of attention from queen 
Caroline. In the portrait of Montesquieu, written by him- 
self, and published lately among some posthumous pieces, 
he gives the following proof of his gallantry in reply : 
"Dining in England with the duke of Richmond, the 
French envoy there La Boine, who was at table, and wa» 
ill qualified for his situation, contended that England was 
not larger than the province of Guienne. I opposed the 
envoy. In the evening, the queen said to me, ( I am 
informed, sir, that you undertook our defence- against M. 
de la Boine. 9 ( Madam,' I replied, * I cannot persuade 
myself that a country over which you reign, is- not a great 
kingdom. 1 " 

During his travels to gain a personal acquaintance with* 
the manners, genius, and laws of the different nations of 
Europe, he met with some singular adventures. Whilst 
he was at Venice he wrote mucfr and inquired more : his 
writings, which he did not keep sufficiently secret, had 
alarmed the state ; he was informed of it, and it was hinted 
to him. that be had some reason to be apprehensive that in 
crossing from Venice to Fucina* he might probably be ar- 
rested. With this information he embarked : about the 
middle of the passage, he saw several gondolas approach, 
and row round his vessel : terror seized him, and in his 

obtained a seat in the academy. This tioned, it a greater proof of littleness 
teems unworthy of Montesquieu ; but of mind/ and renders Che afore &*•<•' 
%ii conduct to Dupio, hereafter men- babte. < - 



panic he collected all bit papers which contained his ob- 
servations on Venice, and cast them into the sea. The 
author of the " New Memoirs of Italy" says, that the state 
t&d no design against his person, but only to discover 
what plans he might have formed. 

After his return, he retired for two years to his estate at 
Bcede, and there .finished his work " On the Causes of 
the<Grandeur and Declension of the Romans," which ap- 
peared in 1734, and in which he has rendered a common 
topic highly interesting. By seizing only the most fruitful 
tranches of his subject, he has contrived to present within 
a small compass a great variety of objects. But whatever 
reputation he acquired by this work/ it was but prepara- 
tory to the more extensive fame of his " Spirit of Laws,? 
of which he had, as already noticed, long formed the de- 
sign. Yet scarcely was it published, in 1748, when it was 
attacked by the same adversaries who had objected to the 
* Persian Letters," who at first treated it with levity, and 
even the title of it was made a subject of ridicule ; but the 
more serious objections made to it on the score of religion* 
alarmed the author, who therefore drew up " A Defence 
of the Spirit of Laws ;" in which, while he could not pre- 
tend that it was without faults, be endeavoured to prove 
that it had not all the faults ascribed to it. It is said that 
when the " Spirit of Laws" made its appearance, the Sor- 
honne found in it several propositions contrary to the doc- 
trine of the catholic church. These doctors entered into 
a critical. investigation of the work, which they generally 
censured; but as among the propositions condemned, there 
were found some concerning ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
w.hich were attended with many difficulties, and as Mon- 
tesquieu had promised to give a new edition, in which he 
would correct any passages that had appeared against reli- 
gion, this censure of the Sorbonne did not appear. 

The systematical part of the " Spirit of Laws" was that 
of which Montesquieu seemed the most tenacious ; this 

• Among his critics was M. Dupin, 
M farmer-general, who wrote an ans- 
wer to the " Spirit of Laws;" but after 
a few copies had been distributed, 
Montesquieu made his complaint to 
madame Pompadour, who sent for the 
writer, and told him she took the 
"Spirit of the Laws," and it« author, 
j^nderjjer protection : in consequence 

of this, Dupin was obliged to submit, 
and the whole edition of his answer 
was consigned to the flames. This 
was not to the credit of Montesquieu, 
who should have learnt a different les- 
son from England, in which he said 
be had been excited to thought and 



indeed was the most important and the most difficult His 
system, however, of the climates, inconclusive and ill- 
founded asit is, appears borrowed from Bod in' s " Method 
of studying History," and Charron's "Treatise on Wisdom.** 
Still the numerous useful observations, ingenious reflec- 
tions, salutary plans, and strong images, that are diffused 
through the work, added to the admirable maxims we there 
meet with for the good of society, gave the work a very 
high reputation in France, as well as throughout Europe 
in general. It has now lost much of its popularity, but at 
tone time no book was more read and studied. 

The admirers of Montesquieu have wished that he had 
applied himself to the writing of history; but it may be 
doubted whether his imagination would not have proved 
too lively for that attention to facts and authorities which 
is absolutely necessary to historical narrative. He had, 
however, finished the history of Lewis XI. of France, and 
the public was upon the point of reaping the benefit of hi& 
labours, when a singular mistake deprived them of if. 
Montesquieu one day left the rough draught and the copy 
of this history upon his table, when be ordered his secre- 
tary to burn the draught, and lock up the copy. The se- 
cretary obeyed in part, but left the copy upon the table : 
Montesquieu returning some hours alter into his studyy 
observed this copy, which he took for the draught, and 
threw it into the fire. On this and the preceding anec- 
dote, one of bis countrymen, in the true spirit of French 
compliment, observes, " that the elements, as well as 
taen in power, seemed jealous of his superior merit, at 
water and lire deprived us of two of his most valuable pro* 

In 1751, a literary dispute arose concerning the transla- 
tion of the Bible into French : the question was, whether 
the second person singular, which is dismissed in all polite 
conversation, should be preserved ? Fontenelle was en the 
affirmative side, as well as Montesquieu. Remarks were 
written on this determination, in which the writer, among 
other things, observes, " That the author of the Persian; 
Letters with his eastern taste, could not fail being an ad- 
vocate for thou*' 9 

About this time, among other marks of esteem bestowed 
on Montesquieu, Dassier, who was celebrated for cutting 
of medals, and particularly the English coin, went from 
London to Paris, to engrave that of the author of the Spirit 



Lata ; but Montesquieu modestly declined it. Tbe 
artist said to him one day, " Do not you think there is as 
much pride in refusing my proposal, as if you accepted it?" 
Disarmed by this pleasantry, he yielded to Dassier's re* 

Montesquieu was peaceably enjoying that esteem which 
bjs merits bad procured him, when he fell sick at Paris in 
1155. His health, naturally delicate, had begun to decay 
for some time, partly by the slow but sure effect of deep 
study, and partly by the way of life be was obliged to lead, 
at Paris, He was oppressed with cruel pains soon after be 
fell siek, nor had he his family, or any relations, near him ; 
yet he preserved to his last moments great firmness and 
tranquillity of mind. " In short," says bis elogist, " after 
paving performed every duty which decency required, he 
died with the ease and well-grounded assurance of a man 
who had never employee! his talents but in the cause of 
virtue and humanity." His last hours are said to have 
been disturbed by the Jesuits, who wished him to retract 
some of his opinions on religion ; and some say he made a 
formal disavowal of these. He. died February, 10, 1755,> 
aged 66. 

Besides the works already mentioned, Montesquieu wnota 
others of less reputation, but wbicb might have conferred 
celebrity on a writer of inferior merit. The most remarkable 
of them is the " Temple of Gnidus," which was published 
aOon after the "Persian Letters." Montesquieu, says 
D'Alembert, after having been Horace, Theophrastus, and 
Lucian, ip those, was Ovid and Anacreon in this new essay. 
in this he professes to describe the delicacy and simjplicity 
of pastpral love, such a* it is in an inexperienced hearty 
not yet corrupted with tbe commerce of the world : 
and, this be has painted in a sort of poem in prose; for, 
3t>cb we may reasonably call a piece so full of images and 
descriptions as the " Temple of Gnidus." Its voluptuous 
style at first made it be read with avidity, but, it is now 
Considered as unworthy of the author. Besides this, there 
is a small piece, called " Lysimachus," and another, still 
smaller, " On Taste;" but this is indeed paly: a fragment. 
Several of bis works have been translated at different times 
into English, but are not now much read in this country. 
In France, however, he is still considered as one of their 
standard authors, and within these few years, several splen- 
did editions of his collected works have been published 


both in 4to and 8vo, with additions from the author's ma- 
' To the personal character of Montesquieu, as given by 
his eulogists and biographers, we have never heard any 
objection. He was not less amiable, say they, for the 
qualities of his heart, than those of his mind. He ever 
appeared in the commerce of the world with good humour, 
cheerfulness, and gaiety. His conversation was easy, agree- 
able, and instructive, from the great number of men he 
bad lived with, and the variety of manners he had studied. ' 
It was poignant like his style, full of salt and pleasant 
sallies, free from invective and satire. No one could relate 
a narration, with more vivacity, readiness, grace, and pro- 
priety. He knew that the close of a pleasing story is 
always the chief object ; he therefore hastened to reach it, 
and always produced a happy effect, without creating too 
great an expectation. His frequent flights were very en- 
tertaining ; and he constantly recovered himself by some 
unexpected stroke, which revived a conversation when it 
was drooping ; but they were neither theatrically played 
off, forced, or impertinent. The 6re of his wit gave them 
birth; but his judgment suppressed them in the course of 
a serious conversation : the wish of pleasing always made 
him suit himself to his company, without affectation or the 
desire of being clever. The agreeableness of his company 
was not only owing to his disposition and genius, but also 
to the peculiar method he observed in his studies. Though 
capable of the deepest and most intricate meditations, he 
never exhausted his powers, but always quitted bis lucu- 
brations before he felt the impulse of fatigue. He had a 
sense of glory ; but he was not desirous of obtaining with- 
out meriting it. He never attempted to increase his repu- 
tation by those obscure and shameful means which dis- 
honour the man, without increasing the fame of the author. 
Worthy of the highest distinction and the greatest re- 
wards, he required nothing, and was not astonished at 
being forgotten : but he dared, even in the most critical 
circumstances, to protect, at Court, men of letters who 
were persecuted, celebrated, and unhappy, and obtained 
them favour. Although be lived with the great, as well 
from his rank as a taste for society, their company was not 
essential to bis happiness. He sequestered himself, when- 
ever he could, in his villa : there with joy he embraced 
philosophy, erudition, and ease. Surrounded in his-leU 

M ONTISftU VE U. 29* 

sure hours with rustic*, after having studied man in ihb 
commerce of the world and the history of nations, he 
studied him even in those simple beings, whose sole in- 
structor was nature, and in them he found information.* 
He cheerfully conversed with them : like Socrates he traced 
their genius, and he was as much pleased with their un- 
adorned narrations as with the polished harangues of the 
great, particularly when he terminated their differences,* 
and alleviated their grievances by his benefactions. He 
was in general very kind to his servants : nevertheless, he 
was compelled one day to reprove them ; when turning, 
towards a visitor, he said with a smile, " These are clocks- 
that must be occasionally wound up." Nothing does 
greater honour to his memory than the oeconomy with 
which he lived ; it has indeed been deemed excessive inv 
an avaricious and fastidious world, little formed to judge 
of the motive of his conduct, and still less to feel it. Be-* 
oeficent and just, Montesquieu would not injure his family 
by the succours with which he aided the distressed, nor 
the extraordinary expence occasioned by his. travels, the 
weakness of his sight, and the printing of his works. He' 
transmitted to his. children, without diminution or increase, 
the inheritance he received from his ancestors: he added 
nothing to it but his fame, and the example of his life. 
; Montesquieu married, in 1715, Jeanne de Lartigue,' 
daughter to Peter de Lartigue, lieutenant-colonel of the 
regiment of Maulevrier. By this lady he had two daughters 
and a son, John Baptista de Secondat, counsellor of 
the parliament of Bourdeaux, who died in that city in 
1796, at the age of seventy-nine. He was author of many> 
works ; particularly of " Observations de Physique et 
d'Histoire Naturelle sur les Eaux Minerales de Pyrenees,' 1 * 
1750 ; " Considerations sur la Commerce et la Navigation 
de la Grande Bretagne," 1740; " Considerations sur la 
Marine Militaire de France," 1756. He resided a con- 
siderable time in London, and was elected a member of 
the Royal Society. ! 

MONTETH, or MONTEITH (Robert), a Scotch his-: 
torian, was born at Salmonet, between Airth and Grange,* 
on the south-side of the Firth-of- Forth, whence he was 
called abroad Salmonettus Scoto-Britannus. Of his life we 
have been able to discover very few. particulars. The tra* 

. ! Eloge by O'Alembert and by Maapertuit.— JWct. HUL ' 

»S MONTE T ft. 

dition is, that be was obliged to leave Scotland upon bkr 
being suspected of adultery with the wife of sir James Ho-* 
milton of Preston*-field. Monteith appears to have been a 
chaplain of cardinal de Retz, who also made him a eanott 
6f Notre Dame, and encouraged him in writing his history* 
SeeJoli, Memoires, torn. II. page 86, where he is called 
« homme scavant & de merite." Cardinal de Rets also 
mentions him, vol. III. p. 323. His brother was lieute- 
nant-colonel of Dbuglas's regiment (the royal)> and killed 
in Alsace. In the privilege for printing Monteith' s History* 
granted the 13th of September 1660, to Jaques St. Clair 
de Roselin, he is styled "le defunct St. Montet." In th«f 
title-page he is called Messire. This work embraces the 
period of Scotch history from the coronation of Charles I* 
to the conclusion of the rebellion. In his preface he pro^ 
fesses the utmost impartiality, and as far as we have beet* 
able to look into the work, he appears to have treated th& 
history of those tumultuous times with much candour.' 
His leaning; is of course to the regal side of the question.* 
In 1735 a translation of this work, which was originally 
published in French, and was become very rare, was exe- 
cuted at London in one vol. fol. by J. Ogilvie, under the. 
title of a "History of the Troubles of Great Britain."' 
The. author was held in high esteem by Menage,- who wrote 
two Latin epigrams in his praise. The time of his death 
we have not been able to discover. He must be distin- 
guished from a Robert Mouteith, the compiler of a scared 
and valuable collection of all the epitaphs of Scotland,, 
published in 1704, Svo, under the title of " An Theater 
of Mortality." * 

MONTFAUCON (Bernard de), a Benedictine of the 
Congregation of St. Maur, and one of the most learned an- 
tiquaries France has produced, was born Jan. 17, 1655, at 
Soulage in Languedoc, whither his parents had removed 
on some business ; and was educated at the castle of Ro- 
quetailiade in the diocese of Alet, where they ordinarily re-* 
sided. His family was originally of Gascony, and of the 
ancient lords of Montfaucon-le-Vieux, first barons of the 
comt£ de Comminges. The pedigree of a man of learning* 
is not of much importance, but Montfaucon was an anti-r 
quary, and has given us bis genealogy in his " Bibl. Biblio~ 
thecarum manuscriptorum," and it must not, therefore, be 

* Pifeftce to bit kiitory.— Republic of Letters, vol. IX. p. 175* 


forgotten, that besides his honourable ancestors of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, he was the soli of Ti* 
moleon de Montfaucon, lord of Roquet&illade and Coniilac 
in the diocese of Alet, by Flora de Maignan, daughter of 
the baron d' Albieres. He was the second of four brothers. 
From his early studies in his father's house he was removed 
to Limoux, where he continued them under the fathers of 
the Christian doctrine, and it is said that the reading of 
Plutarch's Lives inspired him first with a love for history 
and criticism. A literary profession, however, was not his 
original destination, for we find that he set out with being 
ft cadet in the regiment of Perpignan, and served one or 
two campaigns in Germany in the army of marshal Turenne. 
He also gave a proof of his courage by accepting a chal- 
lenge from a brother officer, who wished to put it to the 
test. About two years after entering the army, the death 
of his parents* and of an officer of distinction under whom 
he served, with other circumstances that occurred about 
the same time, appear to have given him a dislike to the 
military life, and induced him to enter the congregation 
of St. Maur in 1675 at the age of twenty. In this learned 
society, for such it was for many years, he had every op- 
portunity to improve his early education, and follow the 
literary pursuits most agreeable to him. The first fruits of 
his application appeared in a kind of supplement to Cot- 
telerius, entitled " Analecta Grceca sive varia opuscula* 
Gr. & Lat." Paris, 4to, 1688, with notes by him, Antony 
Pouget and James Lopin. In 1690 he published a small 
volume 12mo, entitled "Laverit£ de l'Histoirede Judith," • 
in which he attempts to vindicate the authenticity of that 
apocryphal book, and throws considerable light on the 
history of the Medes and Assyrians. His next publication* 
of much importance was a Hew edition in Gr. & Lat. of 
the works of St. Athanaskts, which came out in 1698, 3 vols, 
fbl. This, which is generally known by the name of the 
Benedictine edition, gave the world the first favourable 
impression of Montfaucon's extensive learning and judg- 
ment. He had some assistance in it from father Lopin, 
before-mentioned, who, however, died before the publi- 

In the same year, Montfaucon, who bad turned hia 
thoughts to more extensive collections of antiquities than 
had ever yet appeared, determined to visit Italy for the 
sake of the libraries, and employed three years in consult* 


in'g their manuscript treasures. After his return, he pub- 
lished in 1702, an account of his journey and researches, 
under the title of " Diarium Italicum, sive monumenturn 
veterum, bibliothecarum, musseorum, &c notitiaB singu- 
lars, itinerario ltalico collects ; additis schematibus et 
figuris," Paris, 4to. Of this an English translation was 
published in 1725, folio, by as great a curiosity as any that 
father Montfaucon had met with in his travels, the famous 
orator Henley, who had not, however, at that time dis- 
graced his character and profession. In 1709, Ficorin^ 
published a criticism on the "Diarium" which Montfaucon 
answered -in the " Journal des S§avans," and some time 
after be met with . a defender in a work entitled " Apolo- 
gia del diario ltalico/' by father Busbaldi, of Mont-Cassin. 
During Montfaucon's residence at Rome, he exercised the 
function of procurator-general of his congregation at that 
court; and it was also while there, in 1699, that be bad 
occasion to take up his pen in defence of an edition of the 
works of St. Augustine published by some able men of his 
order, but which had been attacked, as he thought, very 
illiberally. His vindication was a 12mo volume, entitled 
" Vindicise editionis sancti Augustini a Benedictis ador- 
nata, ad versus epistolam abbatis Germani autore D. B. de 
Biviere," The edition referred to is that very complete 
one by the Benedictins, begun to be published in 1679, 
at Antwerp, and completed in 1700, 1 1 vols, folio. 

In 1706, Montfaucon published in 2 vols, folio, a col-, 
lection of the ancient Greek ecclesiastical writers, with a 
Latin translation, notes, dissertations, &c. The most con^ 
siderable part of this collection is " Eusebius of Caesarea's 
Commentary upon the Psalms," mentioned by St. Jerome, 
and which we overlooked in our account of Eusebius. 
Here is also Eusebius' s commentary on Isaiah, and some 
jnedited works of St. Athanasius, for which reason this 
" Collectio nova patrum" (for such is its title) is recom- 
mended as a companion to Montfaucon's edition of Atha- 
nasius' s works. A second edition of both was published at 
Padua in 1777, 4 vols, folio; but although it professes to 
be improved " curis novissimis," it does not enjoy the re- 
putation of the originals. In 1708 he published one of 
his most important works, and which alone would have 
given him strong claims on the learned world, his " Palaeo- 
grapbia Graeca, sive de ortu et progressu literarum Grae- 
cam ui, et de variis omnium SLscculorum scriptioiris Graecap 


generibus ; itemque de abbreviationibus et notis variarum 
artiom et disciplinarum. Additis figuris et scbetnatibu* 
ad fidem manuscriptorum codicum," folio. This inva- 
luable work has done the same in reference to the disco- 
very of the age of Greek MSS. which the " De re diplo- 
matica" of Mabillon has done to ascertain the age of those 
in Latin. At the end of this work, are John Comnenus's 
description of Mount Athos, Gr. and Lat. with a learned 
preface ; and a dissertation by the president Bouhier on 
the ancient Greek and Latin letters. 

In 1709 Montfaucon published Pbilo-Judaeus on a con-, 
templative life, in French, * c Le Livre de Philon de la 
vie contemplative, &c." translated from the Greek with 
notes, and an attempt to prove that t!ie Therapeut® of 
whom Philo speaks were Christians. Having sent a copy 
of this to president Bouhier, the latter returned him a po- 
lite letter of thanks, but stated that he could not agree with 
.him in his opinion respecting the religion of the Thera- 
peutm. This brought on a correspondence which was 
published at Paris in 1712, 12mo, under the title of " Let- 
tres pour & contre sur la fameuse question, si les solitaires 
appell^s Therapeutes etoient Chretiens." The learned 
Gisbert Coper was also against the opinion of Montfaucon 
on this question; and it is, we believe, now generally 
thought that his arguments were more ingenious than con- 
vincing. In 1710, Montfaucon published an " Epistola" 
on the fact, mentioned by Rufinus, that St. Athanasius 
baptised children when himself a child. In this work he 
investigates the date of the death of St. Alexander, bishop 
of Alexandria, and that of the death of St. Athanasius. This 
was followed in 1713 by an edition of what remains of the 
" Hexapla of Origen," 2 vols, folio, and a fine edition of 
the works of St Chrysostom, begun in 1718, and completed 
in 1738 in 13 vols, folio. 

In 1715 appeared his " Bibliotheca Cosliniana, olint Se~ 
guieriana, seu MSS. omnium Greecorum quae in ea conti* 
nentur accurata descriptio," Paris, folio. This contains a 
list of 400 Greek MSS. with the age of each, and often a 
specimen of the style, &c. In 1719, the year in which be 
was chosen a member of the academy of inscriptions and 
belles lettres, appeared his great work, and such as no na- 
tion had yet produced, entitled " L* Antiquity expliqueeet 
representee en figures/' Paris, 5 vo}s. usually bound in 10; 
t# 'which was added in 1724,. a supplement, in $ vpk. the* 

30* M O N T W A U O N. 

whole illustrated by a vast number of elegant, accurate* 
and expensive engravings, representing nearly 40,000 ob- 
jects of antiquity, engraved from statues,, medals, &c. iq 
the various cabinets of Europe. In such a vast collection 
.as this, it is as unnecessary to add that there are many 
errors, as it would be unjqst to censure them with all the 
parade of criticism. In the case of a work which so many 
hundred recent scholars and antiquaries have quoted, and 
which laid the foundation for the improvements of later 
times, it would be fastidious to withhold the praises se 
justly due to the laborious author. Whole societies, in- 
deed, would think much of their joint efforts, if they bad 
accomplished a similar undertaking. It remains to be no- 
ticed, however, that the first edition of the above dates, it 
the most valuable. That reprinted in 1722 with the sup- 
plement of 1757 is by no means of equal reputation. Some 
copies made up from the edition in 40 vols, pf 1719, and 
tbe supplement of 1757, are also in little esteem. This was 
followed by another interesting work, which is now be* 
come scarce, " Les Monumens de la monarchic Frangoise, 
avec Jes fig. de chaque regne, que l'iujure du temps a 

!>pargn£es," Paris, 1729 — 1733, 5 vols, folio. This coU 
ection, of which he published a prospectus in 1725, may 
be properly called " The Antiquities of France," and in- 
cludes all those classes, civil, ecclesiastical, warlike, man-* 
ners, &c. which form a work of that title in modern Ian* 
gpage. His last, and not tbe least important of his works, 
was . published in 1739, 2 vols, folio, under the title of 
" $ihhotheca bibliothecarum MSS. nova, ubi quae innu- 
merrs . pcene manuscriptorum bibliothecis continentur ad 
qupdvis Utteratura genus spectantia et uotatu digna, de* 
toribuntur, et iadicantur." Two years after the learned 
futhor died suddenly at the abbey of St. Germain deaPres, 
Dec. 21, 174], at the advanced age of eighty-seven. Be* 
aides the works above mentioned, Montfaucon contributed 
many curious and valuable essays on subjects of antiquity* 
frc. to tbe memoirs of the academy of inscriptions aad 
belles lettres, and other literary journals. 

Montfaucon enjoyed during his long life the esteem of 
ijbe learned world, am) was not more regarded for the e*« 
tensive learning than the amiable qualities of hi* private 
character* He was modest, polite, affable, and alwayar 
ready to communicate the information with which his 
indefatigable studies and copious reading supplied him. 



Foreigners who sought to he introduced to him, returned 
froiti his conversation, equally delighted with his manner*, 
and astonished at bis stores of learning. The popes Be- 
nedict XIII. and Clement XI. -and the emperor Charles VI. 
honoured him with particular marks of their regard ; but 
honours or praise, in no shape, appeared to affect the hu- 
mility and simplicity of his manners. 1 

MONTGERON (Lewis Basil Carke' de), borh in 
1686, at Paris, was the son of Guy Carr£, mafcre des 
requites. He was but twenty-five when be purchased a 
counsellor's place in the parliament, and acquired some 
degree of credit in that situation by his wit and exteriot 
-accomplishments. He had, by bis own account, given 
•himself up to all manner of licentiousness, for which his 
conscience frequently checked htm, and although he en- 
deavoured to console himself with the principles of infi- 
delity, his mind was still harassed, when accident of de? 
•ign led him to visit the tomb of M. Paris the deacon, Sep- 
tember 7, 1731, with the crowd which, from various mo* 
•lives, were assembled there. If we may believe his own 
•account, he went merely to scrutinize, with the' utmost 
severity, the (pretended) miracles wrought there, but felt 
iumself, as be says, suddenly struck and overwhelmed by 
,& thousand rays of light, which illuminated him, and, front 
an infidel, he immediately became a Christian, but in truth 
-was devoted from that moment to fanaticism, with the same 
violence and impetuosity of temper which had before led 
him into the most scandalous excesses. In 1739 he was 
involved in a quarrel which the parliament had with the 
court, and was, with others, banished to Auvergne. Herd 
he formed a plan for collecting the proofs of the miracles 
wrought at the tomb of the abbe Paris, making them clear 
to demonstration, as he called it, and presenting them to 
the king. At his return to Paris, he prepared to put this 
plan in execution, went to Versailles, July 29, 1737, and 
presented the king with a quarto volume magnificently 
bound, which he acoompanied with a speech. In conse- 
quence of this step Montgeron was sent to thebastile, thett 
confined some : months in a Benedictine abbey belonging 
to the diocese of Avignon, removed soon after to Viviers, 
and carried. from thence to be shut up in the citadel of 
Valence, where he died in 1754, aged sixty-eight. The 

* Moreri.— Saxit Oaomast.— -Diet. Hitt.— CUrke'i Bibliographical Dictionary, 

.ao* M ON T G E R'O n: 

work which he presented to the king is entitled " La Verity 
des Miracles op£r£s par I'lntercession de M. de Paris/' &c. 
4to. This first volume by M. Montgerbn has been followed 
by two more, and he is said also to have left a work in MS. 
against the incredulous, -written while he was a prisoner. 
De Montgeron would, however, have scarcely deserved a 
place here, if bishop Douglas, in his " Criterion," had nofc 
bestowed so much pains on examining the pretended mira- 
cles which be records, and thus rendered his history an 
object of some curiosity. 1 

MONTGOLF1ER (Stephen James), the inventor of 
•air-balloons, was born at Aunonay,. and was originally a 
paper-maker, and the first who made what is called vellum- 
; paper. Whence -be took the bint of « the aerostatic bal- 
loons seems uncertain, but in 1782 be made his first ex- 
periment at Avignon, and after other trials, exhibited 
.before the royal family on Sept. 19, 1783, a grand balloon, 
Jiear sixty feet high and forty-three in diameter, which 
ascended with a cage containing a ;sheep, a codjk, and a 
duck, and conveyed them through the air in safety to the 
distance of about 10,000 feet. This was foHowed by ano- 
ther machine of Montgolfier's construction, with which a 
M. Pilatre de Rozier ascended. This daring adventurer 
lost his life afterwards along with his companidn Romsitr, 
by the balloon catching fire, an event which did dot pre- 
vent balloons from being introduced into this- and other 
countries. After repeated trials, however, the utility of 
these expensive and hazardous machines seems doubtful, 
and for some years they have been of little use, except to 
fill the pockets of needy adventurers. MontgoJfier was re* 
warded for the discovery by admission into the academy of 
sciences, the ribbon of St. Michael, and a pension. He- 
died in 1799.* 

MONTMORT (Peter Raymond de), an able mathe- 
ipatici^n, ,was born at Paris in the year 1678, and intended 
for the profession of , the law, to -enable him to qualify for 
a place in the magistracy** From dislike. of this destination,* 
he withdrew into England, whence he passed over into the 
Low Countries, and travelled into Germany, where he re- 
sided with a near relation,, M.Chambois, the plenipoten- 
tiary of France at the diet of Ratisbon.; He returned tor 

1 Diet. Hist.— Douglas's Criterion, p. 132, fcc. edit. 1807. 

* DicLiiisL— Rees's Cyclopaedia, art. Aerostation. 4 


'France in 1699, and after the death of his father, who left 

• him arv ample fortune, devoted his talents to the study of 
« philosophy and the mathematics, under the direction of the 

celebrated Malebranche, to whom be had, -some years be- 
fore, felt greatly indebted for the conviction of the truth 

,of Christianity, by perusing bis work on <* The Search after 

-Truth." ]n 1700 he went a second time to England, and 
on his return, assumed the ecclesiastical habit, and was 
made a canon in the church of Notre- Dame, at Paris. 
.About this time be edited, at his own expence, the works 
of M. Guisnde on '« The Application of Algebra to Geo- 
metry," and that of Newton on the "Quadrature of Curves." 
In 1703 he published his "Analytical Essay ot) Games of 

- Change," and an improved edition in 1714. This was most 
favourably received by men* of science in all countries. In 

'1715 hejsaid a third visit to England, for the purpose 6f 
observing a solar eclipse, and was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society, to which learned body he soon afterwards 
transmitted an important treatise on " Infinite Series," 
which was inserted in the Philosophical Transactions for 
the- year 1717. He was elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences at Paris in 1716, and died at the early 
age of forty-one, of the small-pox. He sustained all the 
relations of life in the most honourable manner, and though 
subject to fits of passion, yet his anger soon subsided,' and 

' be was ever ashamed of the irritability of his temper. Such 
was his steady attention that he could resolve the most dif- 
ficult problems in company, and among the noise of play- 
ful children. He was employed several years in writing 
u A History of Geometry," but he did not live to com- 
plete it. 1 

MONTUCLA (John Stephen), a celebrated mathe- 
matician; was born at Lyons in the year 1725, and giving 

: early indications of a love of learning, was placed under the 
instructions of the Jesuits,' with whom he acquired* an inti- 
mate acquaintance with the ancient and modern languages, 
and some knowledge of the mathematics. At the age of 

• sixtfeen he went to Toulouse to study the law, arid was ad- 
mitted an advocate, though without much intention of 

'practising 'at the bar. * Having completed his studies, he 
wept to Paris, cultivated an acquaintance with the most 
distinguished literary characters, and it was owing to his 

<• Moreru— Diet Hwt.— *ee*'» CyCk>p«dhi. 

Vol. XXII. X 

; m MONT.UCLi 


intercourse with them, that lie was induced to undertake 
his " History of the Mathematical Sciences. 19 But in the 

. interim he published new editions, with additions and 
improvements, of several mathematical treatises which 
were already held in the highest estimation. The first of 
these was " Mathematical Recreations," by M. Ozanam, 
which has been since translated into English, atid pub- 
lished in London, in 4 vols. 8vo. To all the works which 
he edited, after Ozanam' s, he gave the initials of his name. 
He also contributed bis assistance for some years to " The 
French Gazette ;' 9 and in 1755 he was elected a member 
of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin. In the fol- 
lowing year, when the experiment of inoculation was about 
to be tried on the first prince of the blood, Montucla trans- 
lated from the English an account of all the recent cases 
of that practice, which had been sent from Constantinople, 

.by lady Mary Wortley Montague. This translation he 
added to the memoir of De la Condamine on the subject. 
Previously to this publication, be had given to the world 
his " History of Inquiries relative to the Quadrature of the 
Circle." The encouragement which this met with from 
very able judges of its merit, afforded him great encou- 
ragement to apply with ardour to his grand design, " The 
History of the Mathematics; 99 and in 1758 he published 
this " History,'* in two volumes, 4to, which terminates with 
the close of the 17th century. It answered the expectation 
of all his friends, and of men of science in all countries, and 
the author was instantly elevated to a high rank in the 

., learned world. His fame was widely diffused, and he was 
pressed from all quarters to proceed with the mathematical 
history of the 18th century, which he had announced for 
the subject of ft third volume, and for which l\e had made 

. considerable preparations ; but he was diverted from his 
design,, by receiving the appointment of secretary to the 
Intendance at Grenoble. Here he spent his leisure hours 
chiefly in retirement, and in scientific pursuits. In 1764, 
Turgot, being appointed to establish a colony at Cayenne, 
took Montucla with him as his " secretary," to which was 

> added the title of " astronomer to the king, 9 ' and although 
he returned without attaining any particular object with 
regard to the astronomical observations, for which he went 

' out, he had ai) opportunity of collecting some valuable 
tropical plants, with which he enriched the king 9 s hot* 
Rouses at Versailles. Soon after his return, be was ap~ 

MONTUC'LA. set' 

pointed chief clerk 4n a? official department, similar x<o,] 
that known in this country by the name of ahe " Board of, 
Wqrks,". which he retained till the place was abolished in , 
1792, when he was reduced to considerable pecuniary era- , 
harrassments. Under the pressure of these circumstances, 
he began to prepare a new and much enlarged edition of 
his " History," which he presented to the world in 1799,, 
in two volumes, quarto. In this edition are many impor- 
tant improvements; and many facts, which were barely, 
announced in the former impression, are largely detailed . 
and illustrated in this. After the publication of these two 
volumes, the author proceeded with the printing of the. 
third; but death terminated his labours, when he had ar- 
rived at the 336th page. . The remainder of the volume,, 
and the whole of the fourth, were printed under the in- . 
spection of Lalande. Montucla had been a member of the . 
National Institute from its original establishment. He had 
obtained various employments under the revolutionary go- 
vernment, though he was but meanly paid for his labour, 
and had to struggle with many difficulties to furnish his 
family with the bare necessaries of life. At length he was 
reduced to seek the scanty means of support by keeping 
a lottery-office, till the death of Saussure put him in the. 
possession of a pension of about one hundred pounds per 
annum, which he enjoyed only four months. He died in 
December 1799, in the 75th year of his age. He was amaij 
of great modesty, and distinguished by acts of generosity, 
and liberality, when it was in his power. He was also 
friendly, cheerful, and of very amiable manners. ! 

MOOR (Karel de), an excellent portrait-painter, was 
born. at Ley den, in 1656, and at 'first was a disciple of Gerard 
Douw, and afterwards of Abraham Vanden Tempel, whose , 
death compelled him to return to Leyden from Amster- 
dam, where he studied awhile with Francis Mieris, and at 
last went to Dort, to practise with Godfrey Schalcken, to 
whom he was superior as a designer ; but he coveted to 
learn Schalcken's manner of handling* As soon as Moor 
began to follow his profession, the public acknowledged . 
his extraordinary merit; and he took the most effectual 
ipethod to establish his reputation, by working with a much > 
stronger desire to acquire fame, than to increase his fortune. . 
He painted portraits in a beautiful style, in some of them, 

* Hilt of tk* Mathematics, vol. IV.— Rees'i Cj^opadia. 

30* MOOR 

imitating the taste, the dignity, the force, and the de!t~ 
cacy of Vandyck; and in others, he shewed the striking 
effect and spirit of Rembrandt. In his female figures, the 
carnations were tender and soft ; and in his historical com* 
positions, the air of bis heads had variety and grace. His 
draperies are well chosen, elegantly disposed in very natu- 
ral folds, and appear light, flowing, and unconstrained. 
His pictures are always neatly and highly finished ; he de- 
signed them excellently, and grouped the figures of bis 
subjects with great skill. His works were universally ad- 
mired, and some of the most illustrious princes of Europe 
seemed solicitous to employ his pencil. The grand duke 
of Tuscany desired to have the portrait of DeMoor, painted 
by himself, to be placed in the Florentine gallery ; and v 
on the receipt of it, that prince 3ent htm, in return, a 
chain of gold, and a large medal of the same metal. The 
Imperial ambassador count Sinzendorf, by order of fair 
.master, engaged him to paint the portraits of prince Eu- 
gene, and the duke of Marlborough, on horseback ; and 
in that performance, the dignity and expression of the 
figures, and also the attitudes of the horses, appeared s+ 
masterly, that it was beheld with admiration, and occa- 
sioned many commendatory poems, in elegant Latin verse, 
to be published to the honour of the artist ; and the em- 
peror, on seeing that picture, created De Moor a knight 
of the empire* He died in 1733, in his eighty-second 
year. l 

MOOR (Michael), a very learned divine of the Roman 
catholic persuasion, was born in Dublin in 1640. After 
being taught at a grammar-school for some time, he was 
sent to France, and had his first academical learning at the 
college of Nantz, whence he removed to Paris, and com- 
pleted his studies in philosophy and divinity, in both which 
he attained great reputation, as he did likewise for his 
critical skill in the Greek language. He taught philoso- 
phy and rhetoric in the Grassin college for some years : 
but at length returning to Ireland, was, with considerable 
reluctance, prevailed upon to take priest's orders, and 
had some preferment while the popish bishops had any in- 
fluence. When James II. came to Ireland, Dr. Moor was 
recommended to him, often preached before him, and had 
influence enough to prevent his majesty from conferring 

1 Pilkington. — D'Argenville, vol. Ilk 

MOOR. 30$ 

Trinity-college, Dublin, on the Jesuits, to which he had 
been advised by his confessor father Peters. t)r. Moor 
being made provost of this college, by the recommenda- 
. tion of the Roman catholic bishops, was the means of pre* 
serving the valuable library, at a time when the college 
was a popish garrison, the chapel a magazine, and many of 
the charpbers were employed as prisons for the protestants. 
But th^ Jesuits could not forgive him for preventing their 
gaining the entire property of the college, and took ad- 
. vantage to ruin him with the king, from a sermon he preached 
. before James II. at Christ Church. His text was, Matt/ 
xv. 14. " If the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into 
the ditch." In this discourse Dr. Moor had the boldness 
.to impute the failure of the king's affairs to his following 
too closely the councils of the Jesuits, and insinuated that 
they would be his utter ruin. Father Peters, who had a 
defect in his eyes, persuaded the king that the text was 
levelled at his majesty through his confessor, and urged 
that Moor was a dangerous subject, who endeavoured to 
stir up sedition among the people.. James was so weak as 
to believe all this, and ordered Dr. Moor immediately to 
quit his dominions. Moor complied, as became an obe- 
dient subject, but hinted at his departure, " that he only 
went as the king's precursor, who would soon be obliged to 
follow him." Moor accordingly went to Paris, where the 
reputation of his learning procured him a favourable re- 
. qeption ; and king James, after the battle of the Boyne, 
. followed him, as he had predicted. But here it appears 
that the king had influence enough to oblige Moor to leave 
. France as be had done Ireland, probably by misrepresenting 
his conduct to the Jesuits. 

Moor now went to Rome, where his learning procured 
• him very high distinction. He was 6rst made censor of 
. books, and then invited to Montefiascone, and appointed 
•rector of a seminary newly founded by cardinal Mark 
; Antony Barbarigo, and also professor of philosophy and 
-Greek.. Pope Innocent XII. was so much satisfied with 
his conduct in the government of this seminary, that he 
contributed the sum of two thousand Roman crowns yearly 
^towards its maintenance; and Clement XI. had such a high 
/opinion of Moor that he would have placed his nephew 
jinder his tuition, had he not been prevented, as was sup- 
posed, by the persuasions of the Jesuits. On the death of ' 
James IL Dr. Moor was invited to France, and such was 

'310 M O OR. 

. » m - I * ft . 

bis reputation there, that he was made twice rector of the 
university of Paris, and principal of the college of Navarre, 
and was appointed regius professor of philosophy, Greek, 

" and Hebrew. He died, in his eighty-fifth year, at his 
apartments in the college* of Navarre, Aug. 22, 1726. It 
is evident he could have been no common character, who 
attained so many honours in a foreign land. * His writings, 

' however, are perhaps not much known. One of them, 
"DeExistentiaDei, et human® mentis immortalitate," &c. 

' published at Paris, 1692, 8vo, is said by Harris to have 
been translated into English by Mr. Blackmore, perhaps sir 
Richard, but we have not been able to find this work in 
any of our public libraries. Dr. Moor also published "Hor- 
tatio ad studium linguae Graecse et Hebraic*," Montefias- 
cone, 1700, 12mo; and " Vera sciendi Methodus," Paris, 
1716, 8vo, against the philosophy of Des Cartes. l 

MOORE (Edward), an English poetical and miscella- 
neous writer, was the grandson of the rev. John Moore of 
Devonshire, one of the ejected non-conformists, who died 
Aug. 23, 1717, leaving two sons in the dissenting ministry. 
Of these, Thomas, the father of our poet, removed to 
Abingdon in Berkshire, where he died in 1721, and where 
Edward was born March 22, 17.11-12, and for some time 

1 brought up under the care of his uncle. He was after- 
wards placed at the school of East Orchard in Dorsetshire, 
where he probably received no higher education than would 

• qualify him for trade. For some years he followed the bu- 
siness of a linen-draper, both in London and in Ireland, 

* but with so little success that he became disgusted with his 
. occupatipn, arid, ps be informs us in his preface, " more 

from necessity than inclination, 7 ' began to encounter the 
vicissitudes of a literary life. His first attempts -were of 
the poetical kind, which still preserve his name among the 
•• minor poets of his country. In 1744, he published his 
«.t* Fables for the Female Sex/* which were so favourably- 
received as to introduce him into the society of some learned 
and some opulent contemporaries. The bon. Mr. Pelhato 
was one of his early patrons ; and, by his " Trial of Selim/" 
he gained the friendship of Jord Lytteltpn, who felt himself 
flattered by a compliment turned with much ingenuity, and 
decorated by wit and spirit. But as, for some time, Motire 
derived no substantial advantage from patronage, his <chi$f 

1 Harris's edition of Watt. 

* * 1 • ■ • 

MOORE. 311 

dej&endance was on the stage, to which, within five yeari, 
he supplied three pieces of considerable, although une- • 
qual, merit " The Foundling," a comedy, which was first r 
acted in 1748, was decried from a fancied resemblance to 
the " Conscious Lovers." His " Oil Bias," which ap- 
peared in 1751, met with a more severe fate, and, not- 
withstanding the sprightliness of the dialogue, not altoge- 
ther unjustly. "The Gamester," a tragedy, first acted' 
Feb.' 7, 1753, was our author's most successful attempt, 
and is still a favourite. In this piece, however, he deviated 
from the custom of the modern stage, as Lilio had in his - 
". George Barnwell," by discarding blank verse ; and per* 
haps nothing short of the power by which the catastrophe, 
engaged the feelings, could have reconciled the audience 
to this innovation. But his object was the misery of the life 
and death of a gamester, to which it would have been 
difficult to give a heroic colouring ; and his language became 
what would be most impressive, that of truth aad nature. 
Davies, in his Life of Garrick, seems inclioed to share the 
reputation of the " Gamester" between Moore and Gar- 
rick. Moore acknowledges, in his preface, that he was in 7 
debted to that inimitable actor for " many popular pas- 
sages," and Davies believes that the scene between Lew- 
son and Stukely, in the fourth act, was almost entirely -Jus, 
because he expressed, during the time of action, uncom- 
mon, pleasure at the applause given to it Whatever may . 
be in this conjecture, the play, after having been acted to 
crowded houses for eleven nights, was suddenly with* 
drawn. The report of the day attributed this to the in- 
tervention of the leading members of some gaming clubs* 
Davies thinks this a mere report " to give more conse- 
quence to those assemblies than they could really boast." 
From a letter, in our possession, written by Moore to Dr. 
Warton, it appears that Garrick suffered so much from 
the fatigue of acting the principal character as to require 
some repose. Yet this will not account for the total ne- 
glect, for some years afterwards, of a play, not only por 
pular, but so obviously calculated to give the alarm to re- 
claimable gamesters, and perhaps bring the whole gang 
into discredit. The author mentions, in his letter to Dr* 
Warton, that he expected to clear about four hundred 
pounds by his tragedy, exclusive of the profits by the sale 
of the copy. 

312^ MOO R&i 


f |tis asserted by Dr. Johnson, in his life of lord Lyttel- 
ton, that, in return for Moore's elegant compliment, " The ■ 
Trial of Selim," his lordship paid him with " kind words, • 
which, as is common, raised great hopes, that at last were ' 
disappointed/ 9 It is possible, however, that these hope*- 
were of another kind than it was in his lordship's power to ' 
gratify*; and it is certain that he substituted a method of r 
serving Moore, which was not only successful for a consi- 
derable time, but must have been agreeable to the feelings * 
ofadelicateand independent mind. About the years 1751-2, 
periodical writing began to revive in its most pleasing fornrr, 
but had hitherto been executed by men of learning only. 
Lord Lyttelton projected a. paper, in concert with Dodsley,* 
which should unite the talents of certain men of rank, arid t 
receive such a tone and consequence from th&t circum* -"* 
stance, as mere scholars can seldom hope to command or * 
attain. Such was the origin of the " World,'* for every! 
paper of which Dodsley stipulated to pay Moore three 
guineas, whether the papers were written by him, or by 
the volunteer contributors. Lord Lyttelton, to render this 
bargain more productive to the editor, solicited and ob- 
tained the assistance of the earls of Chesterfield, Bath, and 
Corke, and of Messrs. Walpole, -Cambridge, Jenyns, and 
other men of rank and taste, who gave their assistance, ' 
some with great regularity, and all so effectually as to roun- 
der the " World 99 far more popular than any of *U con* ; 

In this work, Moore wrote sixty-one papers, in a style 
easy and unaffected, and treated the whims and follies of' 
the day with genuine humour. His thoughts are often orU : 
grnal, and his ludicrous combinations argue a copious 
fancy. Some of his papers, indeed, are mere playful' 
exercises which have no direct object in view, but in ge* : 
neral, in bis essays, as well as in ail his wdrks, -he shews- 
himself the friend of morality and public decency. In tbe ; 
last number, the conclusion of the work is made to depend 
on a fictitious accident which had occasioned the author'* 1 


* Of this Moore was not always sen- know that Walpole had written tba 

fibte; Oo one occasion, when lord " Letters to the Whigs," which, in bis 

Lyttelton bestowed a small place on zeal for Lyttelton, he had undertaken. 

Bower, to which oor poet thought he to answer. Horace, however, kept his 

had a higher claim, he behaved in such own secret, and performed the office o£- 

a manner to his patron as to occasion mediator. Walpole'* Letters, in Worka^ 

a coolness. Horace Walpole under- vol. V. ' \ k ' 

took to reconcile them. Moore did not 

M O O RI 31S 

death. . When the papers were collected into volumes Car 
a teeonfd edition,: Moore superintended the publication/ 
and actually died white this last number was in the press ; 
a circumstance which induces the wish that death may be 
fess frequently included among the topics of wit 

During the publication of the World, and probably be- 
fore, Moore wrote some lighter pieces and songs for the 
public gardens. What his other literary labours were, or 
whether he contributed regularly to any publications, i* 
not known. A very few weeks before his death he pro* 
jected a Magazine, in which Gataker and some other of 
his colleagues in the " World 9 ' were to be engaged: . His 
acknowledged works are not numerous, consisting only of 
the poems here noticed, and of his three plays. These 
were published by bhn, in a handsome quarto volume, in 
1756, by subscription, dedicated to the duke of Newcastle,* 
brother to his deceased patron Mr. Pelham. The sub* 
scribers were very numerous, and included many persons 
of the highest rank and talents, but he did not long enjoy 
the advantages of their liberality. He died Feb. 28, 1757, 
at his house at Lambeth, of an inflammation on his lungs, 
. the consequence of a fever improperly treated. 

tin 1750, be married Miss Hamilton, daughter of Mr. 
Charles Hamilton, table-decker to the princesses ; a lady 
wbo bad herself a poetical turn. By this lady, who in 
1758 obtained the place of necessary-woman to the queen's 
apartments, and who still survives, he bad a son Edward, 
who died in the naval service in 1773. Moore's personal 
character appears to have been unexceptionable, and his 
pleasing manners and humble demeanour rendered hi* 
society acceptable to a very numerous class of friends. His 
productions were those of a genius somewhat above the 
common ord£r, unassisted by learning. His professed ex- 
clusion of Greek and Latin mottoes from the papers of the 
World (although tbey were not rejected when sent), in- 
duces us to think that he had little acquaintance with the 
classics, and there is indeed nothing in any of his works 
that indicates the study of a particular branch of science. 
When he projected the Magazine above mentioned, he 
told the Wartons, " in confidence, that he wanted a dull 
plodding fellow of one of the universities, who understood 
JLratin amd Greek.** 

Of his poetry, simplicity and smoothness appear to be 
the leading features ; bence he is easily intelligible, and 

314 MOORS. 

consequently instructive, and bis "Fables" bave always 
been popular. All his pieces are of the light kind, pro- 
duced with little effort, and to auswer temporary purposes. 
We find nowhere indications that he could have succeeded 
in the higher species of poetry. His songs bare much 
originality of thought, but sometimes a looseness of ex- 
pression which would not now be tolerated. The " Trial 
of Selim" is an ingenious* and elegant panegyric, but it 
ought to have sufficed to have once versified the forms of 
law. The " Trial of Sarah *** alias Slim Sal/ 9 has too 
much the air of a copy. He ranks but low as a writer of 
odes, yet " The Discovery," addressed to Mr. Pelbam, 
has many beauties, and among those the two last stanzas 
may be safely enumerated. 1 

MOORE (John), an eminent English prelate, was the 
son of Thomas Moore of Market- Harboro ugh in Leicester- 
shire, where . he was born. He was admitted June 28, 
1 662, of Clare-ball college, Cambridge, where be took the 
degree of B. A. in 1665, M. A. in 1669, and D. D. in 16$l. 
He was also fellow of that college, and afterwards became 
chaplain to Heneage Finch, earl of Nottingham, by whose 
interest he rose to considerable preferments, and in parti* 
cular, was promoted to the first prebeodal stall in the ca- 
thedral church of Ely. His next preferment was the rec- 
tory of St. Austin's, London, to which he was admitted 
D6c. 3, 1687, but he quitted that Oct 26, 1689, on bis 
being presented by king William and queen Mary (to whom 
be was then chaplain in ordinary) to the rectory of St. 
Andrew's, Holborn, vacant by the promotion of Dr. Stil- 
lingfleet to the see of Worcester. On the deprivation of 
Dr. William Lloyd, bishop of Norwich, for not taking the 
oaths to their majesties, he was advanced to that see, and 
consecrated July 5, 1691, and. was thence translated to 
Ely, July 31, 1707, in which he remained until his death. 
He died at Ely-house, in Holborn, July 31, 1714, in his 
sixty-eighth year. He was interred on the north side of 
the presbytery of his cathedral church, near his predeces- 
sor bishop Patrick, where an elegant monument was erected 
to his memory. . 

This divine was, after his advancement to the episcopal 
dignity, one of the most eminent patrons of learning and 

learned men in his time; and his name will be carried 


1 Johnson and Chalmers's English ?eets, edit. 1810. 


M O ORE. 3t* 

*4)6wii to posterity, not only by his sermons published by 
Dr. Samuel Clarke, his chaplain (1715, 2 vols. 8vo), but 

* by thg curious and magnificent library collected by him, 
and purchased after bis death by George I. who presented 
it to the university of Cambridge. Burnet ranks him 
amdng those who were an honour to the church and the 

' age in which they lived. He assisted him (as he did many 

* learned m£n) from his valuable library, when writing his 
'History of the Reformation. Hie contributed also to Clark's 

Caesar, and to Wilkins's " Ecclesiastes," by pointing out a 
-multitude of celebrated authors who deserved notice in that 

* useful,' but now much-neglected work. His sermons were 
held in such estimation as to be translated into Dutch, and 
published at Delft in 1700. His library, consisting of 

"30,000 volumes, fills up the rooms on the north and west , 
sides of the court over the philosophy and divinity schools, 
and is arranged in 26 classes. It ought not to be omitted 
that his present majesty gave 2000/. towards fitting up'thi* 
library. 1 

MOORE (John), a medical and miscellaneous writer, 

5 was the son of the rev. Charles Moore, a minister of the 

-English church at Stirling, in Scotland, where this, his only 
surviving son, was born in 1730. His father dying in 

-1735, his mother, who was a native of Glasgow, and had 

* some property there, removed to that city, and carefully 
^superintended the early years of her son while at school 

and college. Being destined for the profession of medi- 
cine, he was placed under Mr. Gordon, a practitioner of 
pharmacy and surgery, and at the same time attended such 

•ibedtcal lectures as the college of Glasgow at that time 
afforded, which were principally the anatomical lectiires of 

t Dtf. Hamilton, and those on the practice of physic by Dr. 
Cullen, afterwards the great ornament of the medical 
school of Edinburgh. Mr. Moore's application to his stu- 
dies must have been more than ordinarily successful, as we 

-find that hi 1747, when only in his seventeenth year,' he 

-went to the continent, under the protection of the duke of 
Argyle, and was employed as a mate in one of the military 
hospitals at Maestricht, in Brabant, and afterwards at 

-Flushing. Henoe he was promoted to be assistant to thfe 

< surgeon of the Coldstream regiment of foot guards, com- 

» * 

. J Bentham's Ely.— Birch's Life of Tillotson. — Burnet's History of the Refor- 
* roation, vol. Ill, p. 4<v— aod Own Times passim*— Cole's MS Atb* Cantab, in 
'Mus, Britan* * 

31.6 MOORE. 

jganded by general Brad dock, and after remaining durirvg' 
the winter of 1748 with this regiment at Breda, came to 
England at the conclusion of the peace. . At London he 
resumed his medical studies under Dr. Hunter, and soon 
after set out for Paris, where be obtained the patronage, of 
the earl of Albemarle, whom be had known in Flanders, 
and who was now English ambassador at the court of 
France, and immediately appointed Mr. Moore surgeon to 
his household. In this situation, although be had an qp* 
portunity of being with tbe ambassador, he preferred to 
lodge nearer the hospitals, and other sources of instruc- 
tion, with which a more distant part of tbe capital abounded, 
«nd visited lord Albemarle's family only when his assistance 
was required. After, residing two years in Paris, it was 
proposed by Mr. Gordon, wha was not insensible to the 
assiduity and improvements of bis former pupil, that be 
should return to Glasgow, and enter into partnership with 
him. Mr. Moore,, by the advice of his friends, accepted 
the invitation, but deemed it proper to take London ill bis 
way, and while there, went through a course under Dr. 
Srpellie, then a celebrated accoucheur. On his return to 
Glasgow, he practised there during the space of two years, 
but when a diploma was granted by tbe university of that 
city to his partner, now Dr.. Gordon, who cbose to pre? 
scribe as a physician alone, Mr. Moore still, continued to act 
as a surgeon ; and, as a partner appeared to be necessary, 
be cbose Mr. Hamilton, professor of anatomy, as his. asso- 
ciate. Mr. Moore remained for a considerable period. at 
Glasgow ; but when he had attained his fortieth year, aa 
incident occurred that gave a new turn to his ideas, and 
opened new pursuits and situations to a mind naturally 
active and inquisitive. James George, duke of Hamilton, 
a young noblemau of great promise, . being affected with a 
.consumptive disorder,, in 1 769, he . was attended by Mr. 
Moore, who has always spoken of this youth in terms, of 
the highest admiration; hut, as bis malady baffled all the 
efforts of medicine, be yielded to its pressure, after a tin* 
gering illness, in the fifteenth year of bis age. This event, 
which Mr. Moore recorded, together with the extraordinary 
endowments of his patient, on bis tomb in the burying- 
.place at jElamilton, led to a more intimate connection with 
this noble family. The late duke of Hamilton, being, like 
his brother, of a sickly constitution, his mother, .the duchess 
•f Argyle, determined that he should travel in company 


with som$ gentleman, who to a knowledge* of medicine 
added an acquaintance with the continent. Both these 
qualities were united in the person of Dr. Moore, who by 
this time had obtained the degree of M. D. from the uni*- 
versity of Glasgow. They accordingly set out together;, 
rfrid'sperit a period of no less than five years abr6ad; 
during which they visited France; Italy, Switzerland, and 
Germany. On their return, in 1778, Dr. Moore brought 
his family from Glasgow to London ; and in the course of 
the next year appeared the fruits of his travels, in |4? A View 
of Society and Manners in France, Switzerland, and G6f- 
ihany," in 2 vols. 8vo. Two years after, in 1781, he pub- 
lished a continuation of the same work, in two additional 
volumes, entitled " A View of Society and Mariners in 
Italy.** Having spent so large a portion of his time either 
in Scotland or on the continent, he could not expect sud- 
denly to attain an extensive practice in the capital ; nor 
indeed was he much consolted, unless by his particular 
friends. With a view, however, to practice, he published 
in 1785, his " Medical Sketches," a work which was fa- 
vourably received, but made no great alteration in his en- 
gagements; and the next work he published was "Zefcfco," 
a novel, which abounds with many interesting events, 
arising from uncontrouled passion on the part of a darling 
son, and unconditional compliance on that of a fond mo- 
ther. While enjbying the success of this novel, which was 
very considerable, the French revolution began to occupy 
the minds and writings of the literary world. Dr. Mbore 
happened to reside in France in 1792, and witnessed many 
of the important scenes. of that eventful year, but the mas- 
sacres of September tending to render a^restdence in Paris 
highly disagreeable, he returned to England; and soon 
after his arrival, began to arrange his materials, and in 
179.5, published " A View of the Causes and Progress of 
the French Revolution," in 2 vols. Svo, dedicated to the 
Duke of Devonshire. He begins with the reign of Henry 
IV. and ends with the execution of th£ royal family. In 
1796 appeared another novel, " Edward : various Views of 
Human Nature, taken from Life and Manners chiefly in 
England." In J800, Dr. Moore published .'his " Mor- 
daunt," being lt Sketches of Life, Characters, and Manners 
in various Countries; including the Memoirs of a French 
Lady of Quality," in 2 vols. Svo. This chiefly consists of 
a series of letters, written by u the honourable John Mor- 

3iS WO ORE. 

d^unt," while confined to bis couch at Vevfcy, in Switzeis 
land* giving an account of what he had seen in Italy, Ger- 
many, France, Portugal, &c. The work itself copies un n 
der no precise head, being neither a romance, nor.a novel, 
nor travels : the most proper title would perhaps be that, 
of " Recollections." Dr. Moore was one of the first to : 
notice the talents of his countryman the unfortunate Ro- 
bert Burns, who, at his request, drew up ap account of, 
bis life, and submitted it to his inspection. 

After his return from bis third and last journey to France,, 
be resided the remainder of his days in bis bouse in Clif- 
ford-street, where he died Feb. 20, 1802, leaving a. 
daughter and five sons. Dr. Moore was a man of conside-. 
derable general knowledge, but excelled in no particular 
branch of science. After be had once begun bis travels as 
tutor, he assumed the character of a man of wit and hu- 
mour,, both which entered largely into the composition of 
his subsequent publications. His travels were at one time; 
very popular, on account of the frequent recurrence of 
scenes of dry humour, but bis constant attempts in this, 
way made them be read, more for sprigbtliness of narrative 
than accuracy of information, or depth of remark. Of his 
novels, " Zeluco" only has stood its ground. l 

MOORE (Sir John), a gallant English officer, was one 
*f the sons of the preceding, and born at Glasgow, Nov^ 
13 A 1761, and was educated principally on the coutinent,, 
while his father travelled with the duke of Hamilton, who. 
in 1776 obtained for him an ensigncy in the 51st regiment 
of foot, then quartered at Minorca. He afterwards obtained 
a lieutenancy in the 82d, in which he served in America, 
during the war, and in 1783, at the peace, was reduced 
with his regiment. He was soon after brought into par- 
liament for the boroughs of Lanerk, &c. by the interest of 
the duke of Hamilton. In 1787 or 1788 he obtained the 
majority of the 4th battalion of the . 60th regiment, then, 
quartered at Chatham, and very soon after negociated an 
exchange into his. old regiment, the 51st. In 1790 he 
succeeded, by purchase, to, the lieutenant-colonelcy, and 
went the following year with his regiment to Gibraltar. 
After some other movements he was sent to Corsica, wher$ 
general Charles Stuart having succeeded to the command 
of the army in 1794, appointed colonel Moore to command 

"» Gent. Mas. &c. 

MOORE. 31* 

the reserve. Here he particularly distinguished himself at 
the siege of Calvi, and received his first wound in storming 
the Mozzello fort. These operations made Moore's cha- 
racter known to general Stuart, and a friendship com- 
' menced, which continued during the general's life ; and 
the. situation of adjutant-general in the army in Corsica 
becoming vacant at this time, he bestowed it on his friend 
Moore, and ever after showed him every mark of confidence 
and. esteem. * 

In consequence of a disagreement with the viceroy, who 
had occasioned the recall of general Stuart, colonel Moore 
arrived in England in Nor. 1795, and was immediately ap- 
pointed a brigadief -general in the West Indies, and at- 
tached to. a brigade of foreign corps, which consisted of 
Choiseul's hussars, and two corps of emigrants. On Feb. 
25, 1796, he received an order to take charge of, and 
embark with general Perryn's brigade, going out with the 
expedition to the West Indies, utider sir Ralph Abercrom- 
bie ; that officer having unexpectedly sailed in the Ven- 
geance, 74, and left his brigade behind. General Moore, 
.although be had no. previous intimation that he was to 
embark, hurried to Portsmouth, and having time only to 
prepare a few necessaries, sailed for the West Indies with 
the fleet at day- light on the 28th, with no other baggage 
than a small portmanteau, and not one regiment of his own 
brigade was in the fleet. On his .arrival atBarbadoes, on 
the 13th of April, 1796, having had an opportunity of wait- 
ing on the commander-in-chief, sir Ralph Abercrombie, 
that sagacious and attentive observer very soon distin- 
guished him, and in the course of the operations against 
St. Lucie, which immediately followed, employed him in 
every arduous and difficult service which occurred. Hp 
had, in particular, opportunities, during the siege of Mornp 
Fortun£e at St. Lucie, which lasted from the 26th of April 
to the same day in May, of eminently distinguishing him- 
self; and his conduct, as sir Ralph expressed in his public 
orders, was the admiration of the whole army. Sir Ralph, 
immediately on the capitulation, bestowed the command 
and government of the island on general Moore, whp did 
all he could to induce sir Ralph to keep him with the army, 
and employ him in the reduction of the other islands, but 
without effect. Sir Ralph, in a manner, forced this imr 
portant command upon him, at the same time giving him 
the most flattering reasons for wishing him to accept of it* 

520 MOO RE. 

The ' admiral and general sailed Atom St Lucie on the 
5d of June, leaving brigadier-general Moore in a situation 
which required, from what remained to be done in such a 
climate, perhaps more military talent, and a greater de- 
gree of exertion and personal risk, than even there had 
been occasion for during the reduction of the island; for, 
although the French commanding officer, and the principal 
post in the islaud, had surrendered, numerous bands of 
armed negroes remained in the woods ; yet he at length 
succeeded in completely reducing these. Having, how* 
ever, had two narrow escapes from violent attacks of yellow 
• fever, the last rendered it necessary that he should be re- 
lieved from the command of the island, and he returned to 
England in the month of July or August 1797. In Nov. 
following, sir Ralph Abercrombie having been appointed 
commander of the forces in Ireland, desired that brigadier- 
general Moore might be put upon the staff in that country, 
which was done, and he accompanied sir Ralph to Dublin 
on the 2d day of December 1797. During the period im- 
mediately preceding the rebellion in 1798, Moore had an 
important command in the south of Ireland, which was 
very disaffected, and was also the quarter where the enemy 
were expected to make a landing. His head-quarters were 
at Bandon, and bis troops, amounting to 3000 men, were 
considered as the advanced corps of the south. When 
the rebellion broke out, he was employed first under ma- 
jor-general Johnstone, at New Ross, where the insurgents 
suffered much, and immediately afterwards was detached 
towards Wexford, at that time in the hands of the rebels. 
He bad on this occasion only the 60th yagers, or sharp 
'shooters, 900 light infantry, 50 of Hompesch's cavalry, 
-and six pieces of artillery. With thesg he had not marched 
above a mile before a large body of rebels appeared .on the 
road, marching to attack him. He had examined the 
•ground, as well as the short time would allow, in the 
morrting, and thus was able to form his men to advantage. 
-The rebels attacked with great spirit, but, after an ob- 
stinate contest, were driven from the field, and pursued 
with great loss. They amounted to about 6000 men, and 
were commanded by general Roche, a priest. After the. 
action, the two regiments under lord Dalhousie arrived 
from Duncannon fort It then being too late to proceed 
to Taghmoue, which was his intention, the brigadier took 
post for the night on the ground where the action began* 

MOORE, 321 

Next day on his march he was met by two men from Wex- 
ford with proposals from the rebels to lay down their arms, 
on certain conditions. As general Moore had no power to 
treat, he made no answer, but proceeded on to Wexford, 
.which he delivered from the power of the rebels, who bad 
piked or shot forty of their prisoners the day before, and 
intended to have murdered the rest if they had not been 
.thus prevented. 

Brigadier-general Moore continued to serve in Ireland* 
where he succeeded to the rank of major-general, and had 
a regiment given him, until the latter end of June 1799, 
when he was ordered to return to England to be employed 
in the expedition under sir Ralph Abercrombie, which 
.sailed August 13, and was destined to rescue Holland from 
the tyranny of the French government; The general re- 
sult, owing to circumstances which could not be foreseen* 
was unfavourable ; but the English troops had an oppor- 
tunity of displaying the greatest valour, and none were 
more distinguished than those under the more immediate 
command of general Moore, who, after being twice wound- 
ed, in the hand, and in the thigh, received a musket-ball 
through his face, by which he was disabled, and was brought 
from the ground with some difficulty. He was now carried 
back to his quarters, a distance often miles,, and as soon 
as he could be moved, he was taken to the Helder, where 
be embarked on board the Amethyst frigate, and arrived 
at the Nore on the 24th ; from thence he proceeded to 
•London. Soon after his return to England from the Hel- 
der, a second battalion was added to the 52d regiment, of 
which the command was bestowed on him by the king, in 
the most gracious manner. Being ot an excellent consti- 
tution, and temperate habits, his wounds closed in the 
course of five or six weeks. He joined his brigade at 
Chelmsford on the 24th of December, 1799. In the early 
part of 1 800 it had been intended to send a body of troops 
to the Mediterranean under sir Charles Stuart ; he wrote 
.to general Moore, and proposed to him to serve under him, 
which was accepted with the greatest pleasure. It was at 
first intended that sir Charles should take out of England 
16,000 men, but it was afterwards found that the regiments 
. allotted for this service, and which had been part of the 
expedition to Holland, were insufficient, and only amounted 
to 10,000 effective. About the middle of March, the 
.first division, amounting to 5000 men, embarked under 
Vol. XXII. Y 

322 MOORE. 

•major-general Pigot. At this time a change took place in 
the plan of the expedition ; sir Charles had some disagree- 
ment with ministers! and resigned his situation.. .Sir Ralph 
Abercrombie was appointed to the command, and major- 
general Moore was named as pne of his major-generals, 
with Hutchinson and Pigot, who sailed about the end of 
April with the .5000 men. There was little opportunity 
during this expedition, the success of which was prevented 
by various unforeseen occurrences, for any exertions in 
which general Moore could distinguish himself, until, the 
•armies being ordered to separate, his troops were ordered 
to go to Egypt under sir Ralph Abercrombie. Having ar- 
rived at Malta, major-general Moore was sent to Jaffa to 
visit the Turkish army, and form a judgment as to what 
aid was to be expected from it; but the result being un- 
favourable, sir Ralph determined to land in the bay of 
Aboukir, and march immediately upon Alexandria. Any 
satisfactory detail of this memorable expedition would ex- 
tend this article too far ; we shall therefore confine our- 
selves to that part in which major-general Moore was more 
particularly concerned. As soon as the landing was begun, 
be, at the head of the grenadiers and light infantry of the 
40th, with the 23d and 28th regiments in line, ascended 
the sand-hill. They did not fire a shot until they gained 
the summit, when they charged the enemy, drove them, 
and took four pieces of cannon, with part of their horses. 
The French retreated to the border of a plain, where ge- 
neral Moore halted, as upon the left a heavy fire of mus- 
quetry was kept up. Brigadier-general Oakes, with the 
left of the reserve, consisting of the 42d Highlanders, the 
58th regiment, and the Corsican rangers, landed to the 
left of the sand-hill, and were attacked by both infantry 
and cavalry, which they repulsed and followed into the 
plain, taking three pieces of artillery. The guards and 
part of general Coote's brigade landed to the left of the 
reserve; they were vigorously opposed, but repulsed the 
enemy, and followed them into the plain* The want of 
cavalry and artillery (for it was some time before the guns 
that were landed could be dragged through the sand) saved 
•the enemy from being destroyed. This was one of the 
most splendid instances of British intrepidity that perhaps 
ever happened. The enemy had eight days to assemble 
and prepare, and the ground was extremely favourable to 
them. The loss of the enemy was considerable, that of 

MOORE «** 

the British amounted to 600 killed mud wounded, of which 
the reserve lost 400- In the odurse of the afternoon the 
rest <rf the army landed, and the whole moved forwards 
Cftupl^ of miles, where they took post for the night. 

Oa the morning of the 9th, major-general Moore and 
KeuteiraoUeolonel Aiistruther, the quarter-master-general* 
atent forward with the 92d Highlanders, the Corsica* 
rangers, and some cavalry, to look fora new position. The 
country was unequal, sandy, and thickly interspersed with 
palm rind date trees. He posted the 92d at a place about 
two miles in front, where there was a small redoubt, and 
where the space became more narrow than any where else, 
by the sea and lake Madie running up on each side. . He 
then went forward with the cavalry, until they were met 
by a strong patrole of the enemy, on which they retired* 
On reporting to sir Ralph, he directed major-general Moore 
to take post with the reserve on the ground where he had 
placed the 92d; by noon he had taken possession of the 
post with the reserve, and placed his out- posts. On the 
IGth there was some skirmishing with the out-posts of the 
reserve and the enemy's cavalry. The main body of the 
army was detained in their post-position till, by the-exer- 
taoas of the navy, the stores and provisions were landed 
and forwarded to them. On the 11th sir Ralph went to 
the reserve, the brigade of guards moved forward, and 
took post half way between them and the rest of the army. 
The lake Madie was ordered to be examined, with a view 
io the practicability of conveying the army stores by it, 
which it was afterwards found could be done. On the 1 2th 
the army moved forward in two columns, each composed 
of a wing. The reserve, in two colttmas, formed the ad- 
vanced guard to each column. The enemy's cavalry re- 
tired, skirmishing as the army advanced. The army halted 
at a. tower tihat they found' evacuated, from the top of which 
* body of infantry was seen advancing. The line wafs 
instantly formed, and the army advanced with the utmost 
regularity and steadiness. The enemy, on seeing this 
movement, first halted, and afterwards retired to some 
feeights wbicfc terminated a plain* where the -British army 
took post for the night, and lay on their -arms. Maj ou- 
tgeneral Moore had the direction of the advanced posts-; 
Mid the 90th and 92d regiments, though not belonging to 
the reserve, were placed under his orders for the night. 

The put- posts of the enemy and the. advanced gnard <rf 

y 2 


die British Vfere so near each other, (hat it was impossible 
that. either army could move without bringing on a general 
action. At six o'clock in the morning of the 13th the 
army moved forward in two columns from the left, each 
composed of a line. The reserve, in one column from the 
left, marched on the right of the other two, to cover the 
flank. Sir Ralph's intention was to attack the enemy'* 
right, and, if possible, to turn it. The 90th and 92d re- 
giments formed the advanced guards to the two columns 
of the army, and, having got too far a-bead of the co- 
lumns, were attacked by the main body of the enemy, and 
suffered severely before the columns could come to their 
support. These two regiments, however, maintained their 
ground, and defeated a body of cavalry that attempted to 
charge them. The action now became general along the 
line; the French, being forced back, retreated, covered 
by a numerous artillery, halting and firing wherever the 
ground favoured them. The British army advanced ra- 
pidly without artillery, as their guns, being dragged through 
sand by the seamen, could not keep up with the infantry. 
The reserve remained in. column on the right flank cover- 
ing the two lines, and though mowed down by the enemy's 
cannon in front, and exposed to musketry from hussars and 
light infantry on their flank, continued to move forward 
with such steadiness and regularity, that at any time du- 
ring the action and pursuit, they could have been wheeled 
to a flank without an interval. The two lines advanced 
with equal order until they reached a rising ground, where 
there were the ruins of an ancient building of considerable 
extent ; from this height they saw the enemy retreating in 
confusion through a plain, under cover of the fortified 
heights in front of Alexandria. Sir Ralph followed them 
into the middle of the plain, where a consultation was 
held, and it was then intended that general Hutchinson, 
with part of the second line, which had been least engaged, 
should attack the enemy's right, while major- general 
Moore, with the reserve supported by the guards, at- 
tacked their left near the sea. 

General Hutchinson had a considerable circuit to make 
.to get, to the ground where he was to make his attack, and 
the attack of the reserve was to be regulated by his. When 
be got to his ground, the position of the French was found 
to be so strongly defended by a numerous artillery, and 

covered besides by the guns on the fortified height* sear 

M O ORE. . 32S 

Alexandria, that the attempt was given up, and ad the 
army were in their present position exposed to the enemy's 
cannon without being able to retaliate, a position on the 
height in the rear was marked out, to which the army fell 
back as the evening advanced. This severe action cost the 
British army 1 300 in killed and wounded. The situation 
of the British army at this period was certainly a very cri- . 
tical one, as it was quite evident that government had been 
deceived in their estimate of the French forces. Sir Ralph, 
therefore, was well aware of the difficult task he bad to 
perform. The camp of the British was about four or five 
miles from Alexandria. In front of the reserve, which 
formed the right of the army, was a very extensive ancient 
ruin, which the French called Caesar's camp ; it was twenty 
or thirty yards retired from the right flank of the redoubt, 
and commanded the space between the redoubt and toe 
sea. In this redoubt and ruin major-general Moore had 
posted the 28th and 58th regiments. On the 21st the 
attack was made by the French, who were driven back by 
his troops, but he received a shot in the leg. The result, 
however, was, that every attack the French made was re- 
pulsed with great slaughter. In the early part of the ac- 
tion, and in the dark, some confusion was unavoidable, but 
wherever the French appeared, the British went boldly 
up to them, even the cavalry breaking in had not in the 
least dismayed them. As the day broke, the foreign bri- 
gade, under brigadier-general, afterwards sir John Stuart, 
who fought the battle of Maida, came to the second line to 
the support of the reserve, shared in the action, apd be- 
haved with great spirit. Day-light enabled major-general 
Moore to get the reserve into order, but there was a great 
want of ammunition. The guns could not be fired for a 
very-considerable time, otherwise the French must have 
suffered much more severely, while retreating from their 
different unsuccessful attacks, than they did. The enemy's 
artillery continued to gall the British severely with shot aud 
ahells, after the infantry and cavalry had been repulsed. 
The British could not return a shot. Had the French at- 
tacked again, the British had nothing but their bayonets, 
which they unquestionably would have used, as never was 
an army more determined to do their duty. But the enemy 
bad suffered so severely, that the. men could not be got to 
snake another attempt. They continued in front at a dis- 
tant musket-shot, until . the ammunition for the English 

3ft MOORE, 

garis wad brought up to enable them to fir*, whta ttiey 
veiry soon retreated. While the attacks were made on the 
British right, a column attacked the guards oo the left of 
the reserve, but were repulsed with lose. The French 
general, Menou, had concentrated the greatest part of the 
force in Egypt for this attack ; the prisoners stated his, 
force in the field at about 13,000 men, of whom between 
three and four thousand were killed or wounded. The* 
British arrtiy lost about 1300 men, of which upwards of 
500 belonged to the reserve. This battle commenced at 
half past four in the morning, and terminated about nine. 
The French made three different attack*, with superior 
number*, the' advantage of cavalry, and a numerous and 
well<-served artillery. The British ih£autry here gave a 
decided ynrdof "of their superior firmness and hardihood. 
Sir Ralph* who always exposed his person very much, in 
this last battle carried the practice perhaps farther than he 
had ever done before. Major-general Moore met him 
early in the action, close in the rear of the 42d, without 
any of the officers of his family ; and afterwards, when the 
French cavalry charged the second time, and penetrated 
the 4£d, major-general Moore saw him again and waved to 
bim to retire, but he was instantly surrounded by the 
bussarfe \ he received a cut from a sabre on the breast, 
which penetrated bis clothes and just grazed the flesb. 
He received a shot in the thigh, but remained in the field 
until the battle was over, when he was conveyed on board 
the Foudroyant. Major-general Moore, at the close of the 
action, had the home killed under him that major Hoaey- 
man had lent him. When the battle was over, the wound 
in his leg became so stiff and painful, that as sooa as he 
could get a horse, he gave the command of the reserve to 
cefohet Spencer, and retired with brigadier-general Oakes* 
who commanded the reserve under bim, and who was 
wounded in the leg also, to their teats in the rear. Bri- 
gadier-general Gates was wounded nearly at the same 
time, and in the same part of the leg that major-generai 
Moore *as, but they both continued to head the reserve 
until the battle was over. When the surgeon bad dressed 
their wounds, finding that they must be some time iaca* 
pable of action, they returned to the Diadem troop-ship* 
Sir Ralph Abercrembte died of his wound on beard the 
Fond ray ant on the 2&vh day of March, «ad the oommamd 
devolved oa ftutjor-geaenai Hutchinson* it is unnecessary 

her* to detail Che operation* in Egypt (hat followed the 
battle of tbe 2 1st, as major-general Moore was confined on 
board the Diadem with his wound until, the I Oth of May* 
when be was removed to Rosetta for the benefit of a change, 
of air. He suffered very severely; the ball had passed 
between tbe two bongs of his leg ; he endured a long con- 
finement and much torment, from inflammation and surgi- 
cal operations. When at length be could move on crutches,, 
and was removed to Rosetta, where he got a house on the. 
banks of tbe Nile, agreeably situated, he began to recover 
rapidly, and afterwards continued to serve in the army of 
Egypt until after tbe surrender of Alexandria, when he 
returned to England, where he received the honour of 
knighthood, and the order of the bath. On the renewal 
of tbe war, the talents and services of sir John Mooret 
pointed him out as deserving of the most important com** 
mend. It was not, however, . until 1 808 that hip was ap- 
pointed to the chief command of an army to be employed 
in Spain, and Gallicia or the borders of Leon were fixed 
upon as the place for assembling the troops.. Sir John was 
ordered to send the, cavalry by land, but it was left to his 
own discretion to transport the infantry and artillery either 
by sea or .land. He was also assured, that 15,000 raea 
were ordered to Corunna, and he was directed tQ give such 
orders to sir David Baird, thei? commander, as would most 
readily effect a junction of the whole force. Both, how- 
ever, soon discovered that little reliance could be placed 
on the Spaniards ; and they had not got far into the coun- 
try before their hopes were completely disappointed. Sir 
John Moore soon began to anticipate the result which fol- 
lowed. In the mean time the French army had advanced,, 
and taken possession of the city of Valladolid, which is but 
twenty leagues from Salamanca. Sir John had been po- 
sitively informed that his entry into Spain would be covered, 
by 60 or 70,000 men ; and that Burgos was tbe city in- 
tended for the point of union for the different divisions of 
the British army* But already not only Burgos, but Val- 
ladolid, was in possession of tbe enemy ; and he found 
himself with an advanced corps in an open town, at three 
inarches distance only from the French army, without even : 
a Spanish piquet to cover his front ! He had at this time, 
only three brigade* of infantry, without a gun, in Salamanca.. 
The remainder, it b true, were moving up in succession, 
but tbe whole could not arrive in less than ten days. 


328 MOORE. 

At this critical time the Spanish main armies, instead of 
being united either among themselves, or with the British, 
were divided from each other almost by the whole breadth 
of the peninsula. The fatal consequences of this want of 
union were but too soon made apparent; Blake was de- 
feated, and a report reached sir David Baird that the 
French were advancing upon his division in two different 
directions, so as to threaten to surround him. He, conse- 
quently, prepared to retreat upon Corunna ; but sir John 
Moore, having ascertained that the report was unfounded, 
ordered sir David to advance, in order, if possible, to form 
a junction with him. On the 28th of November he re* 
ceived information that there was now no artny remaining, 
against which the whole French force might be directed, 
except the 'British ; and it was in vain to expect that they, 
even if they had been united, could have resisted or 
checked the enemy. Sir John Moore, therefore, deter* 
mined to fall back on Portugal, to hasten the junction of 
general Hope, who had gone towards Madrid, and he or-. 
dered sir David Baird to regain Corunna as expeditiously 
as possible; and when he had thus determined upon a 
retreat, he communicated his design to the general officers, 
who, with the exception of general Hope, seemed to doubt 
% the wisdom of his decision ; he would, however, have car- 
ried it into execution, if be had not been induced, by 
pressing solicitations, and representations of encourage- 
ment, to advance to Madrid, which he was told not only 
held out, but was capable of opposing the French for a 
considerable length of time. Sir John, therefore, anxious 
to meet the wishes of bis troops, by leading tbem against 
the enemy, determined to attack Soult, the French general, 
who was posted at Saldanha, by which he thought he should 
draw off the French armies to the north of Spain, and thus 
afford an opportunity for the Spanish armies to rally and 
re-unite. Soult was probably posted in that spot with so 
small a body of men for the purpose of enticing the British 
army farther into Spain, while Bonaparte, in person, with 
his whole disposable force, endeavoured to place himself 
between the British army and the sea. At length the/ two 
armies met ; and the superiority of the British cavalry was 
eminently displayed in a most brilliant and successful skir- 
mish, in which 600 of the imperial guards of Bonaparte, 
were driven off the field by half the number of British, 
leaving 55 killed and wounded, and 70 prisoners, among. 


whom was general Le Febre, the commander of the im- 
perial guard. 

Yet, notwithstanding this and other advantages gained 
over the enemy, a retreat was become indispensably ne- 
cessary : sir John's troops did* not amount to more than 
37,000, while the French on the lowest calculation were 
70,000, and so closely did this army, under Bonaparte, 
pursue the English, that the distance between them was 
scarcely thirty miles, while sir John was rather incommoded 
than benefited by the Spanish troops, and the Spanish 
peasantry offered no assistance to bis troops, harassed by 
fatigue, and in want of every necessary. The difficulties 
and anxieties of the British commander were also increased 
by the relaxation which took place in the discipline of the 
army, arising from various causes, which compelled him 
to issue such orders as might unequivocally point out his 
knowledge of the extent to which the want of discipline 
bad proceeded, the persons to whom he principally attri- 
buted it, and his positive and unalterable determination to 
punish it in the most severe and. exemplary manner. At 
Lugo sir John Moore was anxious to engage the enemy ; 
and he was satisfied that the general orders he had now 
given, had produced such an effect in his army, as to give 
an earnest of victory. A slight skirmish ensued, in which 
the British rushed forward with charged bayonets, and 
drove the enemy's column down the hill with considerable 
slaughter. After this, marshal Soult, having experienced 
the talents of the general, and the intrepidity of the troops 
he had to encounter,, did not venture to renew the attack ; 
from this it was concluded that his intention was to harass 
the British as much as possible during their march, and to 
defer his attack till the embarkation. Under these cir- 
cumstances, the general quitted his ground in the night, 
leaving fires burning to deceive the enemy. The French 
did not discover their retreat till long after day-light, so 
that the British army got the start of them considerably. 
On the 11th of January the whole of the British reached 
Corunna, the port where they hoped to embark, not, bow- 
ever, without the probability of a battle; and notwithstand- 
ing they were disappointed in not finding the transports at 
Corunna, the British army rejoiced that before they quitted 
the shores of Spain . they should have an opportunity to 
front their enemies. The enemy gave no particular indU 
cations of attack till about noon of the 16 th of January: 

330 MOORE. 

at tEis time sir John Moore was giving directions for tit* 
embarkation ; but the moment intelligence was brought 
that the enemy's line were getting under arms, he struck 
spurs to bis horse, and flew to the field. The advanced 
piquets were already beginning to fire at the enemy's light 
troops, who were pouring rapidly down the hill on the: 
right wing of the British, Early in the action, sir David 
Baird, leading on his division, had his arm shattered with 
a grape-shot, and was forced to leave the field. At this 
instant the French artillery plunged from the heights, sod 
the two hostile lines of infantry mutually advanced beneath a 
shower of balls. They were still separated from each other 
by stone~wails and hedges. A sudden and very able move- 
ment of the British gave the utmost satisfaction to sir John 
Moore, who had been watching the manoeuvre, and he 
eried out, " That is exactly what I wished to be done.'* 
He then rode up to the 50th regiment, commanded by 
majors Napier and Charles Banks Stanhope, who bad got 
over an inclosure in their front, and were charging most 
valiantly. The general, delighted with the gallantry of 
die two majors, who had been recommended by hhnself to 
the military rank they held, exclaimed, u Well done the 
50th! Well done my majors T- The plaudits of their 
general and beloved friend excited them to new efforts, 
and they drove the enemy out of the village of Elvina with 
great slaughter. In the conflict, major Napier, . advancing 
too far, was severely wounded and taken prisoner, and 
major Stanhope received a ball through his heart, which 
instantly put an end to a most valuable life. So instanta- 
neous must have been the death of major Stanhope, that 
a sense of pain bad not torn from his countenance the 
smile which the bravery of his soldiers and the applause of 
his commander had excited. 

Sir John Moore proceeded to the 42d, and addressed 
them in these words, " Highlanders, remember Egypt." 
They rushed on, driving the French before them. He 
sent captain Hardinge to order up a battalion of guards to 
the left flank of the Highlanders, upon which the officer 
commanding the light company, conceiving that, as their 
ammunition was nearly expended, they were to be relieved 
by the guards, began to fall back ; but sir John, discover* 
ing the mistake, said, " My brave 42d,» join ypur com-* 
rades, ammunition is coming, and you have your bayonets*" 
They instantly obeyed, and moved forward. While the 

M O O B E; 331 

general was speaking, a cannon ball struck him to the 
ground. He raised himself, and sat up with an unal- 
tered countenance, looking most intently at the High* 
landers, who were warmly engaged; captain Harding© 
assured him the 42d were advancing, upon which his conn* 
tenance immediately brightened. The general was carried 
from the field, and on the way be ordered captain Har- 
dinge to report his wound to general Hope, who assumed 
the command. Many of the soldiers knew that their two 
generals were carried off the field, yet they continued the 
fight till they bad achieved a decisive and brilliant victory, 
over a very superior force. 

The fall of general Moore is thus described by captain 
Hardiitge : " I bad been ordered by the commander-in. 
ehief to desire a battalion of the guards to advance; which 
battalion was at one time intended to have dislodged a 
corps of die enemy from a large house and garden on the 
opposite side of the valley ; and I was pointing out to the 
general the situation of the battalion, and our horses were 
touching, at the moment that a cannon-shot from the 
enemy's battery carried away his left shoulder, and part 
of the collar-bone, leaving the arm hanging by the flesh. 
The violence of the stroke threw him off his horse on bis 
back. Not a muscle of his face altered, nor did a sigh 
betray the least sensation of pain. I dismounted, and, 
taking his band, he pressed mine forcibly, casting his eyes 
nery anxiously towards the 42d regiment, which was hotly 
engaged; and Jus countenance expressed satisfaction when 
I informed him that the regiment was advancing. Assisted 
by a soldier of the 4£d, he was removed a few yards behind 
the shelter of a wail. Colonel Graham Balgowan and cap- 
tain Woodfo#d about this .time came up, and, perceiving 
the state ef sir John's wound, instantly rode off for a sur- 
geon. The blood flowed fast, but tbe attempt to stop h 
with my. cash <was useless, from the size of the wound. 
Sir John assented to being removed in a blanket to the 
aear. in raising him for that fHtrpose, his sWoVd, hanging 
en *be srounded side, touched his arm, and became en* 
tangled, between fc» legs. I perceived the inconvenience^ 
and was in tbe act of unbuckling k from his waist, when 
be said an iris usual tone and manner, and in a very dis- 
tinct voice, ' It is as well as it is ; I had rather it should go 
out of the field wtb me.' « 
The account of this disaster was brought to sir David 

332 M O 8 R E, 

Baird while the surgeons were dressing his shattered arm, 
He ordered them instantly to desist, and run to attend on sir 
John Moore. When they arrived, he said to them, " you 
can be of no service to me, go to the soldiers, to whom 
you may be useful. 1 ' As the soldiers were carrying him 
slowly along in a blanket, he made them turn him round 
frequently to view the field of battle, and to listen to the 
firing, and was pleased when the sound grew fainter. On 
his arrival at his lodgings he was in much pain, and could 
speak but little, but at intervals he said to colonel Ander- 
son, who for one-and-twenty years had been his friend and 
companion in arms — " Anderson, you know that I always 
wished* to die in this way. 1 ' He frequently asked "are the 
French beaten ?" and at length, when he was told they 
were defeated in every point, he said, " It is a great satis- 
faction for me to know we have beaten the French.**— " I 
hope the people of England will be satisfied, I hope my 
country will do me justice." Having mentioned the name 
of his venerable mother, and the names of some other 
friends for whose welfare he seemed anxious to offer hk 
last prayers, the power of utterance was lost, and he died 
in a few minutes' without a struggle* 

Thus fell, at the age of forty-seven, Jan. 16, 18'09 t at 
the conclusion of a critical victory, which preserved the 
remainder of his army from destruction, Jieutenant-general 
• sir John Moore, a name that must be long dear to his coun- 
try, which was well disposed to do justice to his memory, 
and gratefully to acknowledge, in every possible way, the 
important services which he had achieved for it. ' 

MOORE (Sir Jonas), a very respectable mathematician, 
fellow of the royal society, and surveyor-general of the 
ordnance, wks born at Whitlee, orWhitle, in Lancashire, 
Feb. 8, 1617. After enjoying the advantages of a liberal 
education, he bent his studies principally to the mathema* 
tics, to which he had always a strong inclination, and in 
the early part of his life taught that science in London for 
his support. In the expedition of king Charles the First 
into the northern parts of England, our author was intro- 
duced to him, as a person studious and learned in those 
sciences; and the king expressed much approbation of 
him, and promised him encouragement; which indeed laid 

i From the Annual Registers. — History of bis Campaign— but particularly 
an elaborate article in Rees's Cyclopaedia. 

MOORE. 333 

the foqndatioo of bis fortune* He was afterwards, when 
the king was at Holdenby-hquse, in 1647, appointed ma« 
tfaematical master to the king's second son James, to in* 
struct biro in arithmetic, geography, the use of the globes, 
&c. During Cromwell's government be appears to have 
followed the profession 6f a public teacher of mathematics ; 
for he is styled, in the title-page of some of his publica- 
tions, "professor of the mathematics;" but his loyalty 
was a considerable prejudice to his fortune. In his great* 

' est necessity, he was assisted by colonel Giles Strange- 
ways, then a prisoner in the Tower of London, who like*, 
wise recommended him to the other eminent persons, his 
fellow- prisoners, and prosecuted bis interest so far as to. 
procure him to be chosen surveyor in the work of draining 
the great level of the fens. Having observed in bis survey 
that the sea made a curve line on the beach, he thence 
took the hint to keep it effectually but of Norfolk. This 
added much to his reputation. Aubrey informs us, that 
lie made a model of a citadel for Oliver Cromwell "to bridle 
the city of London," which was in the possession of Mr. 
Wild, one of the friends who procured him the surveyor- 
jhip of the Fens. Aubrey adds, what we do not %ery clearly 
understand, that this citadel was to have been the cross- 
.building of St. Paul's church. 

After the return of Charles II. he found great favour and 
promotion, becoming at length surveyor- general of the 
king's ordnance, and receiving the honour of knighthood. 
He was a great favourite both with the king and the duke 
of York, who often consulted him, and were advised by 
him upon many occasions ; and he often employed his in- 
terest with tfce court to the advancement of learning and 
the encouragement of merit. Thus he got Flamsteed house 
built in 1675, as a public observatory, recommended Mr. 
Flamsteed to be the king's astronomer, to make the obser- 
vations there': and being surveyor-general of the ordnance 
himself, this was the reason why the salary of the astronot 
mer royal was made payable out of the office of ordnance. 
Being a governor of Christ's hospital, it was by his in- 
terest that the king founded the mathematical school 
there, allowing a handsome salary for a master to instruct 

, a certain number of the boys in mathematics and naviga- 
tion, to qualify them for the sea-service. Foreseeing the 
great benefit the nation might receive from a mathematical 
school, if rightly conducted, he made it his utmost care -to 

334 MOORE. 

promote the improvement of it. The school was settled \ 
but? there still wanted ft methodical institution from which 
the youths might receive such neoe&aty helps as their st** 
dies required : a laborious Work, from wfeichhis other gnea* 
and assiduous employments might very well have 'ex* 
empted him, bad not a predominant regard to a mope ge* 
neral usefulness engaged bim to devote al I the leisure hows 
of his declining years to the improvement of so useful and 
important a seminary of 5 leattiiog. 

Hating thus engaged himself in the prosecution of thit 
general deaign, he next sketched out the pifcn of a course 
or system of teathewmtics for the* dse ot the school, and then 
drew up and printed several parts of it himself, when death 
pot an end to bis labours, before the 'work was completed; 
He died at Godataimg, in his way from Portsmouth to Lon- 
don, August 27, l<679. Pieces of cana<*o» amounting to the 
number of his years, were discharged at the Tower, during 
bis funeral. He was buried in the chapel of the Tower, 
where is a monument and inscription, which has enabled 
us to correct the mistakes of his biographers as to bis age, 
place of birth, &c. In 1681, his great work was pub- 
lished by his sons-in-law, Mr. Hanway aftd Mr. Potinger. 
Of this work, the arithmetic, practical geometry, trigo- 
nometry, and cosmography, were written by sir Jonas hitttt- 
aelf, and printed before his death. The algebra, naviga- 
tion, and the books of Euclid, were supplied by Mr. Pep- 
Jrins, the then master of the mathematical school. And 
the astronomy, or doctrine of the sphere, was written by 
Mr, Flamsteed, the astronomer royal. ' He always intended 
4o have left his collection of mathematical books to the 
Royal Society, of which he was a fellow, bathe died with- 
out a will. His only son, Jonas, had the honour of knight- 
hood conferred on him, and the reversion of his fether^s 
place of surveyor- general of the ordnance ; * * but," adds 
Aubrey, " young sir Jonas, when he is c4d, will never bte 
-eld sirJonAS) for all the gazette's eulogie.** 1 

MOORE (Philip), rector of Kirikbride, and chapfein 
of Douglas id the Isle of Mann, a gentleman well known 
is the literary world, by his correspondence with men of 
genius in several parts of it, and by them eminently ex- 
tinguished as the divide and scholar, was bbm m 1705. 

* Birch's Hist of the Royal Society. — Biog. Brit, new edit. vol. VI. part I. 
trapubtisheo 1 .*— ttotton's Dictionary.- -G ranger.— letters by eminent Persoaa, 
3 vols. 1813, 8va— <Far an accoantof soassof ais oomrys, see Qaugtfa iJqao- 
graphy, vol. I, 


MOORE. 315 

In the earlier part of a life industriously employed in pro- 
moting the present and future happiness of mslnkind, he 
served as chaplain to the right reverend Dr. Wilson, the 
venerable bishop of Mann, whose friend and companion 
he igas for many years : at his funeral he was appointed. to 
preach hi* sermon, which is affixed to the discourses of that 
prelate, in the edition of his works printed at Bath, 1761, 
in two volumes, quarto, and that in folio; At the request 
of the society for promoting, Christian knowledge, he aa* 
dertook the revision of the translation into Manks of the 
Holy Scriptures, the book of Common Prayer, bishop 
Wilsqn on the Sacrament, and other religious piece*, 
printed for the use of the diocese of Mann ; and,, duriog 
the execution of the first of these works, he. was honoured 
with the advice of the two greatest Hebreeans of the age^ 
bishop Lowth and Dr. Kemucott. In the more, private walks 
of life, he was not less beloved and admired; in his duty 
as a clergyman, he was active and exemplary, and pursued 
a conduct (as far as human nature is. capable) " void of or}- 
fence towards God and towards man/' His conversation** 

Erompted by an uncommon quickness of parts, and refined 
y study, was at once. lively, .instructive, and eetertam*- 
> n g; And his friendly correspondence (which was very ex*- 
tensive) breathes perhaps as much original humour as can 
be met with in any writer who has appeared in public, 
Sterne not excepted, to whom he did not yield even m that 
vivid philanthropy* which the fictitious Sterne could so 
often assume. All the clergy in the island at the time elf 
his death, had been (except four) educated by hido, and 
.by them he was always distinguished with peculiar respect 
and affection* His conduct operated in the same degree 
amongst ail ranks of people, and it is hard to say, whether 
he won mare by his doctrine or example ; in both, veligiob, 
appeared moat amiable, and addressed herself to the* judg- 
ments of men> clothed in that cheerfulness which is the 
result of firm conviction and a, pure intention. It is. un* 
necessary to add, that though his death, which happened 
at DoqgW, Jan. 22, 1.783, in his 7&th year, was gentl«f, 
yet a retrospect of so useful and amiable a life made h 
deeply regretted. His remains were interred with great 
^olemifity. in Kirk Braddon church, atteaded by all the 
clergy of the island, and a great number of the most re- 
spectable inhabitant^. In 1785, a monument was erected 
to his memory, at the expence of the rev* Dr. Thomas 

336 MOORE. 

Wilson, son of the bishop, and prebendary of Westauif* 
ster, &C. 1 

MOPINOT (Simon), a learned Benedictine t>f the ctonf* 
gregation of St. Maur, was born 1685, at Rheims, and died 
1724, aged 39. He composed some hymns in Latin, which 
are much admired, and assisted father Coustant in his 
" Collection of the Popes' Letters," to which he wrote the 
dedication and preface. This preface having displeased 
the court of Rome, Mopinot defended it by several let* 
ters. He also wrote the epistle dedicatory which is pre- 
fixed to the " Thesaurus Anecdotorum ;" and had finished 
the second volume of the Collection of the Popes' letters 
before his death. * 

MORABIN (James), a man of letters, and secretary to 
the lieutenant-general of the police in Paris, was a native 
of La Flfiche, and died September 9, 1762. He published 
" A Translation of Cicero's Treatise on Laws," and of the 
dialogue on orators generally attibuted to Tacitus ; " His* 
toire de FExil de Ciceron," which is said to have been 
translated into English; " Histdire de Ciceron," 1745, 
2 vols, quarto. This work appeared nearly at the same 
time with that of our own countrypaan Dr. Middleton on 
the same subject, and it is no small praise that it shared 
with it in reputation: "Nomenclator Ciceron ianus," and 
" A Translation of Boetius de Consolatione." Morabin's 
works shew him to have been a man of learning ; but his 
style is not good, and in his translations he fails of trans- 
fusing the spirit of the original. 9 

MORALES (Ambrose), a pious and learned Spanish 
priest, born in 1513 at Cordova, was one of those who 
greatly contributed to restore a. taste for the belles lettres 
in Spain. He taught with reputation in the university of 
Alcala, was. appointed historiographer to Philip II. king of 
Spain, and died 1590, at Alcala, aged 77, leaving several 
works relative to Spanish antiquities besides other valuable 
books. The principal are, "The general Chronicle of 
Spain," which had been begun by Florian Ocampo, 1574, 
and 1588, 2 vols, folio, in Spanish. " The Antiquities of 
Spain," folio, in the same language, a curious And very 
valuable work ; " Scholia," in Latin, on the works of Eu- 

logius ; the " Genealogy of St. Dominick," &c. He was 


1 Butler's Memoirs of Bishop Hildetley, p. 186, where also are many of Mr. 
Moore's letters, Ice. * Moreri. * Diet. Hist. 


Wiginally a Jiomimqan^ but obliged to quit that' order in 
consequence of having be$ji induced) by a mistaken piety ^» 
to follow Origen's /example. He was; unquestionably ,a 
Qian of learning, and had many .of the best qualities of. a 
historian, but he scarcely rpse above tbe grossest supersti- 
tions of liis age and religion. A complete edition; of his 
yorks^was published at, Madrid in 1.791 — 92. l 
. MORAND (Sauveuh Francis), a French surgeon, was 
born in Paris in 1697, where his father was* surgeon-major 
to the invalids. Sauv^eur received his literary education, at 
*he college Mazarin,. and was instructed in his profession 
by his father' -at the hospital pf the -Invalids..' He rose to 
the mastership of the qqmpany of St. Gome (which was 
afterwards erected into, the Royal Academy of i Surgery),; 
ai)d was appointed demonstrator of surgical operations. to 
that body in 1725. In 1728 he appeared, as an author ©fr 
the subject of lithotomy, -and published his " Traite dela 
Taille au haqt appareil, &c. ;" the highi operation being 
then universally practised by tbe surgeons of .Paris. Bu(^ 
in the following yeai; he. was commissioned by the Aca* 
demy of Scieuces to visit London, with a. view of witness-* 
ing the lateral operation, as performed by Cheselden with 
so much success; and on his return.tQ Paris,, he. introduced 
that mode of cutting for. the stoue, at the hospital of La 
<pbarit£, whiqh brought a crowd of pupils to. bis hospital, 
and multiplied J>is professional honours. He was admitted 
a member of many, foreign societies, especially the Royal 
Society.>of Lofldou, into which, he was admitted, in 1728 j 
and the academies of Stockholm, Petersburg!), Florence* 
$oiogna, ?nd Rouen* and was nominated pensioner .and 
professor of anatomy to the Royal Academy, of. SgieOQes tag. 
jiome. He held likewise several medical appointments ia 
the army; and in 1751, was honoured with, knighthood, of 
the order of St. Michael. . H$ died .in 1773, at the age of 
$eventyrsix. :,..:• 

• Resides the treatise qu lithotomy. above mentioned, he 
published other works concerning the same .subject, oi 
cprjnectjed with his profession, and was author, of several 
papep, published in the Memoirs of : the AQad^my of 
Sciences, as well as.tha.t of Surgery ; and wrote a history of 
the latter academy, for the secoud and third .volumes of 
their memoirs. * 

1 Antonio, Bibl. Htsp.— Moreri,—- Saxii Onomasticon. 
" • Eloy, Diet. Hist, de Medicine, — Rees's Cyclpp«dia. , 

Vol. XXII. Z 



338 MORAND. 

. MORAND (John Francis Clement), son of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Paris in April 1726, and after receiving 
the degree of. doctor in medicine in 1750, was appointed 
professor of anatomy. He likewise obtained a high repu- 
tation in bis profession, . was elected into many learned 
bodies ; and was appointed physician in ordinary to Sta* 
pislaus, king of Poland, and duke of Lorraine. He died 
in the year 1784. He wrote " Histoire de la Maladie ,sin- 
guliere, et de 1'examen d'une femme devenue en pea de 
terns contrefaite par un ramollissement general des os,*J 
Paris, 1752. " Nouveile description des grottcs d'Arcy* 
Lyons, 1752. " Lettre & M. le Roi au sujet de l r Histoire 
de la femme Suppiot," Paris, 1753. " EclarrcissemenC 
abrSge" sur la Maladie d'une fille de St. Geosme," and 
" Recueil pour servir d'eclaircissement, &e." relating tor 
the same subject, Paris, 1754. " Lettre sur l r Instrument 
de Roonhnysen," 1755., " Lettre sur la qualite* des Eaux 
de Luxeuil en Franche Comtey published in the Journal 
de Verdun, March 1756. " Memoire sur les Eaux The** 
males de Bains en Lorraine/ 9 &c. in the Journal de Me~ 
decine, torn. VI. 1757. " Du Charbon de terre et de ses 
Mines/' fol. 1769. He also wrote an " Eloge" of bis fa- 
ther, and a " Memoire sur la qualite* dangereuse de rede* 
tique des Apothecaires de Lyons. 9 ' l 
. MORANT (Philip), M. A. and F. S. A. a learned and 
indefatigable antiquary and biographer, the son of Ste- 
phen MoratU, was born at St. Saviour's in the hie of Jer- 
sey, Oct 6, 1700; and, after finishing his education at 
AbingdoR~school, was entered Dec. 16, 1717, of Pembroke- 
college, Oxford, where he took the degree of B. A. June 
10, 1721, and continued till Midsnmmer 1722; when he 
was preferred to the office of preacher of the English 
church at Amsterdam, but never went to take possession. 
He took the degree of M. A. in 1724, and was presented 
to the rectory of Shellow Bowel Is, April 20, 1733 ; to the; 
vicarage of Bromfield, Jan. 17, 1738-4; to the rectory of 
Chicknal Smeley, Sept. 19, 1735; to that of St. Mary's, 
Colchester, March 9, 1737; to that of Wickham Bishops, 
Jan. 21, 1742-3; and to that of Aldham, Sept. 14, 1745. 
All .these benefices are in the county of Essex. In 174$ 
be published his " History of Colchester/* of 'which only 
200 copies were printed at the joint expence of Mr. Be*** 

* Eloges des A4fc<lemiciens» rot. IV.—Eloy, Diet. Hot de Mwticine,— lUttfr 
CyclopwdU -'* 

M O R A N T. I3» 

yet and himself. In 1751, Mr. Morant was elected F. S. A. 
In February 1768, be was appointed, by the lords sub- 
committees of the House of Peers, to succeed Mr. Blyke, 
in preparing for the press a copy of the rolls of parliament; 
a service to which he diligently attended to his death, 
which happened Nov. 25, 1770, in consequence of a cold, 
caught in returning by Water from the Temple to Vauxhall; 
iri his way to South Lambeth, where he resided for the 
convenience of attending to bis parliamentary labours; 
for Which, as a native of Jersey, and excellently skilled 
in the otd Norman French, he was particularly well qua* 
lifted. This Work, after his death, devolved on Thomas 
Astle, esq. F. R. and A. SS. who had married his only 
daughter, and who communicated to Mr. Nichols the fol- 
lowing exact account of Mr. Morant's writings, from a list 
of them drawn up by himself. 1. "An Introduction to 
the Reading of the New Testament, being a translation? 
of that of Mess, de Beausobre and Lenfant, prefixed to 
their edition of the New Testament," 1725, 1726, 4to. 
£< " The Translation of the Notes of Mess, de Beausobre 
*nd Lenfant on St Matthew- a Gospel," 1727, 4to. N. 
Tindai translated the text printed therewith. 3. " The 
Cruelties and Persecutions of the Romish Church dis- 
played, &c*" 1728, 8vo, translated into Welsh by Tho- 
mas Richards, curate of Coychurch in Glamorganshire, 
1746, with the approbation of Dr. Gilbert, the bishop of 
Landaff. 4. " I epitomised those Speeches, Declarations, 
■fee. which Rapin had contracted out of Rushworth in the 
Life of King James I. King Charles I. &c." 1729, 1730. 
5. " Remarks on the 19th Chapter of the Second Book of 
Mr. Selden's Mare Clausum." Printed at the end of Mr. 
FalleV " Account of Jersey," 1734. 6. " I compared 
Rapin's History with the 20 volumes of Rymer's Foedera, 
and Acta Publica, and ail the ancient and modern Historians, 
and added most of the notes that were in the folio edition/* 
1728, 1734. This is acknowledged at the end of the pre- 
face in the first volume of Rapin's History. 7. " Transla- 
tion of the Notes in the Second Part of the Othman History, 
by Prince Cantemir," 1735, folio. 8. Revised and cor-* 
tected " The History of England, by way of Question and 
Answer/' for Thomas Astley, 1737, 12 mo. 9. Revised: 
and corrected " Hearne's Ductor Historicus," and made 
large additions thereto, for J. Knapton. 10. "Account 
of the Spanish Invasion in 1588, by way of illustration to 

Z 2 


the Tapestry Hangings in the House of Lords and in the 
King's Wardrobe. Engraved and published by J. Pine," 
1739, folio. 11. " Geog-raphta Antiqua & Nova; taken 
partly from Dnfresnoy's ' Methode pour 6tudier la Gfo* 
graphie;' with Cellarius's Maps," 1742, 4to. 12. "A 
Summary of the History of. England," folio, and " Lists at 
the end of Mr. Tindal's Continuation of Rapin's History, 
in vol. III. being 55 sheets. Reprinted in three volumes," 
Svo. 13. " The History and Antiquities of Colchester," 
1748, folio; second edition, 1768. 14. " All the Lives 
hi t^e Biographia Britannica marked C. 1739, 1760, 7 vols. 
folio.. I also composed Stillingfleet, which hath no .mark 
at the end." 15. " The History .of Essex,". I760> Jt7£8, 
2 vols, folio. 16. "I prepared the Rolls of Parliament for 
the Press" (as far as the 16 Henry IV.) Other works in 
MS. : 17. " An Answer to the first Part of the Discourse 
of the Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion, in 
a Letter to a Friend, 1^24. Presented in MS. to Edmund 
Gibson, bishop 6f London." Never pTinted. This was 
the beginning of Mr. Morant's acquaintance with the bi- 
shop, whom he acknowledged as his only patron, and who 
gave him several livings in the county of Essex. 18. u The 
Life of King Edward the Confessor." 19. About 150 
Sermons. 1 . . 

. MORATA (Olympia Fulvia), a learned Italian lady, 
was born at Ferrara, in 1526. Her father taught the belles 
lettres in several cities of Italy : and his reputation as a 
teacher advanced him to be preceptor to the young princes 
of Ferrara, sons of Alphonsus I. The uncommon parts and 
turn for literature which he discovered in his daughter, in- 
duced him to cultivate them ; and she soon made a very 
extraordinary progress. The princess of Ferrara was at 
that time studying polite literature, and a companion in 
the same pursuit being thought expedient, Morata was. 
called to court ; where she was heard, by the astonished 
Italians, to declaim in Latin, to speak Greek, to explain 
the paradoxes of Cicero, and to answer any questions that 
were put to her. Her father dying, and her mother being 
an invalid, she was obliged to return home, in order to 
take upon her the administration of the family affairs, and 
the education of three sisters and a brother, all which she 
conducted with judgment and success. But some have- 
said that the immediate cause of her removal from court, 

1 Nichols'* Bowyer. 

M O R A T A. S4i 

tfas a dislike which the duchess of Ferrara had Conceived 
dgainst her, by the misrepresentations of some of 'the 
courtiers. In the mean time, a young German, named 
Grunthlerus, who had studied physic, and taken his doc* 
tor's degree at Ferrara, fell in love with her, and married 
her. Upon this she went with her husband to Germany/ 
and took her little brother with her, whom she carefully 
instructed in the Latin and Greek languages. They ar* 
rived at Augsburg in 154.8 ; and, after a short stay there* 
went to Schweinfurt in Franconia, but had not been long 
there, before Schweinfurt was besieged and burnt They 
escaped, however, with their lives, but remained in great 
distress until the elector Palatine invited Grunthler to be 
professor of physic at Heidelburg* He entered upon this 
new office in 1554, and began to enjoy some degree of re- 
pose; when illness, occasioned by the hardships they had 
undergone, seized upon Morata, and proved fatal Oct. 26, 
1$55i before she was quite twenty-nine years old* She 
died in the Protestant religion, which she embraced upon 
her coming to Germany, and to which she resolutely ad- 
hered. Her husband and brother did not long survive her, 
*nd were interred in the same grave in the church of -St* 
Peter, where. is a Latin epitaph to theirmemory. 
, She composed several works, a great part of which were 
(>urnt with the town of . Schweinfurt;*. the remainder were 
collected by Calms Secundum Curio, and published with 
this title : . " Olympic Falviae Moratae, foeminx doctissimas 
ac plane divines, Opera omnia quae hapten us inveniri po- 
ttierunt; quibus Caelii Secundi Curionis E pistol aa ac Ora* 
tiones accesserunt," Basil, L558, in 8vo, and often *e+ 
printed. They consist of orations, dialogues, letters, and 
translations. ' . 

MORAY, or MURRAY (Sia Robert), one of the foun- 
ders of the Royal Society, 4 was descended of an ancient 
and noble family in the Highlands .of Scotland, and had 
his education, partly in the university of St. Andrews, and 
partly in France. In this last country he entered into the 
army, ia the service pf Lewis XIII, and became such a 
favourite with cardinal Richlieu* that few foreigners were 
held in equal esteem by that great statesman. According 
to .Anthony Wood, sir Robert Moray was general of the 
ordnance in Scotland, against king. Charles I, when the 

* Niceron, vol. XV«~Moreri in Fulm,— Beg» Icones.—jSaxii Onomast, 

Ut M O R A Y. 

presbyterians of that kingdom first set up and maiiitaitigft 
their covenant. But if this be true, which we apprehend 
to be very doubtful, he certainly returned to France, and 
was raised to the rank of colonel, from which country he 
came over to England for recruits, at the time that king 
Charles was with the Scotch army at Newcastle. Here he 
grew into much favour with his majesty, and, about De** 
cember 1 646, formed a design for his escape, which watf 
to have been executed in the following manner : Mr. Wit* 
liam Moray, afterwards earl of Dysert, had provided' a 
vessel near Tinmoutb, and sir Robert Moray was to have 
conducted the king thither in a disguise. The matter pro- 
ceeded so far, that bis majesty put himself in the disguise, 
and went down the back-stairs with sir Robert. But, ap- 
prehending that it was scarcely possible to pass all the 
guards without being discovered, and judging h highly in** 
decent to be taken in such a condition, he changed, his re-i 
solution, and returned back. Upon the restoration of 
king Charles II. si^ Robert Moray was appointed a privy* 
counsellor for Scotland. Wood says, that, though sir 
Robert was presbyterianly affected, he had the king's ear 
as much as any other person. He was, undoubtedly, hi 
no small degree of esteem with his majesty ; but this was 
probably more upon a philosophical than apolitical account ; 
for he was employed by Charles the Second in his chymica^ 
processes, and was, indeed, the conducter of his labors* 
tory. When the design was formed, in 1661, of restoring 
episcopacy in Scotland, sir Robert was one, among others, 
who was for delaying the making of any such change, till 
the king should be better satisfied concerning the inclina- 
tions of the nation. In the next year, sir Robert Moray 
was included in an act, passed in Scotland, which incapa-* 
citated certain persons from holding any place of trust under 
the government. This act, which was carried by the ma- 
nagement of a faction, and to which the lord commissioner 
(the earl of Middleton) gave the royal assent, without ac- 
quainting his majesty with the whole purport of it, was 
very displeasing to the king, who, when it was delivered 
to him, declared, that it should never be opened by him* 
In 1667, sir Robert Moray was considerably entrusted in 
the management of public affairs in Scotland, and they 
'were then conducted with much greater moderation than 
they had been for some time before. It is a circumstance 
highly to his honour, that though the earl of Lauderdale* 

MORAY. 343 

instigation of lady Dysert, bad used him very un- 
worthily, yet that nobleman had such an opinion of his 
virtue and candour, that, whilst he was in Scotland, in 
1669, as bis majesty's high commissioner, he trusted all 
Jus concerns in the English court to sir Robert's care. Sir 
Robert Moray had J»een formerly the chief friend and 
main support of the earl of Lauderdale, and had always 
been his faithful adviser and reprover. Anthony Wood 
says, that sir Robert was a single man ; but this is a mis- 
take ; for be had married a sister of lord Balcarras. He 
died suddenly, in his pavilion, in the garden of Whitehall, 
on the 4th of July, 1673, and was interred, at the. king's 
expence, in Westminster-abbey, near the monument of 
sir William Davenant. 

< The merit of sir Robert Moray, with regard to the Royal 
Society, was very eminent. Bishop Burnet asserts, that 
he was the first former of the society, and that, while he 
lived, he was the life and soul of that body. He was un- 
doubtedly one of the first framers of it ; and he was uncom- 
monly assiduous in promoting its valuable purposes *. In 
this view, we meet with his name in almost every page of 
Dr. Birch's circumstantial History of the Society; in tfhich, 
likewise, are inserted some of sir Robert's papers. An- 
other of his papew, concerning the mineral of Liege, is 
printed in the early part of the Philosophical Transactions. 
Besides sir Robert Moray's aids and communications, rela- 
tive to the scientific views and experiments of the Royal 
Society, he was singularly useful to it in other respects* 


* Tbe members, of whom it was academy at Pa; is, and dated 122 Juljs^ 

originally composed, held their first 1661, sir Robert Moray styled himself 

meeting, for the purpose of forming " Societatis ad tempus Prssses." Front 

themselves into a regular philosophical all toe circumstances we baFe bee* 

society, on the 28th of November, able to collect, sir Robert seems to 

1660. In the next week (Dee. 5.), sir have been tbe sole presideot of the so- 

Robert Moray brought word from the ctety, till it was incorporated, except- 

court, that the king had been acquaint- ing for one month, from May 14th, 

ed with the design of the meeting; that 1662, to June the 11th, during which 

hewell approved of it; and that he would time Dr, Wilkios possessed that ho- 

be ready to give it encouragement, nour. It is certain that sir Robert 

On the 6th of March, 1660-61, sir Moray was again appointed to the of. 

Robert was chosen president of the so- fice, when Dr. Wilklns's month Was 

cUtft Ant a month only, m it appears ; out, and that he continued in it tiH the 

for, on the 10th of April, 1661, he was charter took place. The above ac- 

again elected for another month. In count will reconcile tbe apparent coo- 

this office he likewise continued by trad fctioo of our historians, who, when 

subsequent elections, though the time they speak of the Royal Society, some- 

of making them is not particularly times represent sir Robert Moray, and 

mentioned. In a Latin letter, addressed sometimes lord Brouncker, a* barraf 

(bn Mons. de Moutmor, president of the been the first president 

314 , MORAY. 


He bad a very considerable share in obtaining its charter* ; 
was concerned in framing its statutes arid regulations^ 
and was indefatigably jealous in .whatever regarded its in* 
terests. In both the charters of the Royal Society,. he is 
first mentioned in the list of the council : he was always 
afterward chosea of the council ; and his. name sometimes 
occurs as vice-president. ■ .. 

. Sir Robert Moray's general character was excellent in 
the highest degree. He was beloved and esteemed- by 
men of every party and stations His piety was such, that} 
jn the midst of armies and courts, he spent many hours of 
the day in the exercise of devotion. The equality of. bis 
temper could not be disturbed by any event c he was in 
practice a stoic, with a strong tincture of the persuasion of 
absolute decrees. He had a most diffusive love for man-* 
kind; and whilst he delighted .in every occasion; of doing 
good, bis. benevolence was conducted with a discretion 
equal to his zeal. In reproving the faults of young people* 
he had the plainest, and yet the softest method of doing it 
that can be imagined. His, comprehension was superior to 
that of most men ; and in resembled the illus* 
trious Peireskius, as described by Gassendus. Once, wtfea 
a false and malicious accusation was brought against sir 
Robert Moray, which was aimed at hisjife, be practised* 
upon the occasion, in a very eminent manner, his feme 
Christian philosophy, without shewing so mqch as a cloud 
in his whole behaviour. l * . • . i 

. MORDAUNT {Charles), earl of Peterborough, was 
the son of John lord Mordaunt, of Reygate, in Surrey, and 
lord viscount Avtlon, in the county of Somerset, by EIU 
?abeth, daughter of Thomas Carey, second son of Robert* 
carl of Monmouth. He was born about 1658; and, in 
1675, succeeded his father in honours and estate. , In his 
youth he served under the admirals Torrington and Nar*» 
borough in the Mediterranean, during the war with thi 
state of Algiers; and, in June 1680, embarked for Africa 
with the earl of Plymouth, and distinguished himself at; 
Tangier, when it was besieged by the. Moors. In tug 
reign of James II. he was one of those lords who manifested 
their zeal against the repeal of the test-act ; and, disliking 
the measures and designs of the court, obtained leave ta 

* Biog. Brit in art. Brouncker,— Birch's His*, of the Ro^al Society.— ^Ath, 
Ox, ?pl. {I,— Burnet's Own Times, 


go oVef into Holland, w accept the command of a Dutcfi 
squadron in the West-Indies. On his arrival, he pressed 
the prince of : Orange to undertake an expedition inty 
England, representing the matter as extremely- easy ; but, 
bis scheme appearing too romantic, his highness only pro* 
. tnised him in general, that he should have an eye on thg 
affairs of England, and endeavour to put those of Holland! 
in so good a posture as to be ready to act when it should 
be necessary < assuring Mm at the same time, that if the 
fcing should proceed to change the established religion, or 
to wrong the princess in her right, or to raise forged plots 
jto destroy his friends, he. would try what could, possibly be 
done* The reason why the prince would not seem tq 
'enter too hastily into lord MofdaimtV ideas seems to have 
been, because, as Burnet observes, his lordship was "$ 
man of much heat, many notions, and full of discourse; 
*nd$ though brave and generous, had not true judgment, 
bis thoughts being crude and indigested, and his secrets 
#oon kpown.' 1 However, be was one of those whom the 
prince chiefly trusted, and on whose advice he governed 
all his motions. 

, In 1688 he accompanied his highness in his expedition 
into England ; and, upon his advancement to the throne, 
was sworn of the privy -council, made one of the lords of 
the bedchamber, and, in order to attend at the coronation 
95 an earl, advanced to the dignity of earl of Monmouth, 
April 9, 1689, having the day before been . constituted 
♦first commissioner of the treasury. He bad likewise th£ 
command of the royal regiment of horse, which the city of 
London, had raised for the public service, and of which hi* 
majesty was colonel; .but, in the beginning of Nov. 1690, 
be was removed from his post in the treasury. On June 
.19, 1697,. upon the death of his uncle Henry earl of Per 
terborougb, he succeeded to that title ; and, upon the 
accession of queen Anne, was designed for the West-Indies, 
being invested with the commission of captain-general and 
governor of Jamaica, and commander of the army and fleet 
for. that expedition. In March 1705, he was sworn of the 
privy- council ; and the same year declared general and 
commander in chief of the forces sent to Spain, and joint 
edmiral of the fleet with sir Cloudsley Shovell* of which* 
the year following*, be had ttye sole command, sir Cloudsley 
remaining in the British seas. His taking Barcelona with 
an handful of men, and relieving it afterwards, w;beft 



greatly distressed by tbe enemy ; his driving out of SpsAlL 
tbe duke of Anjou and the French army, which consisted of 
twenty-five thousand men, though his own- troops never 
amounted to ten thousand ; tbe possession he gained of 
Catalonia, of the kingdoms of Valencia, Arragon, and Ma- 
jorca, with part of Mtircia and Castile, and thereby giving 
opportunity to the earl of Galway of advancing to Madrid 
without a blow ; were all astonishing instances of valour, 
prudence, and conduct in military affairs, and, together 
with his wit, ready address, and singularities of character, 
made him be considered as one of the ablest servants of tbe 
public, and one of the most extraordinary characters of 
Wa time. - 

For his services abroad bis lordship was declared general 
in Spain by Charles III. afterwards emperor of Germany; 
*nd, the war being thought likely to be concluded, he waf 
appointed by queen Anne ambassador extraordinary, with 
power and instructions for treating and adjusting all mat- 
ters of state and traffic between the two kingdoms. The 
king of Spain, however, having transmitted some charges 
against him, bis conduct was examined by parliament, and 
cleared up to their entire satisfaction. The House of 
Lords, in particular, who were pleased with his justifica- 
tion, resolved, Jan. 12, 1710-11, " that his lordship, dur- 
ing the time be commanded the army in that kingdom, bad 
performed many great and eminent services ; and that, if 
tbe opinion, which he bad given to the council of war at 
Valencia, had been followed, it might very probably have 
prevented the misfortunes that had since happened in 
Spain :" and upon this foundation they voted thanks to his" 
lordship in the most solemn manner. In 1710 and 1711, 
lie was employed in embassies to Vienna, Turin, *u4 several 
of the courts in Italy. On his return to England, he was 
made colonel of the royal regiment of horse-guards ; and 
being general of the marines, and lord-lieutenant of the 
county of Northampton, was, on August 4, 1713, installed 
at Windsor a knight of the garter. Soon after which he 
was sent ambassador extraordinary to the king of Sicily* 
and to negociate affairs with other Italian princes ; and in 
March 1713-14, was made governor of the island of Mi** 
norca. In the reign of George I. he was general of all the 
marine forces in Great Britain, in which post he was like- 
wise continued by George II. He died in his passage to 
Lisbon^ whither he was going for the recovery of 

M O R D A U N T. S47 

lieaHb, Oct. 25, 1735, aged seventy-seven* A very in* 
teresting account of bis last, illness, which was excruciating, 
fc> given, in vol. X. of Bowles's edition of Pope's Works. 
> Lord Peterborough was a man of great courage and 
skill as a commander, and was successful in almost all 
his. undertakings. As a politician, he appears also to much 
advantage, being open, honest, and patriotic in the ge~ 
fiuine sense. Lord Orford has characterized him well in 
9tber respects, as " one of those men of careless wit and 
negligent grace, who scatter a thousand bon~mots and 
idle verses, which (such) painful compilers (as lord Orford) 
gather and board, till the owners stare to find themselves 
authors. Such was this lord : of an advantageous figure, 
itod enter prizing spirit : as gallant as Amadis, and as brave, 
|>ut a little more expeditious in bis journeys ; for he is said 
to have seen more kings and more postillions than any man 
in Europe." He was indeed so active a traveller, accord- 
ing to Dean Swift, that queen Anne's ministers used to 
•ay, they wrote at him, and not to him*. What lord 
Peterborough wrote, however, seems scarcely worth notice, 
unless in such a publication as the " Royal and Noble 
Authors," where the freedom of that illustrious company is 
bestowed on the smallest contributors to literary amuse- 
ment. He is said to have produced " La Muse de Cava- 
lier ; or, an apology for such gentlemen as make poetry 
their diversion, and not their business," in a letter inserted 
in the " Public Register," a periodical work by Dodsley* 
1741, 4to; u A copy of verses on the duchess of Marl- 
borough;" "Song, by a person of quality," beginning. 
5' J said to my heart, between sleeping and waking, &c." 
inserted in Swift's Works. " Remarks on a pamphlet," re- 
specting the creation of peers, 1719, 8vo; but even 'for. 
some of these trifles, the authority is doubtful. His cor- 
jfespondence with Pope is no little credit to that collection*: 
He was the steady friend and correspondent of Pope, Swift, 
4od other learned men of their time, as he had been of 
jPryden, who acknowledges bis kindness and partiality* 
flie "Account of the Earl of Peterborough's conduct in 
Spain," taken from his original letters and papers, waa 
drawn up by Dr. Freind, and published in 1707, Svo. Dr» 
JBreiud says, that ". he never ordered off a detachment of 

, 9 See Swift's humorous but accurate portrait of him, in vol. VII. p f 35, of 

wichotfi edition of Swift's Works. 

■ * •'.'•■ * ' i • 


« hundred men, without going with them himself." Of 
bis own courage his lordship used to say, that it proceeded ' 
from his not knowing his danger ; agreeing in opinion, with 
Turenrre, that a coward had only one of the three faculties 
of the mind-*- apprehension. ■ Of his liberality, we have, this 
instance, that the remittances expected from England, not 
coming to his troops when he commanded in Spain, he it 
•aid to have supplied them for some time with money from 
his own pocket/ In this he differed considerably from his 
grtat* contemporary the duke of Marlborough, and the dif- 
ference is stated in one of his best bon-mots. Being: onx^ 
taken by the mob for the duke, who was then in disgrace 
.with them, he would probably have been roughly treated 
by thesg friends to summary justice, had he not addressed 
I hem in these words: " Gentlemen, I can convince yott 
by. two reasons that I am not the duke. In the first place, 
-] have only five guineas in my pocket; and in the second, 
they are heartily at your service." So throwing his purse 
among them, he pursued his way amid loud acclamations. 
Many other witticisms may be seen in our authorities, 
which are less characteristic. i 

- His. lordship married Carey; daughter to sir Alexander 
Eraser, of Dotes, in the shire of Mearns, in Scotland, and 
by her (who died May 13, 1709) he had two sons,. John 
and Henry, who both died before him, and a daughter^ 
Henrietta, married to Alexander second duke of Gordon. 
He was succeeded in titles and estate by a grandson; 
Charles. He married as his second wife Mrs. Anastasia 
Robinson, a celebrated singer, of whom Dr. Burney has 
given a very particular account in vol., IV. of his. *' History 
nf Music/' To this lady he was ardently attached, and 
behaved to her with, great delicacy and* propriety, but hja 
pride revolted at the match, and he kept it secret until a 
very short period before his death. Of the lady herself he 
bad, according to every account, no reason to be ashamed; 
but a connection of this kind had not then become so com- 
mon as we bave>of late witnessed. How long he was mar- 
ried to her« does not appear. She survived him fifteen 
years, residing in an exalted station, and visited by per- 
sons of the first rank, partly at Bevis Mount,, his lordship's 
teat near Southampton, and partly at Fulhanvo? perhaps 
at Peterborough-house at Parson's green. Lord Peter* 
tooroiijgh had written his M Own Memoirs," which this lady 
destroyed, from a regard to bis reputation* Tradition says, 

MGSDA.CNT. * *4* 

that in these .ihemoirs be cohfessed lais having committed 
three capital crimes before he was twenty yfears tff age; 
This we hope has been exaggerated ; but it seems allowed 
that his morals were loose, and that he wfes a freethinker- i: 
' MORE (Alexander), a preacher of some celebrity 
among the French protestants, was the son of aScotchmarij 
who was principal of % the college at Castres in Languedoc^ 
&tid born thefle in 1616. When he was about twenty, he 
was'sent to' Geneva to study divinity; and finding, upon 
his arrival, that the chair of the Greek' professor was va- 
cant, he became a candidate for it, and gained it against 
competitors greatly beyond himself in years. Having ex- 
ercised this office for -about three years, he succeeded 
Spanheim, who was called away to Leyden, in the fune«* 
tions of divinityiprofessor find minister of Gene vai" : Ashe 
was a favourite preacher, and a man of great learning, he 
appears' to hfcve excited the jfealbusy of a party which was 
formed against hirh at Geneva. ' He had, however, secured 
the good opinion of Saltnasius, who procured him the di- 
vinity-professor's place afr Middlebourg, together with the 
parish-church, which occasioned him to depart from Ge- 
neva in 1649.- iFhe gentlemen of Amsterdam, at his arri- 
val in Holland, offered him the professorship of History, 
which was become vacant by- the death of Vdssius ; but, 
iiot being able to detafth hita from bis engagements to the 
city of MiddlebduTg, they gave if to David Blonde!, yet, 
upon a second offet; he accepted it about three years 
after. In 1654; he left his professorship of history for some 
time to take a jourriey into Italy ; where 1 it is said he was 
greatly noticed by the d uke • of Tfescany. : During his stay 
in Italy, he wrote a beautiful poem updn the defeat of the 
Turkish fleet by the Venetians, and was honoured with a 
chain of gold by the repubHc of Venice. He returned ta 
bts charge; and, after sortie contests- with the Waltooni 
synods, went into France, to- bfe - ordained minister of the 
church of Paris. But here^he met with many opponents, 
his character, as is* said, being somewhat ambiguous both 
in regard to faith and morals. He succeeded, however, 
ih being received minister of the church of -Paris, although 
his reputation continued to be attacked by ; people of merit 

. ■* Birch V Lives to the Illustrious Heads.-^poUins's Peerage tby^v Btltoydgef* 
— -Walpole*s Hoy a I aud Noble Authors by Park — Capt. Carleloo's Memoir*, 
lately republished. — Swift's and Pope's Works, by Nichols and Bowles $ teeUj* 
reapective Indexes.— Seward's Anecdotes and Biographiana. 

*«» MORE.. 

and consequence, who presented him again to the' synods 
from whose censures be escaped with great difficulty, and[ 
had again to encounter in 1661. About this time be went 
to England, and on his return six months afterwards, the; 
complaints against him were immediately renewed. He 
died at Paris, in the duchess of Rohan's bouse, in Septem- 
ber 1670. if 
. He published some works : among which are a treatise 
" De Gratia & Libera Arbitrio ;" and another, " De Script 
tura Sacra, sive de Causa Dei ;" • * A Comment on the; 
fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah ;" " Not* ad Loca qttsdam 
Novi Foederis j" a reply to Milton's abuse of him in bis 
" Second Defence of the people of England:" thi* reply, 
gf which much may be seen in our second authority, bas the 
title of " Alexandri Mori Fides publica :" some " Orations 
and Poems in Latin." ' 

MORE (Sir Antowio), an eminent artist of the six* 
teenth century, was born at Utrecht in 1519, and was the 
scholar of John Schorel, but seems to have studied the 
manner of Holbein, to which he approached nearer than 
to the freedom of design in the worfcs of the great masters 
that he saw at Rome. Like Holbein he was a close imita- 
tor of nature, but did not arrive at hi* extreme delicacy of 
finishing ; on the contrary, Antonio sometimes struck into 
a bold and masculine style, with a good knowledge of 
chiaro-scuro. Among other portraits be drew Philip If* 
and was recommended by cardinal Granvelle to Charles V, 
who sent him to Portugal, where he painted John III. the 
king, Catharine of Austria, bis queen, and the infants 
Mary, first wife of Pbflip. For these three pictures he 
received six hundred ducats, besides a gold chain of a 
thousand florins, and other presents. He had one hundred 1 
ducats for his common portraits. But still ampler rewards 
were bestowed on him when sent into England to draw the 
picture of queen Mary, the intended bride of Philip. They 
gave him one hundred pounds a quarter as painter to their 
majesties. He made various portraits of the queen : on£ 
was sent by cardinal Granvelle to the emperor, who ordered 
two hundred florins to Antonio. He remained in England* 
during the reign of Mary, and was much employed ; but: 
having neglected, as is frequent, to write the names on the 
portraits he drew, most .of them have lost part of their 

* Gen, Diet, by Bayle, in art. Morus.^Symmoas'g Life tf Milton; tee lades. , 


Vrihie, by our ignorance of the persons representee!; 
Though portraits was the branch in which More chiefly ex* 
gelled* he was not without talent for history. In this be 
bad something of the Italian style in his design, and his 
colouring resembled that of Titian. A 'very fine work of 
his, representing the Ascension of our Saviour, is in the 
gallery of the Louvre at Paris. The style of the compo- 
sition, which consists of Jesus Christ ascending, crowned 
by . two angels, and accompanied by the figures of St. ^ 
Peter and St. Paul, is of the severe and grand cast em- 
ployed by Fra. Bartolomeo ; the colouring is exceedingly 
fine, and correspondent to the style of design; he has 
been, least successful in the expression of the principal 
figure; if that bad been more just and grand, this picture 
would alone place More among the very first class of artist*. 
On the death of the queen, be followed Philip into Spain; 
where be was indulged in so much familiarity, that one 
day the king slapping him pretty roughly on the shoulder, 
More . returned the spot with his handstick. A strange 
liberty to be taken with a Spanish monarch, and with such 
a monarch i His biographer gives but an awkward account 
of the sequel, and, says Mr. Walpole, " I repeat it as I 
find it A grandee interposed for his pardon, and he wai 
permitted to retire to the Netherlands, but on the promise 
of returning again to Spain* I should rather suppose that 
he was promised to have leave to return hither after a ten*- 
p*>r*ry banishment; and this supposition is the more likely, 
as Philip for once forgetting majesty in his love of the arts, 
dispatched a messenger to recal him before he httd finished 
his journey. But the painter, sensible of the danger he 
had escaped, modestly excused himself. * And ' yet, says 
the story,, the king bestowed noble presents and places on 
j^s children*" At Utrecht, Antqpio found the duke of 
Alva, and was employed by him to paint some of his mis- 
tresses, and was made receiver of the revenues of West 
Flanders, a preferment* with which they say he was so 
elated, that he burned his easel, and gave away his p&iftt* 
ling- tools. He was a man of a stately and handsome figure; 
atid often went to Brussels, where he lived magnificently. 
Hediedat Antwerp, in 1575, in the fifty-sixth year of hisag& 
..., MORE, or MOORE (Sir Francis), son of Edward More, 
fMfc by Elizabeth bis wife, daughter and heir of one Hal*; 

* Walpol^t A»«t&ft» <—PiAki*ftoB, by Fu»el^R«e» VCjclop*di», 

$52 Mor £: 


6f Tilehurst in Berkshire,' w&* born at East tiiWesty, Iff 
th^t county, in 1558. He was, admitted of St John's col* 
lege, Oxford,, whence he removed to the Middle Temple, 1 
where hp made a very considerable proficiency, and be-* 
came a person of eminence in his profession, both for hit 
knpwledge and integrity. H^ died* Nov*' 20, 16&1, and 
was buried at, Great Fawley, near Wantagd in Berkshire* 
JHis works are, " Cases collected and reported/* London,- 
.1663, in folio. They were afterwards abridged by Mr. 
Hughes, and printed in 1665,: 8vo< .His: reading upon 
4 Jac. L in the Middle Temple, concerning charitable uses, 
as abridged by himself,, was published to 1676, folio, by 
Air. Duke, of the. Inner Temple. Sir Francis More was a 
member of that parliament which passed the statutes fo# 
charitable uses; and, it is said, the bill, as it passed, wirt 
penned by him.. In sir Francis's reports, the readier may 
see the famous case of the: Post Nati, argued before the 
JLords and Commons in the painted chamber, and the t&so* 
JutiQn of alLtbe reverend judges upon the satihe. ~A MS. 
pfhis, consisting of reports of cases principallysigteeing 
with those in print, but with a greater number of references 
to authorities, is in the bands of Mr. Brooke* compiler of 
*be "Bibliojtheca Legum Anglia*." 1 . : i 

MORE (Dr. Henry), an eminent English divine and 
4>hiJosopher, was the second soa of Alexander More, esq: 
and born at Grantham in Lincolnshire, Oct. 12, 1614. His 
parents, being zealous Calvinists, took especial care to 
breed up their sen in Calvinistic principles ; and, with this 
design* provided him with a private master of their own 
persuasion, under whose direction he continued tilt he was 
fourteen years of age. Then, at the instigation <rf his 
tfgcte* who discerned in him very uncommon talents, he 
was sent to Eton-school, in order to-be perfected in the 
.Greek and Latin tongues; carrying with him a? strict 
cfe^rge not to .redede from die principles in which he had 
Jheen ao carefully trained. Here, however, he abandoned 
14s Calvinistic opinions, as far as regarded predestination } 
pod, although bis uncle not only chid- him severely, but 
£v?n threatened him with correction,- for his immature phi- 
Jowpbissing in such matters ; yet he persisted ift his om* 
jrion. In 1631, after he had spent three years at Eton, lie 
p** admitted erf, Christ's college in Cambridge, and, at hit 

* Ath. Qx.voL !•— BriclgMii'f I*f*l Bibliography* 

MO'S E. S5$ 

own earnest solicitations, under a tutor that was not a Cal- 
vinist. Here, as he informs us, " he plunged himself im- 
mediately over head and ears in philosophy, and applied 
himself to the works of Aristotle, Cardan, Julius Scaliger, 
and other eminent philosophers ;" all which he read over 
before he took his "bachelor of arts 9 degree, which was in. 
1635. But these did not answer his expectations ; their 
manner of philosophising did not fall in with his peculiar 
turn of mind'; nor did he, feel any of that high delight, 
which he had promised himself from these studies. This 
disappointment, therefore, induced him to search for what 
he wanted in the Platonic writers and mystic, divines, such 
as Marsitius Ficinus, Plotinus, Trismegistus, &c. where his 
enthusiasm appears to have been highly gratified. Among 
all the writings of this kind, there was none which so much 
affected** him as the 4i Theologia Germanica," once a fa- 
vourite book with Luther. This was written by one John 
Taulerus, a Dominican monk, in the fourteenth century ; 
and who, being supposed by the credulity of that age to 
be favoured With revelations from heaven, was styled the 
"illuminated divine." He preached chiefly at Cologne and 
Strasburg, and died in 1631. His book, written in Ger- 
man, was translated into Latin, first by Surius, and after- 
wards by Sebastian Castalio ; and it went through a great 
number of editions from 1518 to 1700, when it was printed 
in French at Amsterdam. * 

The pretensions, which such autholrs as we have just 
mentioned, make of arriving at extraordinary degrees of 
illumination by their institutes, entirely captivated More V 
fancy ; who pursued their method with great seriousness 
and intense application ; and, in three or four years, had 
reduced himself to so thin a stkte of body, and began to 
talk in such a manner of experiences and communications, 
as brought him into a suspicion of being touched with en- 
thusiasm. In 1640, he composed his " Psycho-Zoia, or 
the Life of the Soul ;" which, with an additiort of other 
poems, he republished in 1647, 8vo, under the title of 
" Philosophical Poems," and dedicated to his father. He 
takes notice, in his dedication, that his father used to read 
to his children on winter nights " Spenser's Fairy Queen, 9 ' 
with which our author was highly delighted, and whteh, he 
sayfe in. the dedication, " first turned his ears to poetry. 
In 1639, he had taken his master of arts 9 degree ; and, be- 
ing chosen fellow of his college, became tutor to several 

Vou XXII. A a 

$5* MOB?. 

persons of great quality. One of these was sir Johu Fineb, 
whose sister lady Convey was, an enthusiast of his, emu 
s^auop, and became at length a %w*ker, although he h* 
boured fp* many years to reclaim her. . He still, howw«er, 
had a grea,t esteem for heir; and drew up. some of his 
" Treatise*" at her particular request ; and she, in retain, 
left Jiiin a legacy of 40Q& He composed others of his 
works at Raglqy, the seal pf her Wd in Warwickshire^ 
where, a* interval, be spent * considerable part of his 
tiiqq. He met here with two extraordinary persons* the 
famous Van Helmont, and the. oo less famous Vakatsoe 
Qreatrsdte*;, for, it seews, lady Ccawqy waa frequently 
a$$icted with violent pains y\ her head, and these two per- 
sons were called in, at different tiaxes, to try their power* 
qpofl her ; and, at bat, Van Hehnont lived in the family. 
There was puce, a design pf printing some remains of this 
lady after her death ;, and the preface was actually wnfctm 
by ou* author under the person el Van Heksont; in. which 
disguise be draws her character with so much, address, thai 
we fire told the naost. rigid quaker would see every thing 
he coi)id wish in it, and yet the- soberest Christian be en- 
tirely satisfied with it. It is printed at large ia his life. 

In 1675, hq accepted Si prebend in the church of Glou- 
cester, .being collated to it by; lady Conway's brother, lord' 
Fiqcb, wbo wfrs then chancellor pf , England*, and afterwards* 
earl of Nottingham; but soon resigned it ta Dr. Edward 
Fowler, afterwards bishop of Gloucester, eo who** it was 
conferred at bis request. It was thought tqr b$ with this 
view that Dr. More accepted of this preferment^ k being 
tbe only one he could ever be induced to accept, after he 
had devoted himself to. a college life, which he did very 
garly ; for, in 1 642, he resigned tbe jrectory of IagoMebjr 
in Lincolnshire, . soon after he had been» presented to k by 
his father, who bad bought the perpetual advowson of it 
for him. Here he made himself a, paradise, as he expresses- 
it ; aijd he w a* so fearful of hurting it by any change in 
his present situation, that he e?eu declined the mastership 
of k?is own college, into which, it is. said, he might have 
been elected in 1654, in,, preference to Dr., Cud worth. 
After this, we cannot be surprised .that he withstood to» 
rioys, solicitations, particularly to accept the deanery of' 
Christ church in Dublin* and the prorostsbip of Trinity 
college, as. wejl as the deanery of St. Patrick's ; but these 
hg persisted in refusing, although he waa assured they weft 

MORE, $5$ 

designed only to pave the way to something higher, there 
being two bishoprics in view offered to his choice, one of 
wi)i<?h was valued at 1500/. per anntim. This attempt to 
draw him into Ireland proving insufficient* a very good 
bishopric was procured for him in England ; and his friends 
got him as far as Whitehall, in order to kiss his majesty's* 
hand for it; but as soon as be understood the business, 
which had hitherto been concealed from him, he could not 
be prevailed on to stir a step farther. 

During the rebellion he was suffered to enjoy the stu- 
dious retirement be had chosen^ although he bad made 
himself obnoxious, by constantly refusing to take the cove- 
nant. He saw and lamented the miseries of his country ; 
but, in general, Arohimedes like, he was so busy in his 
chamber as to mind very little what was doing without. He 
had a great esteem for Des Cartes, with whom he held a 
correspondence upon several points of his philosophy. He 
devoted his whole life to the writing of books ; and it is 
certain, that his parts and learning were universally ad~ 
mired. On this account be was called into the Royal So- 
ciety, with a view of giving reputation to it, before its 
establishment by the royal charter ; for which purpose he 
wad proposed as a candidate by Dr. Wilkins and Dr. Cud- 
worth, June 4, 1661, and elected fellow soon after. His 
writings, became so popular, that Mr. ChishnU, an eminent 
bookseller, declared, that, for twenty years together, afteiv 
tbfc return of Charles II. the " Mystery of Godliness/' and 
Dr. JVfore's other works, ruled all the booksellers in Lon- 
don ; and a very remarkable testimony of their esteem was 
given by John Cockshuit of the Inner Temple, esq. who, 
by bk last will, left S00/. to have three of bis principal 
pieces translated into Latin. These were his"Myste*y 
pf Godliness," " Mystery of Iniquity," and his " Philoso- 
phical Collections." This legacy induced our - author to 
translate, together with these, the rest of his English' works 
which be thought worth printing, into that language; and 
the whole collection was published hi 1679, in three large 
volumes, folio. In undertakingthe translation himself, his 
design was to appropriate Mr. Cockshuit's. legacy to the 
founding of three scholarships tin Christ's college; but a* 
they could not be printed and published without consuming 
the greatest part of it, he made up this loss by other dcnta-* 
tkms in his life-time, *nd by the perpetuity of the rectory 
of Idgoldsby, which he left to the college by will. He 

A A 2 

356 M 6 R E. 

died Sept 1, 1687, in his seventy-third year ; and was ber- 
ried in the chapei of his college, where lie also Mr. Mede 
and Dr. Cudworth, two other contemporary ornaments of 
that foundation. 

Dr. More was in his person tall, thin, but well propor- 
tioned ; his countenance serene and lively, and his eye 
sharp and penetrating. He was a man of great genius, 
and of very extensive learning, which may be discovered 
in his writings, amidst their deep tincture of mysticism.' 
It was bis misfortune to be of opinion, like many of his 
contemporaries, that the wisdom of the Hebrews had been 
transmitted to Pythagoras, and from him to Plato ; and 
consequently, that the true principles of divine philosophy 
were to be found in the writings of the Platonists. At the 
same time, he was persuaded that the ancient Cabbalistic 
philosophy sprang from the same fountain ; and therefore 
endeavoured to lay open the mystery of this philosophy, 
by shewing its agreement with the doctrines of Pythagoras 
and Plato, and pointing out the corruptions which bad 
been introduced by the modern Cabbalists. The Carte- 
sian system. was, as we have noticed, embraced by More, as 
on the whole consonant to his ideas of nature ; and he took 
much pains to prove that it was not inconsistent with the 
Cabbalistic doctrine. His penetrating understanding, bow- 
ever, discovered defects in this new system, which he en- 
deavoured to supply. 

With these opinions, he was accounted a man of the 
most ardent piety, and of an irreproachable life. Dr. Ou- 
tran said " that he looked upon Dr. More as the holiest 
person upon the face of the earth.* 9 His temper was na- 
turally grave and thoughtful, but at some times, be "could 
relax into gay conversation' and* pleasantry. After finishing 
some of his writings/ which had occasioned much fatigue, 
he said, u Now, for these three months, I will neither 
think a wise thought, nor speak a wise word, nor do any ill 
thing." He was subject to fits of extacy, during which 
he seemed so entirely swallowed up in joy and happiness, 
that Mr. Norris styles him the " intellectual Epioure." He 
was meek and humble, liberal to the poor, and of a very 
kind and benevolent spirit. He once said to a friend, 
" that he was thought by some to have a soft head, but he 
thanked God he bad a soft heart," and gave at that time 
the sum of 50/.« to a clergyman's widow. Bishop Burnet 
calls him "an open-hearted and sincere Christian philo- 

MORE. 357 

aopber,, who studied to establish men in the great princi- 
ples of religion against atheism, which was then beginning 
to gain ground, chiefly by reason of the hypocrisy of sortie, 
.and the fantastical conceits of the more sincere enthusiasts." 
.His writings have n.ot of late years been in much request, 
although all of them were read and admired in his day. 
, Addison styles his "Enchiridion Ethicum" an admirable 
system of ethics; but none of his works appear to have 
been more relished than his " Divine Dialogues" concern- 
ing the attributes and providence of God. Dr. Blair says 
of this. work, that though Dr. Mora's style be now in some 
measure obsolete, and his speakers marked with the aca- 
demic stiffness of those times, yet the dialogue is ani- 
mated by a variety of character, and a sprightliness of con- 
versation, beyond what are commonly met with in writings 
of this kind. 1 

MORE, or MOORE (James, esq.), was the son of Ar- 
.ihur More, esq. one off the lords-commissioners of trade in 
the reign of queen. Anne ; and his mother was the daugh- 
ter of Mr. Smyth, who left this, his grandson, an handsome 
estate, upon which account he obtained an act of parlia- 
ment to change his name from More to Smyth ; and, be- 
sides this estate, at the death of his grandfather, he bad 
.his place of pay-master to the band of gentlemen-pen- 
sioners, with his younger brother Arthur More, esq. He 
was bred at Worcester college, Oxford ; and, while he was 
'there, wrote a comedy, called "The Rival Modes." This 
.play was condemned in the acting, but he printed it in. 
,1727, with the following motto, which the commentator 
.on the Dunciad, by way of irony, calls modest : " Hie 
csestus artemque repono." Being of a gay disposition, he 
insinuated himself into the favour of thp duke of Wharton ; 
and being also, like him, destitute of prudence, he joined 
with that nobleman in writing a paper, called " The In- 
quisitor ;" which breathed so much the spirit of Jacobitism, 
.that the publisher thought proper to sacrifice his profit to 
his safety, and discontinue it. By using too much freedom 
with Pope, he occasioned that poet to stigmatize hini in 
his Dunciad : 

" Never was dash'd out at one lucky hit, 
A fool so just a copy of a wit : 

1 Life b? Richard Ward, A.M. rector of Ingoldsbyin Lincolnshire, 1710, 8ra— 
Biog. Brit — Burset's Own Times. — Birch's Life of Tillotson.— Blair's Lecluref. 
— Brucker's Hist of Philosophy, by EnQeld.— Censura Literaria, Vol. III. 

35S M O R t. 

So like, that critics said, and cjourtkri twoite, 
A wit it was, and pall'd the phantom Mon&T 

The whole is a clear, energetic, and lively description, Arid, 
us Dr. Young, who was well acquainted with More, told 
Dr. War-ton, this portrait is not over-charged. Some have 
thought that Pope's character of Macer was intended also 
for More, but the leanness there alluded to cannot apply to 
More, if the above description be just The pastoral 
Philips is more probably Macer. 

The cause of the quarrel between Mote and Pope was 
this : In a letter published in the Daily Journal, March 18, 
1798, writteri by the former, there are the following words: 
" Upon reading the third volume of Pope's Miscellanies, I 
found five lines, which I thought excellent : and, happen- 
ing to praise them, a gentleman produced a modern 
comedy, ' The Rival Modes, 9 where were the same verses 
to a tittle. These gentlemen are undoubtedly the first 
plagiaries, who pretend to make a reputation by stealing 
from a man's works in bis own life-time, and out of a pub- 
lic print." But it appears, from the notes to the Dunciad, 
that More himself borrowed the lines from Pope; for, in 
* letter to Pope, dated Jan. 27, 1726, he observes, that 
" these verses, which he' had before given him leave to 
insert in ' The Rival Modes, 9 would be known for his, some 
copied being got abroad. He desires nevertheless, that, 
$wce the lines in his comedy have been read to several, 
Pope would not deprive it of them." As proofs of this 
circumstance,* are brought the testimonies of lord Boling* 
broke, and the lady of Hugh Bethel, esq. to whom the 
verses • were originally addressed, who knew them to 'bfe 
Pope's long before " The Rival Modes" was written. This 
gentleman died in 1734, at Whister, near Isleworth in 
Middlesex, for which county he was a justice of peace. 
Notwithstanding bis quarrel with Pope, he was certainly a 
than of parts and politeness, or the poet would never havfe 
introduced bim, as he did, no the earl of Peterborough's 
Acquaintance; but his misfortune was, as the commenta- 
tor on the Dunciad observes, too inordinate a passion to 
be thought a wit. 1 

MORE (Sir Thomas), chancellor of England in the 
reign of Henry VIII. and one of the most illustrious cha- 

* Gent. . Mag. rol. XLIX.— »Biog. Dram.— Pope's Works, by Bowles ,• s& 
Me*, Moore tad Smyth. 

M O ft fi. ' 3f? 

rftfcttrs of that period, was born in Milk-street, London, in 
1480, He was the son of sir John More, knight, one of 
tb* judges of the king's bench, and a iftan of great abili- 
ties and in tfegrity. Sir John had also much of that plea- 
sant wit, for which his son was afterwards so distinguished ; 
and/ as a specimen of it, Camden relates., that he would 
cocftpire the danger in the choice of a wife to that of put- 
ting a man's hand into a bag full of snakes, with only one 
eel in it ; where he may, indeed, chance td light of the eel, 
but it is aft hundred to one be te stung by a snake. It has 
been observed, however, thai sir John ventured to put his 
haftd thtee times into this bag, for he married three wives ; 
' nor was the sting so hurtful as to prevent his arriving at 
thfc age of nitiety; arid then he did not die of old age, but of 
a surfeit, occasioned by eating grapes. Sfr Thomas was 
his son by his first toife, whose maiden name was Hand- 
combe. He was educated in London, at a free-s hool of 
great repute at that tipie in Threadneedle-street, called St. 
Ahthony's,' where archbishop Whitgift, and other eminent 
men^ had beeti brought up ; and here he thade a progress 
in gTatamar-learning, suitable to his uncomritoh parts and 
amplication. He was afterwards placed in the family of 
cardinal Morton, archbishop of Canterbury, a*nd chancellor 
of England: a method of education much practised in 
those times, but chiefly in the case of noblemen's sonsj 
with whom sir' John More might be supposed to rank', from 
the high office be held. The cardinal was delighted with 
his ingenuous modesty, and with the vivacity and quick- 
ness of his wit, of which he gave surprising instances ; one 
of which was, that while the players ill Christmas holidays 
were acting there, he would sometimes suddenly step in 
among them, and, without any previous study, make & part 
of his ovtn, to the great diversion of the audience. The 
cardinal indeed conceived so high an opinidn of his fa- 
vourite pupil, that he used frequently to say to those about 
bim, that " More, whosoever should live to see it, would 
one day prove a marvellous man.** 

In 1 497, he was sent to Canterbury college, now pari 
0f Christ church, in Oxford ; where he heard the lectures 
of Linacfcr and Grocyn, upon the Latin and Gre^k tongues : 
arid it was nor long before he gave proof of having attained 
a good style In both,' by "Epigrams and Translations,*' 
Which are jbri-nted in his Works. During his residence here, 
his father is said to have allowed him a very scanty main- 

360 MORE. 

tenance, and even of that, exacted a most particular ac- 
count, with a vie*, no doubt, to prevent his falling into 
idleness and idle expences ; but sir Thomas, when of riper 
years, approved the plan, and owned that he had reaped 
great benefit from it. After two years spent at Oxford, 
where he made a suitable progress in rhetoric, logic, and 
philosophy, he was removed to. New-inn, London, in order 
to apply to the law ; and soon after to Lincoln's-inn, where 
he continued his studies till he became a barrister. When 
tie was about twenty years of age, he began to practise 
monkish austerities, wearing a sharp shirt of hair next to 
his skin, which he never after left entirely off, not even 
when he was lord chancellor. It is indeed most wonderful 
that at no period of his life, did a ray of that light that was 
now breaking upon the world, penetrate his mind. With 
talents, learning, and wit, far beyond his contemporaries, 
he was also far beyond them in religious bigotry and super- 

At the age of twenty-one, he had a seat in parliament, 
and shewed great independence of spirit, in 1503, by op- 
posing a subsidy demanded by Henry VII. with such 
strength of argument, that it was actually refused by the 
parliament : on this Mr. Tyler, one of the king's privy- 
council, went presently from the house, and told his ma- 
jesty, that a beardless boy had defeated his intention. The 
king resented the matter so highly, that he would not be 
satisfied) till he had some way revenged it : but as the son, 
'who had nothing, could lose nothing, be devised a cause- 
less quarrel against the father; and, sending him to the 
Tower, kept him there till he had forced a fine of 100/. 
from him, for his pretended offence. It happened poon 
after, that More, coming on a suit to Fox, bishop of Win* 
Chester, one of the king's privy-council, the bishop called 
him aside, and with much .apparent kindness, promised, 
that if he would be ruled by him, he would not fail to re- 
store him to the king's favour. It was conjectured, per- 
haps unjustly, that Fox's object was to draw from him some 
confession of bis offence, so that the king might have an 
opportunity of gratifying his displeasure against him. More, 
however, if this really was the case, had too much prudence 
to be entrapped, and desired some time to consider the 
niatter. This being granted, he obtained a conference 
with Mr. Whitford, his familiar friend, then chaplain to 
the bishop, and afterwards a monk of Sion, and related 

MORE.. 361 

what the bishop proposed. Whitford dissuaded him from 
listening to the bishop's motion : " for," says he, u my 
lord and master, to serve the king's turn, will not stick to, 
consent to the depth of his own father." After receiving 
this opinion, which Fox does not seem to have deserved. 
More became so alarmed, as to have some thoughts of 
visiting the continent. With this view he studied the 
French tongue, and cultivated most of the liberal sciences, 
as music, arithmetic, geometry, -astrbnomy, and history ; 
but the death of Henry VII. rendered the precaution un- 
necessary, and he again resumed his profession. 

When admitted to the bar, he had read a public lecture, 
in the church of St. Lawrence Jewry, upon St; Austin's 
treatise " De civitate Dei*," in which, without attempting 
to discuss any points of divinity, he explained the precepts 
of moral philosophy, and cleared up difficulties in history, 
and that with such skill, eloquence, and ability, as to at- 
tract a large number of hearers among persons of note 
and learning; and Grocyn himself, who had been his mas- 
ter in Greek, also became one of his auditors. The repu- 
tation of this lecture, which appears to have been gratui- 
tous, made him be appointed law-reader at Furnival's-inn, 
which place he held above three years. Some time after, 
the superstition which we lament in this illustrious man's 
character, led him to take lodgings near the Charter-house, 
where he went through all the spiritual exercises of that 
society. He disciplined himself every Friday, and on high 
fasting days; he used also much fasting and watching, and 
often lay either upon the bare ground, or upon some bench, 
with a log under his head, and allowed himself but four or 
five hours' sleep in the night. He was also a diligent at- 
tendant on the public preaching of dean Colet, whom he 
chose for his spiritual father, and once had a strong in- 
clination to enter into the order of the Franciscans, as well 
as to take the priesthood. But finding that all his austeri- 
ties were of little avail in procuring him the gift of conti- 
nence, he took Dr. Colet's advice, and resolved to marry. 
JSaving some acquaintance with John Colt, esq. of New- 
hall in Essex, he now accepted an invitation to visit him. 
Mr. Colt had three accomplished and agreeable daughters, 
the eldest of whom Mr. More chose for a wife, although 

• This be bad done before at Oxford. Whether he repeated the lecture here, 
ox whether the passage in the text has been introduced oat of its place, is not 
Very dear, 


bis inclination rather led him to the second, but he consi- 
dered it " would be a grief and some blemish to the eldest/* 
should he act otherwise. Bringing his wife to town he 
took a house in Bucklersbury, and attended the business of 
his profession at his chambers in Lincoln's-inri, where he 
continued till he was called to the bench, and had read 
there twice. This was a very honourable post at that time : 
and some of these readings are quoted by lord Coke as un- 
contested authorities in the law. In the mean time he was 
appointed, in 1508, judge of the sheriff's court in the city 
of London ; made a justice of the peace ; and became so 
eminent in the practice of the law, that there was scarcely 
a cau4e of importance tried at the bar in which he was not 
concerned. Sir Thomas told his son-in-law Roper, that 
he earned by his business at this time, with a good con- 
science, above 400/. a year, which is equal to six timed 
that sum now. He was, however, uncommonly scrupu- 
lous in the causes he undertook. It was his constant me- 
thod, before he took any cause in hand, to investigate the 
jdstice and equity of it ; and if he thought it unjust, he re- 
fused it, at the same time endeavouring to reconcile the 
parties, and persuading them not to litigate the matter in 
dispute. Where not successful in this advice, he would 
direct his clients h6w to proceed in the least expensive and 
troublesome course. It may, indeed, be seen in bik 
u Utopia, 9 ' that he satirizes the profession, as if he did not 
belong to it. 

In the mean time, he found leisure to exercise his talents 
in polite literature ; and, in the height of this hurry of bu- 
siness, wrote his " Utopia." He finished it in 1516, and 
£fter two editions of uncertain date, the first with a date 
was published at Basil, in 1 5 1 8. In this short but extraor- 
dinary work, he gave his mind full scope, and considered 
mankind and religion with a freedom which became a tru4 
philosopher. It is, however, impossible to reconcile the 
liberality of his religious sentiments in this work, with th&t 
superstition and intolerance which shaded his future con- 
duct. In this, he feigns " Utopia 19 to be one of those 
countries then lately discovered in America, and the ac- 
count of it to be given him by one Hythlodseus, a Portu- 
guese, who sailed in company with Americus Vespuciusf, 
the first discoverer of that part of the world : under which 
character he delivers bis own opinions and sentiments. It 
is said too, that about the same time, he.began the " His- 

M O R t. 36$ 

toiy of Richard III." which is inserted in Kennet's tt Com- 
plete History of England," and in the continuation of 
Harding's Chronicle; bat th6 late editor of that Chronicle, ' 
Mr. Ellis, has prored that this was not written by More. 

More cultivated an aequaintance and friendship with thfe 
most learned men of that age, and particularly with Eras- 
mus, who, of all the foreigners, deservedly held the first 
place in his affections. After they had long carried on a 
correspondence by letters, Erasmus came to England, on 
purpose to see his friend ; on which occasion it was con- 
trived, that they should meet at the lord mayor's table in 
London, before they were introduced to each other. At 
dinner, a dispute arose between them, in which Erasmus, 
for the sake of argument, took the wrong side of the ques- 
tion, but so sensibly felt the peculiar sharpness of bis an- 
tagonist's wit, that he could not help exclaiming, " You 
are either M6re, or nobody ;" to which More readily re- 
plied, " You are either Erasmus or the devil :* which last 
coarse expression he is said to have used because Eras- 
mus's arguments had a tincture of irreligion. No two men, 
however, could be more attached to each other's company, 
find after Erasmus returned home, a long correspondence 
took place between them. Both were wits, but Erasmus's 
freedom from bigotry, gave him opportunities of displaying 
his humour, which More could not have embraced. We 
are told that when Erasmus was about to leave England* 
More lent him a horse to carry him to the sea-side; but, 
instead of returning it, be took it to Holland, and sent 
More the following epigram, alluding to some conversa- 
tion they had bad concerning the doctrine of the real pre- 
sence in the sacrament : 

" jQuod mihi dixisti 
De corpore Christi 

Crede quod edas, et edis : 
Sic tibi rescribo 
De tuo palfrido, 
Crede quod habeas, et habes." 

Before More entered into the service of Henry VIII. he 
had been twice employed, with bis majesty's consent, at 
the suit of the English merchants, as their agent in some 
considerable disputes between them and the merchants of 
the Steel-yard ; and, about 1516, be went to Flanders with 
Tonstal, bishop of Durham, and Dr. Knight, commis- 
sioners for renewing the treaty of alliance between Henry 



VIII, and Charles V. then only archduke of Austria. While 
at Bruges, a conceited scholar issued a challenge, that he 
would answer any question which could be proposed to 
him in any art whatsoever : upon which More caused this 
to be put up, " An averia capta in withernamia suit irre- 
plegiabilia ?" adding, that there was one of the English 
ambassador's retinue, who was ready to dispute with him 
upon it. But the challenger, not understanding those 
terms of our common law. knew not what to answer, and 
so was made a laughing-stock to the whole city*. 

The fame of More's learning, ability in the law, and 
dexterity in the management of business, having reached 
the ears of Henry VIII. be ordered cardinal Wolsey to 
engage him in the service of the court. With this view 
the cardinal offered him a pension, which sir Thomas theu 
refused, as not thinking it equivalent to his present advan- 
tages : but the king soon after insisted upon his entering 
into his service, and, for want of a better vacancy, obliged 
him, for the present, to accept the place of master of the 
requests. Within a month after, he was knighted, and 
appointed one of the privy council. In 1 520, he was made 
treasurer of the exchequer ; and soon after this bought a 
house by the river-side at Chelsea f, where he settled with 
bis family, having buried his first wife, and married a 

* This challenger, however* might 
be a very general disputant and a good 
logician, as logic was then understood, 
without understanding the barbarous 
jargon of More's question. The Eng- 
lish* or at least, the meaning is, Whe- 
ther cattle taken in withernam (a writ 
to make reprisals on one who has 
wrongfully distrained another man's 
cattle, and drove them out of the 
county) be irrepleviable } 

f " More," say« Erasmus, " has 
built near London, upon the Thames, 
such a commodious house as is neither 
mean, nor subject to envy, yet mag- 
nificent enough]. There- he converses 
affably with his family, his wife, bis 
son, and daughter-in-law, his three 
daughters, and their husbands; witb 
eleven grand-children. There is not 
any man living so affectionate to his 
children as he ; and he loveth his old 
wife, as well as if she were a young 
maid. And such is the excellence of 
his temper, that whatsoever happeneth 
that could hot be helped, he is as 
cheerful and as well satisfied as though 

nothing coord have happened more 
happily- You would say there were 
in that house Plato's academy. But I 
do the house iujury, in comparing it 
to Plato's academy, where there were 
only disputations of numbers and geo- 
metrical figures, and sometimes of 
moral virtues. I should rather call his 
house a school, or university, of Chris- 
tian religion. , There is none therein 
but readeth, or studieth the liberal 
sciences ; but their special care is 
piety and virtue. There is no quar- 
relling nor intemperate words beard, 
nor any seen idle ; and that worthy 
gentleman does not govern his boose- 
ho'd, nor introduce into it so much re- 
gularity and order, by proud and lofty 
words, but witb all kind and courteous 
benevolence $ every body performing 
bis duty, yet is there always alacrity, 
neither is sober mirth any thing want* 
ing." An account of sir Thomas More's 
house at Chelsea, with its successive 
owners, may be seen in Lysona's. En- 
virons, vol. II. No part of it now re- 

MORE. 365 

second, who was a widow and somewhat in years. With all 
hW excellent endowments for public business, sir Thomas 
had far less relish for the bustle of a court, than for the 
calmer and more substantial pleasures of the domestic 
circle. He thought it therefore rather a' misfortune that 
the king at this time took an extraordinary liking to his 
company, and began to engross all his leisure time. The 
moment he bad finished his devotions on holidays, he used 
to send for sir Thomas into his cjoset, and there coofer 
with him, sometimes about astronomy, geometry, divinity, 
and other parts of learning, as well as about his own affairs. 
He would frequently in the night carry bim up to his leads 
on the top of his house, and discourse with him about the 
motions of the planets ; and, because sir Thomas was of a 
very pleasant disposition, the king and queen used to send 
for him after supper, or in supper-time, to be merry with 
them. Sir Thomas perceiving, by this fondness, that he 
could ndfc once a month get leave to go home to his wife 
and children, or be absent from court two days together, 
without being sent for, is said to have had recourse to a 
singular expedient, suppressing his accustomed facetious- 
ness, and assuming a dullness and gravity, which is said to 
have put an end to his invitations. It is, however, not im- 
probable that he really felt the uneasiness which he dis- 

There was a reason of more importance than his con - 
▼ersation talents, for Henry's partiality. About this time 
his majesty was preparing his answer to Luther, in which 
sir Thomas assisted his majesty, by reducing that treatise 
into a proper method. It was published in 1521, under 
the title of " Assertio septem SaCramentorum adversus M. 
Lutherum, &c. ;" and, in 1523, sir Thomas published/ writ- 
ten by himself, "Responsio ad Convicia M. Lutheri con- 
gesta in Hehricum regem Angliae." Notwithstanding the 
confidence and friendship which Henry appeared to shew, ' 
sir Thomas understood his nature, and was not shy in giv- 
ing his opinion of it. On one occasion, the king came 
unexpectedly to More's house at Chelsea, and dined with 
him ; and after dinner walked with him in his garden, for 
the space of an hour, holding his arm about his neck. As 
soon as his majesty was gone, Mr. Roper, sir Thomas's 
son-in-law, observed to bim how happy he must be that 
the king had treated him with so much familiarity, as' he 
had never seen used to aoy person before, except cardi<~ 

366 MORE; 

fial Wolsey, whom h6 once s*w his itoajetty walk wiiii am* 
in arm. " I thank our lord,"* answered sir Thomas, u I 
find his grace my very good lord indeed, and I belieye he 
doth as singularly favour me as any subject within this 
realm. However, son Roper, I may tell thee, I hare no 
cause to be proud thereof: for, if my bead wo&ld win him 
a ctfstle in France, it should not fail to go." 

In 1523, he was chosen speaker of the House of Com* 
mous ; and,- soon after, shewed great intrepidity in frue-» 
trating a motion for an oppressive subsidy, promoted by car* 
dinal Wolsey, who came to the house thinking that his pre-» 
sence would intimidate the members. On the contrary, the 
members refused to speak in his presence, and sir Thomas 
as speaker, gave him such an evasive answer as made him 
leave the house in a violent passion. This behaviour, the 
cardinal afterwards, in the gallery at Whitehall, complained 
of to him, and said, "Would to Qod yon had been at 
Rome, Mr. More, when I made you speaker." To which 
sir Thomas answered, " Your grace not offended, so would 
I too." There was at this time no great cordiality between 
Wolsey and More, which has been attributed to the car- 
dinal's being jealous of More's favour with the king. More, 
however, does not appear to have been afraid of him, and 
made him, on a remarkable occasion, the subject of one of 
his keenest witticisms. During a dispute in the privy-* 
council, Wolsey so far forgot himself as to call sir Thomas 
a fool; to which he immediately answered, "Thanks be to 
God, that the king's majesty has but one fool in his right 
honourable council." At length, to get rid of this rival, in 
the gentlest way he conld, and even under the mask of 
honouring his political talents, the cardinal persuaded the 
king to send him on the embassy into Spain in 1526 : but 
against this sir Thomas pleaded the unfavourable climate 
of Spain, and the actual state of bis health, which his ma* 
jesty accepted as a sufficient plea, saying, " It is not oar 
meaning, Mr. More, to do you any hurt, but to do you 
good ; we will think of some other, and employ your ser* 
vice otherwise." The following year be was joined, with 
several other officers of state, to cardinal Wolsey, in a 
splendid embassy to France. After his return he was apt 
pointed chancellor of the dutchy of Lancaster, and in July 
1529, he and his friend bishop Tonstal were .appointed 
ambassadors, to negociate a peace between the emperor* 
king Henry, and the king of Fcance, which was accord* 

MOKE. 367 

ingly concluded at Cambray. Sir Thomas acquitted him- 
self in tbif negociation, in a manner which, procured him 
the approbation of the king. It was sir Thomas's custom, 
when in the course of these embassies: he came to any fo- 
reign university, to desire to be present at their readings 
and disputations ; and he would sometimes dispute among 
them himself, and with so much readiness and learning, as 
to. excite the admiration of the auditors; and when the 
king visited our own universities, where he was received 
with learned speeches, sir Thomas More was always ap*- 
pointed to make an extempore answer for the king, as the 
man of all his court the best qualified for the undertaking, 
. JJefore sir Thomas went on his last embassy, the king 
spunded hina upon the subject of his divorce from Catha- 
rine of Arragon, as he did again after his return ; but did* 
not receive, either time, an answer agreeable to his incH* 
uatiQns. Yet, his majesty's fixed resolution in that point 
did not hinder him, upon the disgrace of cardinal Woke}', 
from \ntrusting the great seal with sir Thomas, which was 
4elivered to him Oct. 25, 1530. His biographers have 
said that this favour was the more extraordinary, as he was 
the first layman who enjoyed it ; but this is a mistake. 
There are at least four instances of laymen being chancel* 
lor* before, his time* Some have thought that the honour 
Was conferred with a, view of engaging him to approve the 
intended divorce* Accordingly, be entered upon It with 
just apprehensions, of the danger to which it would expose* 
him on that account, but. determined to execute the duties N 
qf the office in % manner that might give dignity to it ; 
and perhaps no chancellor has ever displayed more upright* 
rjess and i&ttgftty. His predecessor Wolsey was a man of 
Unquestionable abilities, and incorrupt in his decisions: 
but he is, said to have been proud and repulsive to the 
poorer suitors* Sir Thomas, on the. contrary, made no 
distinctions; was nowise dazzled by superior rank and 
station, and considered the poor as especially entitled to 
his protection. He always spoke kindly to such, and heard 
them patiently v It was his general custom to sit every 
afternoon in his open hall, and if any person had a .suit to 
prefer, he might state the case to him, without the aid of 
billsy solicitors, or petitions* And such was his impar- 
tiality, that* he gave a decree, against one of his sons-in- 
l&w, Mr* Heron, whom he in vain urged to refer the mat- 
ter to arbitration, and who presumed upon his relationship. 



So indefatigable was be also, that although he found the 
office filled with causes, some of which had been pending 
for twenty years, he dispatched the whole within two years, 
and calling for the next, was told that there was not one 
left, which circumstance he ordered to be entered on re- 
cord. , 

Amidst so much that is honourable to himself, honourable 
to his profession, and to the age in which he lived, we have 
yet to lament that the force of popish bigotry induced him 
to become a persecutor of the heretics, as they were 
called. One Frith, had written against the corporeal pre- 
sence : and on his not retracting, after More had answered. 2 
him, be caused him to be burned. " James Bainton," says 
Burnet, « a gentleman of the Temple, was taken to the lord* 
chancellor's house, where much pains was taken to persuade 
him to discover those who favoured the newopinions. But fair 
means not prevailing, More bad him whipped in his pre- 
sence, and after that sent to the Tower, where he looked 
on, and saw him put to the rack. He was burned in Smith- 
field." Luther being asked whether sir Thomas More was 
executed for the gospel's sake ? answered, " By no means, 
for he was a very notable tyrant. He was the king's chiefest 
counsellor, a very learned and a very wise man. He shed, 
the blood of many innocent Christians that confessed the 
gospel, and plagued and tormented them like an execu- 
tioner." Yet how discordant does More's practice seem to 
be to his opinions. In his celebrated " Utopia" he lays it 
down as a maxim, that no one ought to be punished for 
his religion, and that every persbn might be of what religion 
be pleased *. 

Sir Thomas's zeal for the Rot&ish church led him, as 
we have noticed, to write some treatises in defence of po- 
pery. He was thought by these to have done great service 
to the church : and' as it was well known that he had bad 

• la 1536 bishop Tonstal and sir 
Thomas More bought up the whole im- 
pression of WicklifPs translation of the 
New Testament, printed m that year* 
and burnt them at Paul's Cross. Sir 
Thomas was alto accessary to a most 
severe punishment and heavy fine in- 
flicted on some persons who had im- 
ported Tindal's New Testament in 1 530. 
Such, however, was his fondness for 
wit, that a repartee would sometimes 
get the better of his persecuting zeal. 

A heretic, named Siher, being brought 
before him, he said, " Silver, yon must 
be tried by fire." «« Yes," replied the. 
prisoner, " but you know, my lord, 
that quick-silver cannot abide toe fire.* 9 ' 
More was so pleased with this repartee* 
which, as Dr. Henry observes, showed 
great presence] of mind* that he set the 
man at liberty. Strype's Cranmer, p* 
81, and Memorials, vol. I. p. 453 ^ 
Henry's History, voj. It. p. 875, *v» 

more. 36? 

few opportunities of amassing riches, and that the emolu- 
ments of his office were no adequate reward for his merit, 
the- clergy, in convocation, voted him a present of five 
thousand pounds ; a vast sum in those days, which was li- 
berally contributed by the whole body of the clergy, supe- 
rior and inferior. When, however, his friend bishop Ton- 
stal, with two other prelates, waited on him with this 
present, he peremptorily declined accepting it, telling 
them, that " as it was no small comfort to him, . that such 
wise and learned men so well accepted of his works, for 
which he never intended to receive any reward but at the 
hand of God, so he heartily thanked this honourable body 
for their bountiful consideration." The prelates then re- 
quested, that he would allow them to present the money 
tojiis family ; but in this he was equally resolute — "Not 
so, indeed, my lords : I had rather see it all cast into the 
Thames, than that I or any of mine should have a penny 
of it. For though your lordships' offer is very friendly and , 
honourable to me, yet I set so much by my pleasure, and 
so little by my profit, that iri good faith I would not for a 
much larger sum have lost the rest of so many nights' sleep 
as was spent upon these writings. And yet, notwithstand- 
ing that, upon condition that all heresies were suppressed, 
I wish ' that all my books were burnt, and my labour en- 
tirely lost." There was something new and peculiar in 
every expression of sir Thomas's thoughts ; and on one oc- 
casion, while conversing on public affairs, at Chelsea, he 
told his son-in-law Roper, that he would be content to be 
thrown into the river, provided three things were estab- 
lished in Christendom: " universal peace — uniformity of 
religion — and a safe conclusion of the king's marriage/' at 
that time in agitation., 

During his chancellorship, the king often importuned 
bim to re-consider the subject of the divorce ; and when he 
found him persisting in his unfavourable opinibndf that 
measure, affected to be satisfied with his answers, and pro- 
mised to molest his conscience no more on the subject. Sir 
Thomas, however, was not a man to be deceived in a point 
on which he knew Henry would not long bear any oppo- 
sition, and determined to avoid having an official con- 
cern in the divorce, by resigning his place, which he had 
held about three years. Henry professed to accept hfe 
resignation with great reluctance* bestowed many thanks 
and much praise on him for his faithful discharge of the 

Vol. XXII. B B 



duties of that important trust, and made him the most li- 
beral promises. But sir Thomas was too disinterested to 
claim these, and never asked a penny for himself of any 
of his family, in any part of his life. That he was perfectly 
satisfied in his own mind with the sacrifice he had made, 
appears from the jocular manner in which he announced 
his resignation to his lady. The morning after he returned 
the great seal, he went to Chelsea-church with his lady 
and family, where, during divine service, he sat, as. was 
usual with him, in the quire, wearing a surplice*, and 
because it had been a custom, after mass was done, for one 
of bis gentlemen to go to his lady's pew and say, " My 
lord is gone before;' 9 he came now himself, and making a 
long bow, said, " Madam, my lord is gone." She, think- 
ing jt to be no more than his usual humour, took no no- 
tice of it; but, in the Way home, be unriddled the jest, by 
acquainting ber with what be had done the preceding day. 
This, however, was no jest to lady More, who .was of a 
worldly avaricious spirit, and by no means remarkable for 
pliability of temper, or submission to his will., She there- 
fore discharged some of her vulgar eloquence on him : — 
" Tilly Vally, what will you do, "Mr. More ? will you ait 
and make goslings in the ashes ? Would to God, I were 
a man, and you should quickly see what I would do. What! 
why, go forward with the best; for, as my. mother was 
wont, to say, It is ever better to rule, than to be ruled ; 
and, therefore, I would not be so foolish as to be ruled, 
where I might rule.' 9 Sir Thomas contented himself with 
replying : " By my faith, wife, I dare say you speak truth ; 
for I never found you willing to be ruled yet.' 9 

§ir Thomas certainly had none of his lady's worldly 
prudence. During .his holding the chancellorship, his inte- 
-grity prevented any accession of wealth, and his generous 
spirit inclined him to live in a manner suitable to his sta- 
tion* What added to his expences was, that all his chil- 
dren, single and married, with their respective families, 
Rved in bis house* He found bis finances, therefore, at * 

• * Sir Thomas frequently assisted in 
t bis way at t|M celebration of divine 
service ra the .ohorcb at Chelsea. The 
duke of Norfolk coming one day to dine 
frith aim whilst he «as chancellor, 
found him at church, wearing a sur- 
plice, and singing with the quire: 
**jQ~*&'4 body, nay lord cbasjceUor," 

said the duke as they returned to bis 
boose, " what a parish clerk ! a parish 1 
clerk ! you dishonour the king and hit 
office." *< Nay," said sir Thomas,* 
" yon. may not think your master and' 
mine will be offended with me for serv- 
ing God, his master, or thereby count 
bis office dishonoured." 

M O R E. $71 

very low ebb; the whole of his yearly income, after re- 
signing tbe chancellorship, not exceeding one hundred 
•pounds. Aqd being no longer able to maintain his married 
children, he sent them to their respective homes, discharged 
all his state servants, and dipposed of his equipages. About* 
thjs time, his father sir John More died, to whom he had 
always behaved with. the. highest degree of filial piety. 
When chancellor, he never passed through Westminster* 
Mali, in his way to tbe court of chancery, without going, 
into that of the King's- be neb, when his father was sitting 
there, and asking his blessing upon his knees ; and when 
they happened to meet at the readings at Lincoln's- Inn, 
be always offered, the precedence to his father: which, on 
account of his son's post as chancellor, sir John properly 
declined. Filial piety, indeed, and all the relative duties, 
form one of the brightest features in the character of sir 
TbocQas More; and some of the, proof she gave of this, -oft* 
which we are now perhaps inclined, to bestow a smile, were 
then objects of reverence. < 

He now resigned himself to that plan of retirement, study,' 
and devotion, which had always been most agreeable to him ; 
but he could no longer expect to enjoy this without inter- 
ruption. . He knew the capricious and arbitrary temper of 
his royal iftaster, who had already divorced queen Catbe* 
tine, married A pne Boleyn, and expected that what he 
bad done should be approved with more than silent; acqui- 
escence. The coronation of the new queen being fixed 
for May 31, 1533, sir. Thomas received an invitation to 
Attend the cerecnony ; but this he declined, as he still re- 
tained his former opinions on the unlawfulness of the di- 
vorce. This, which Henry would naturally construe into 
an insult, provoked him extremely, conscious as be was 
that the. opinions of sir Thomas would have great weight 
with the people.. Various means were therefore tried to 
gain him over, and when these proved ineffectual, a more 
harsh, but in those days, not a very extraordinary prd- ; 
needing took place. In the ensuing parliament a bill was* 
brought into the House of Lords, attainting sir Thomas,. 
bishop Fisher, and some others, of misprision of treason, 
for countenancing and encouraging Elizabeth Barton, the 
maid qf Kent (See Eliz. Barton, vol. IV.) in her trea- 
sonably practices. When this bill came to be read a third 
time, the House of Lords addressed the king to know bis 
pl*asufe, whether sir Thomas might not be suffered to 


372 MORE, 

speak in his own defence ; but Henry would Hot consent to 
this, nor when he desired to he admitted into' the House 
of Commons, to defend himself there, would the king . 
permit him : but he assigned a committee of the privy** 
council to bear his. justification. The affair of Barton, 
however, was a mere pretence, the object of this com~ 
mittee being to draw from him, either by fair words or 
threatenings, an assent to the divorce and the second mar- 
riage. When the commissioners, who were Cranmer, now 
archbishop of Canterbury, the lord chancellor Audley, 
the duke of Norfolk, and secretary Cromwell* found that 
their persuasions were of no avail, they told him, that 
their instructions were to dharge him with ingratitude, 
and " to inform him, that his majesty thought there aever 
was a servant so villainous, or a subject so traitorous to- 
his prince, as he was ;" and, " in support of this heavy* 
charge against him, they were to allege his subtle and si- 
nister devices, in procuring his majesty to* set forth a book 
to his great dishonour throughout all Christendom: by 
which he had put a sword into the pope's hand to fight against 

The book here alluded to was king Henry's " Assertto 
septem Sacramentorum," &c. already mentioned, in which! 
sir Thomas had assisted his majesty. 8ii Thodias was a* 
good deal astonished at the turn now given to that assist- 
ance; but* assuming his usual courage, told the commis- 
sioners that these terrors were arguments for children, and- 
not for him : but as for the book which they bad men- 
tioned, he could not bring himself to believe that the kiag 1 
would ever lay it to his charge, as his majesty was himself 
better acquainted with that affair, and with bis innocence 
in it, than any other person could be. The king, he said, 
well knew that be had not procured, nor counselled; the 
writing of that book : and when he revised it by the king's 
command, and found the pope's authority defended and. 
advanced very highly, he remonstrated against it to hi* 
majesty, and told bun, that, as he might not always be-in 
amity with the, pepe^ he thought it best that it should be 
amended hi thai point, and the pope's authority be move 
slenderly touched; Nay, said the king, that shall it not:' 
we are «o much indebted to the see of Rome, that we can* 
not do too much honour unto it. Upon this heiput his* 
majesty further in mind of the statute of Premunite, which! 
had pared away a good part of the pope's authority and. 

MORE. 373 

pastoral care. To which the king replied, " Whatsoever 
impediment there may be to the contrary, we will set forth 
that authority to the uttermost ; for we received from the 
Roman see our crown imperial/', which, till it was told 
him from his majesty's own mouth, he never heard of 
before. 1 He trusted, therefore, that when his majesty should 
be informed of this, aud should recollect the subject of their 
•conversation upon this head, he would of himself entirely 
clear him of the charge. 

The com iriissfi oners were probably conscious that these 
assertions were true ; at least they could make no reply, 
end therefore dismissed sir Thomas, who feeling a consi- 
derable elation of mind on his return home, his son-in-law 
Roper asked him if his high spirits were owing to his bay- 
ing succeeded in procuring his name to be struck out of 
the bill of attainder ? Sir Thomas's answer showed that he 
bad been more tenacious of his consistency than of his life: 
" In troth, son, I had forgotten that ; but if thou wouictet 
•know wby I am so joyful, in good faith it is this : I rejoice 
that I have given the devil so foul a fall ; for I have gone so 
far with these lords, that without great shame I can never 
go back. 9 ' He had indeed gone so far as to exasperate 
the king beyond all hopes of forgiveness ; and that nionarcb, 
iwbo could forget friendship and attachment as hastily as 
be conferred them,- irritated at having bis foriner sentiments 
respecting the pope so unseasonably recalled, declared that 
the bill of attainder should proceed against him. And 
when the duke of Norfolk and secretary Cromwell hinted 
that the upper house would not pass the bill without hear- 
ing sir Thomas in his own defence, the king dedared that 
lie should be present himself, and he presufrted that the 
bowse would not in that case dare to reject it. He was at 
length, however, diverted from this purpose on its being 
wggested that some better opportunity might be found to 
fyroceed against sir Thomas, and on being persuaded by 
hi* counsellors that, as to the present accusations, the 
public would think him more worthy of praise than blame. 
Sir Thomas's name was accordingly struck out of the bill ; 
and although, taking advantage of the king's displeasure, 
bis enemies endeavoured to bring against him accusations 
of imprbper conduct in his office of judge, these served 
only Co demonstrate the strict integrity which guided all 
bis decisions, and that when gifts were sometimes tendered 
to him by the clients of the court, be always refused* or 

314 MORE. 

returned thttn,' and often with his characteristic humour. 
;One lady, in whose favour he had given a decree, pre- 
- sen ted him, as a new year's gift, with a pair of gloves, arid 
•in them forty pounds. He immediately returned the 
money, saying, " Since it would be contrary to good man- 
ners to refuse a new year's gift from a lady, I am content 
to take your gloves ; hut as for the lining, I utterly re- 
fuse it" r 

The king, however, had soon an opportunity of gratify- 
ing his resentment in its full extent. In 1534 an act was 
.passed declaring, the king's marriage with Catherine of Ar- 
ragon to be void, and contrary to the law of God, and con- 
firming his marriage with Anne Boleyn, and entailing the 
crown upon the issue of the latter. The act also obliged 
persons of all ranks to take an oath, the form of which #as 
prescribed to them, and by which they swore to maintain the 
. contents 1 of this act of succession ; and whosoever refused 
.to take the oath, was to be adjudged guilty of misprison of 
treason, and punished accordingly. Soon after, a com- 
mittee of the. council met at Lambeth, where sir Thomas 
More, the only layman, and several ecclesiastics, were 
cited to take the .oath. Sir Thomas, after perusing the 
act, said "he would blame neither those who made the 
act, nor those who had taken the oath ; but, for bis own 
part, though he was willing to swear to the succession in a 
form of his own drawing up, yet the oath which was offered 
to him was so worded, that his conscience revolted against 
it, and he could. not take it with safety to bis soul." 

Conscience was not a light word in the mouth of sir 
Thomas More. However we may lament its misdirection 
in matters of religion, it appears to have been the guide of 
Jail his actions. After he had been dismissed on the former 
accusations by the privy council, when (he duke of Nor- 
folk advised .him to incline a little more to the king's plea- 
sure, and repeated the saying that the u wrath of a prince 
is death," he replied, " Is that all ? my lord, in good faith 
then there is no more difference between your grace and 
me, but that I shall die to-day, and you to-morrow. It is 
surely better to offend, an earthly king than the king of 
heaven ; and temporal death ought to be less the object of 
our dread, than the indignation of the Almighty." 

Every persuasion to make him take the oath of succes- 
sion being ineffectual, he* was committed to the custody 
ef the abbot of Westminster for four days, in which time 


MORE. 975 

it was debated by the king and council whit course it- was 
best to take with hhri* Archbishop Crankier,- who highly 
esteemed his virtues and integrity/- and did much to pre- 
serve him, urged that sir Thomas's propdsal of swearing to 
the succession, without confining bim to the terms of the 
prescribed oath, might be accepted ; but to this the king 
would not agree, and sir Thomas again refusing, was com* 
mitted to the Tower. Here his characteristic humour did 
not forsake him, for when the lieutenant, who f had been 
under some obligations to him, apologized for not being 
able to entertain him as he could wish, without incurring 
the king's displeasure, he said,' " Master lieutenant, when- 
ever I find fault with the entertainment which you provide 
for me, do you turn me out of doors.' 9 During the fifcst 
month of his confinement he had to resist the importunities 
of his wife, who urged his submission to the king upbir 
worldly considerations, and told her he would riot risk the 
loss of eternity for the enjoyment of a life that migb£tiot 
last a year, and would not be an equivalent, if it wer&to 
last a thousand. 

The same motives prevailed with him when the act of 
supremacy, now passed, was tendered to him, by a com* 
mittee of the privy council sent on purpose. His answer 
was, that " the statute was like a two-edged sword ; if he 
spoke against it, he should procure the death of his body ; 
and if he consented to it, he should purchase the death of 
his soul. 1 ' Such were the mistaken views entertained by 
this illustrious character, of an act which gfcvfe the first 
effectual blow to papal tyranny in these kingdoms. His 
unalterable attachment to the interests of popery appeared 
just after, when Rich, the solicitor-general, and some 
others, were sent to take away his books, papers, and 
writing-implements. Rich endeavoured to argue with him 
in this manner, " Suffer me, sir, to put this case to you : 
If there were an act of parliament to be made, that all the 
realm should take me for king, would not you, Mr. More, 
take me to be so?" "Yes," said sir Thomas, " that I 
would." Rich then put the case that an act of parliament 
should make him pope, to which sir Thomas answered, "that 
the . parliament might intermeddle without impropriety 
in the state of temporal princes ; but as to his second sup- 
position, he would put a case himself, whether if an act of 
parliament should ordain that God should not be God, Mr. 
* Rich would own that he should not ?" The conversation 

376 MORE. 

fcere ended, but Rich took occasion from it to swear on sir 
Thomas's trial, that he bad said that the parliament cpuld 
not make the king supreme head of the church. Tbis sir 
Thomas denied, and it was not clearly proved) but bis 
sentiments might surely, without much straining, admit of 
the inferepce. 

After a year's imprisonment, he was by tbe king's com- 
mand brought to his trial at the king's bench in Westmin- 
ster! upon an indictment for high treason, in denying the 
king's supremacy.' His long confinement had much im? 
paired his health, yet he defended himself with great elo- 
quence, and with the utmost cheerfulness and presence of 
mind. The jury, however, found him guilty, *nd here-* 
ceived sentence as a traitor. He then addressed the court, 
concluding with these words : " I have nothing further to 
say, my lords, but that a* the blessed apostle St. Paul was 
present and consented to the death of Stephen, and kept 
their clothes who stoned him to death, and yet they are 
now both holy saints in heaven, and shall there continue 
friends for ever ; so I verily trust, and shall therefore right 
heartily pray, that, though your lordships have now been 
judges on earth to my condemnation, we may yet here* 
after all meet together in heaven to our everlasting salva- 
tion; and so I pray God preserve you all, and especially 
my sovereign lord tbe king, and send him faithful coun- 

As they were conducting him from Westminster-hall to 
the Tower, with the axe carried before him, according to 
thjfe usual manner, a very affecting scene took place between 
sir Thomas and his favourite daughter, Margaret, wife of 
Mr. Roper, who eagerly pressed through the guards to see 
him. She could, however, only articulate " My father ! 
Oh ! my father !" when sir Thomas, more affected by this 
than by all that had happened, recommended her to submit 
to the, will of God. She was then reluctantly separated from 
hw, but thinking this might be the last time, she again 
broke through the crowd, and embraced him in speechless 
agony. The numerous spectators, and even the guards, 
sympathized in the sufferings of these illustrious persons ; 
and it was with difficulty that they were parted, never to 
meet again* 

His behavibur in prison during the short remainder of 
his life corresponded with the firmness and placid temper 
he had hitherto displayed. Among the last visitors whom 

M O RE. 3T7 

he received was sir Thomas Pope, the celebrated founder 
•of Trinity college, Oxford, whom the king selected to 
inform him of the time of his execution. The intimation 
was sudden. It was on July 6, 1535, that sir Thomas Pope 
told bins he was to he beheaded that same day at nine 
o'clock, and that therefore he must immediately prepare 
himself. Mbre received the news with bis usual cheerful- 
ness, and as the king had further intimated his pleasure that 
he should not use many words at his execution, be promised 
obedience* and only requested that his daughter Margaret 
might be at his burial. Sir Thomas Pope, in answer to 
this, informed him that the king had already consented 
that his wife and children, and any of his friends, might 
be present ; at which he expressed his satisfaction. 

At this trying moment, he not only retained his forti- 
tude and cheerfulness, but to the last gave proofs of that 
facetious turn, which it would appear he could not suppress 
under any circumstances. When Pope appeared to be 
very melancholy at the consideration of his friend's ap- 
proaching death, sir Thomas More, inspecting his own 
water in the urinal, put on the grave airs of a quack, and 
said archly, " I see no danger but that this man might live 
longer, if it had pleased the king." Their parting at last 
was more, serious, sir Thomas endeavouring to comfort his 
friend with the prospect of eternal felicity, in which, he 
hoped, they should have a happy meeting. As soon as 
Pope was «gone he dressed himself in the best cloaths he 
bad, and when the lieutenant suggested that these were 
too good for the executioner's perquisite, " If they were 
cloth of gold," said sir Thomas, " I should think them 
well bestowed on him who was to do me so singular a be- 
nefit." lie was prevailed on, however, to exchange them 
for »gown of frieze; and out of the little money which he 
had left, be sent an angel of gold to the executioner. 

About nine o'clock he was led to the place of execution^ 
on Tower-hill, where observing that the scaffold was ap- 
parently a weak structure, be said to the lieutenant, " I 
pray you, Mr. Lieutenant, see me safe up ; and as for my 
coming down, you may let me shift for myself." He then 
knelt down, and after a short time spent in his devotions, 
he got up again, and said to the executioner, " Pluck up 
thy spirits, man, and be not afraid to do thine office. My 
peck is very short ; take heed, therefore, that thou strike 
not awry, for thy credit's sake." In the same humour, he 

378 MORI!, 

bid the executioner stay till he had removed his beard, 
;" for that," he said, " had committed no treason*?' These 
were his last words, after which his head was instantly se- 
vered from his body. 

* Thus died sir Thomas More, who, for learning, inte- 
grity, find magnanimity, was one of the most illustrious 
-men of the age, and who would have exceeded all his con- 
temporaries, had his mind been accessible to the light that 
.was then breaking in upon the darkness of superstition. 
.He was of a middle stature, and well-proportioned ; his 
complexion fair, with a slight tincture of red ; his hair of a 
dark chesmit colour ; his beard thin ; his eyes grey ; his 
countenance cheerful and pleasant, and expressive of the 
temper of his mind ; his voice neither strong nor shrill, but 
dear and distinct. In walking, his right shoulder appeared 
higher than the other ; but this was the effect of habit, and 
not any defect in his form. He was- generally negligent in 
his dress, unless where his place required more splendour. 
His diet was simple and abstemious; and he seldom tasted 
wine but when he pledged those who drank to him. 

Piety, as then understood to consist in a variety of pe- 
riodical observances, was a constant feature in his cha- 
racter. It was his custom, besides his private prayers, to 
read the Psalms and Litany with his wife and children 
in the -morning ; and every night to go with his whole fa- 
mily into the chapel, and there devoutly read the Psalms 
and Collects with them. We have already noticed his 
attendance at Chelsea church ; but he had also a private 
chapel attached to his house, where he performed many of 
bis devotions, particularly ou Fridays, when he remained 
the whole day so employed. In his hours of relaxation, he 
had recourse to music ; and bad always a person to read 
whilst he was at table, in order to prevent all improper 
conversation before his children and servants'; and at the 
end of the reading, it was his custom to ask those who 
were at dinner, whether they understood what had been 
read. He also made remarks himself on any striking pas- 
sage, which, it may easily be conceived, were entertain- 
ing and edifying. 

He lived in habits of intimacy and friendship with the 
most learned men of his time, particularly, as already 
mentioned, with Erasmus, and also with Colet, Grocyn, 
Linacre, William Latimer, Lily>' Tonstal, Pole, Fisher* 


MORE. 379 

&c. Nor was he lets respected and admired abroad *« 
1 Wben the emperor Charles V. heard of his death, he said 
to sir Thomas Elliot, the ambassador from England at his 
court, " My lord ambassador, we understand that the king 
your master has put to death his faithful servant, and grave 
and wise counsellor, sir Thomas More.'' The ambassador 
answered that he had beard- nothing of it. "Well," re- 
sumed the emperor, " it is too true; and this we will say, 
that if we had been master of such a servant, of whose 
abilities ourself have had these many years no small ex- 
perience, we would rather have lost the best city in our 
dominions, than so worthy a counsellor." We are even 
told that Henry himself felt some compunction at sir 
Thomas More's death, and that when the news of it was 
brought to him, he said to queen Anne Boleyn, " Thou 
art the cause of this man's death/ 9 and rising hastily, shut 
Jiimself up in an adjoining chamber, in great perturbation 
of mind. The queen, it has been thought by some, was 
not entirely innocent of this charge f, but the accusation 
from the king was rather a pretence on his part. % In pur* 
suing sir Thomas to the scaffold, we have seen that he was 
zealous and inflexible. 

Sir Thomas More was the author of various works, 
though nothing but his "Utopia" has long been read; 
which is owing to their having been chiefly of the polemic 
kind, and written in defence of a cause which could not be 
supported. His English works were collected and pub- 
lished by the order of queen Mary, in 1557; his Lathi, at 
Basil, in 1563; and at Louvain, in 1566; and show that 
he was admirably skilled in every branch of polite learning]:. 

As to his family, by his first wife he had four children, 
who all survived him ; three daughters and one son, named 

• More's great grandson has de- pitieth me to remember unto what un- 
voted the 12th chapter of his Life of sir sery, poor soul, she will shortly come. 
Thomas, to an account of the effect These dances of hers will prove such 
produced on the minds of the mos'temi* dances, that she will .spurn our heads 
neat men of the times by his execu- off like foot-balls ; but it will, not be 

, tion. After reading it, who would envy long ere her head will dance the like 

his enemies ? dance.*' 

i f Oq one occasion, when sir Thomas J See a minute account of his works 

More'* daughter Margaret gained ad- in OWlys's Librarian, and particularly 

mittance to him in the Tower, he asked ia the prefatory matter to Dibdia's 

her how queen Anne did ? " In faith, edition of the " Utopia.", For sir Tbo- 

father," said she, " never better :— mas's patronage of Holbein, see our 

there is nothing else in the court but life of that artist, and Mr. Dibdia's 
dancing and sporting. v — " Never bet- . accdunt of the various portraits of 

ter ?" said he, " alas, Meg, alai ! it More. 

3*0 M O R E. 


John, after bis grandfather. Sir Thomas had the three 
daughters first, and his wife very much desired a boy : at 
last shq brought hioi this son, who appearing weak m his 
intellects) sir Thomas said to his lady, " Thou hast prated 
so long for a boy, that thou hast one how who will be a 
boy as long as he lives." By a liberal education, however, 
his natural -parts se6m to have bfceri much- improved. 
Among Erasmus's letters, there< is one writteu to him-, id 
which that great scholar calls him "Of>tim& Spei Ador 
Jescens." Erasmus also inscribed to him the " Niix of 
Ovid," and " An Account of Aristotle's Works." After 
the death of his father he was committed to the Tower for 
refusing the same oath of supremacy, and condemned, but 
afterwards pardoned, and set at liberty, which favour be 
did not long survive. He was married very young to a 
Yorkshire heiress, by whom he bad five sons. His eldest 
son Thomas had a son of the same name, who, being a 
zealous Roman catholic, gave the family estate to his 
younger brother, and took orders, at Rome ; whence, by 
the pope's command, he came a missionary into England. 
He afterwards lived at Rome; where, and in Spain* he 
negociated the affairs of the English clergy at his own ex- 
pence.' He died, aged fifty-nine years, in April 1625 ; 
and, two years after, was printed in 4to, with a dedication 
to Henrietta Maria, king Charles I.'s queen, his ". Life of 
sir Thomas More," his great grandfather. The ieafcned 
author of the " Life of Erasmus" says, that ?' this Mr. 
More was a narrow-minded zealot, and a very fanatic ;" 
and afterwards adds, very justly, that " there is no. relying 
on such authors as these, unless they cite chapter and 

As for sir Thomas's daughters, the eldest of them, Mar- 
garet, was married to William Roper, esq. of Well-hall, 
in the parish of Eltham, in Kent; who wrote the ** Life" 
of, his father-in-law, which was published by Hearne at 
Oxford, in 1716, 8vo. She was a woman of great talents 
and amiable manners, and seems to have been to More 
what Tullia was to her father Cicero, his delight and com- 
fort . The greatest care was taken of her education ; and 
she became learned not only in the Greek and Latin 
tongues, but in music, ' arithmetic, and other sciences. 
She wrote two €t Declamations" in English, which her fa- 
ther and she turned into Latin ; and both so elegantly, that 
it was hard to determine which was best. ' She wrote also a 

MORE. 361 

treatise of the 'J Four last Things;" and, by her sagacity^ 
corrected a corrupt place in " St.. Cyprian,", reading " ner- 
▼os sinceritatis," for " nisi vos sinceritatis." Erasmus 
wrote a letter to her* as to a woman famous not only fop 
virtue and piety, but also for true and solid learning. 
Cardinal Pole was so affected with the elegance of her La- 
tin style, that he could- not at first believe what he read ta 
be penned by a woman. This deservedly-illustrious lady 
died in 1544, and was buried at St. Dunstan's church in 
Canterbury*, with her father's head in her arms, according 
to her desire ; for she had found means to. procure his 
head, after it had remained upon London-bridge fourteen 
days, and had carefully preserved it ii» a leaden box, tilt 
there was an opportunity of conveying it to Canterbury, to 
the burying-place o£*the Ropers in the church above men- 
tioned*. Of five children which she brought, there was a 
daughter Mary, as famous for parts and learning almost as 
herself. This Mary was one of the gentlewomen, as they 
were then called, of queen Mary's privy chamber. She 
translated into English part of her grandfather's " Expo- 
sition 6f the Passion of our Saviour ;" and also " Eusebius's 
Ecclesiastical History'* from the Greek into Latin ; but 
this latter translation was never published, being antici- 
pated by ChristophersOn's Version. 

Sir Thomas had no children by his second wife, who was 
a widow, named Alice Middleton, and who surviving hint 
was obliged to quit the house at Chelsea,, his estate being, 
seized as a forfeiture by the crown; but the king allowed 
her an annuity of 20/* for her life. His last male descend- 
ant is said to have been the rev. Thomas More, who died 
at Bath in 1795. The present lady Ellenborough is said 
to be a female descendant, ! 

MOREAU (Jacob Nicolas), a -French advocate, coun- 
sellor of the aides of Provence, historiographer of France, 

* la the. wall of this vault is a small of the vault for some of the late sk 

niche, where, behind an iron grate, is Edward Deri rig's family, whose first 

kept gfsottll Catted sir Thomas More's, lady was' a descendant of the Ropers* 

whtqh iMr. Goetlipg, a piergymau of , Granger?* , Biog. Hist, in art. Marga* 

Canterbury, informed Mr. Granger he rita Ropcra. 
had seeti several times on the opening 

1 The life; of sir Thomas More has been written by Stapletori, by his grand- 
son . . Thomas Mote, by JrlotMesdOB, by his son-in-law Roper, and more re- 
centta by; Warner, Mr. Cay ley, jun. and Mr. Macdiarraid, in his " Lives of 
British Statesmen." Dr. Wordsworth has also given a life in his " Ecclesiastical 
Btogrttptoy'ifroma MS. in the Lambeth library, which he attributes to Harps- 
%e|4«-^J4 r ^ tf ^' fe tf Brasmfjs, &c. &c— Lywns'* Environs, vol. II. 

382 , M O R E A U. 


and librarian to the queen, was born at St., Florentine, 
Dec. 20, 1717. Of his early life we have little account, 
but it appears that he quitted his professional engagements 
in the country when young, and came to Paris to indulge 
his taste for study and speculation. Having acquired con- 
siderable fame by his writings, be was appointed, historio- 
grapher of France, and was long employed in collecting 
and arranging all the charters, historical documents* and 
edicts and declarations of the French legislature from the. 
time of Charlemagne .to the present day. This vast col- 
lection being reduced to order was put under his especial 
care, under the title of " Depot des chartres et de legisla- 
tion :" whether it was dispersed at the revolution does n$t 
appear. He also employed bis. pet), on a variety of subjects, 
some arising from temporary circumstances, and others 
suggested probably in the course of his researches. . Among, 
these are : 1. " Observateur Hollandais," a kind of politi- 
cal journal, consisting of forty-five papers, written against 
the measures of the English court, at what period we knew 
not, as our authority does not specify its date. 2. " Me- 
moire pour servir k Phistoire des Cacouac," 1757, 12 mo, 
a satire, which was probably of a beneficial tendency, as 
it created him enemies among the irreligious writers of 
France. 3. " Memoires pour servir a Phistoire de notre 
temps," 1757, 2 vols. 12mo. 4. ^Devoirs d'un prince," 
1775, 8vo, reprinted 1782. In this he is said to, have ex- 
ppsed the dangers of a corrupt court, and to have predicted 
its ruin from that torrent of corruption which would one 
day overwhelm both the flatterers and the flattered. 5. 
" Principes de morale politique et du droit public, ou Diss? 
cours sur Phistoire de France," 1777—178,9, 21 vol*. Svb» 
This, which is his principal work, attracted much atten